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We ask that, before submitting a query, you refer to Neale Monk's: Before You Write; A Checklist of Common Problems with Freshwater Aquaria, Bettas, Goldfish, and Freshwater Turtles (Terrapins), Tips on Asking Questions, Ask the WWM Crew a Question, FAQs on FAQs. EDFP, TBPFWFAQs, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs, Subscribe to the Daily Pics

Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831), the Oscar. To seventeen inches (45.7 cm). South America: Rio Amazonas basin in Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Northern Paraguay and French Guiana. Freshwater: pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5.0 - 19.0, temp. 22 - 25°C. Wild type at  the Shedd Aq. 2015 
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Freshwater FAQs, Ask us a question: Crew@WetWebMedia.com

Updated 3/16/2019
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: General, Planted Tanks, Ponds, Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios
____________________________________________________________

New Print and eBook on Amazon

Betta Success
Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy long-term

by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Firebelly toad troubles       3/16/19
Hello,
I was given a Firebelly toad for my classroom. Yesterday he was fine yet today his head is being held to the side and swimming in circles. He is breathing rather fast and irregularly. His water is fine. He was eating fine but just today he is acting weird.
Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Judy
<Hello Judy. I'm sympathetic to your plight here, having recently had some Axolotls given to me by a student moving on, so now I've found myself looking after them -- and now some tadpoles! -- alongside my usual classroom animals and plants. Still, I'm going to direct you to some reading first:
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
While tailored to another species, the basics apply to Fire-bellied Toads, Bombina spp. I'm also going to state the usual thing that we can't really offer much help unless you tell us something about the toad's environment. What do you mean by the "water is fine"? Do you have a mature biological filter here? What is the water temperature? What sort of foods are used?
Are there any other animals in the tank? Do you use water conditioner to neutralise chlorine with each water change? Is there any exposure to airborne toxins? Bunch of things I need to know before offering anything more specific to your situation. As is always the case with amphibians and reptiles, disease is MUCH easier prevented than cured. So ensuring you understand the basics and can house these toads properly is really important. Cheers, Neale.>

Deformed ACF tadpoles/froglets      3/14/19
Greetings,
<Hello!>
I am breeding a batch of ACF tadpoles and I began noticing that the albinos (in particular) would start growing legs that were crossed and if they made to the froglet stage they were crippled.
I want to know the best practices for handling this. I am conflicted: should they be eliminated or should I let nature takes its course?? Thank you.
<Tough call, I know, and I'm in a similar situation right now with baby Axolotls, having hundreds more at one point than I could possibly rear.
Ideally, and probably most practically, cull any specimens less than perfect. Deformed specimens are going to have problems competing with healthy specimens for food, so unless kept on their own, would probably starve and be bullied to some degree. It's easier to cull them when young, using the method used for small aquarium fish; namely 30 drops Clove Oil (cheaply bought from health food shops and used for toothache) stirred into a bucket or tub containing 1 litre of aquarium tank water. Immerse the
tadpoles, and after a minute or two they will be completely sedated and immobile, and after at least 10 minutes (I'd suggest half an hour) they should be completely and utterly dead. Once air-breathing, things become harder because they would need to be culled as per amphibians, which I'm not expert in, and if you're dealing with froglets that size, I'd suggest calling a vet for advice on the best method. Clove Oil may still work, but I can't speak from experience. Hope this helps, Neale>
Re: deformed ACF tadpoles/froglets       3/16/19

Yes. This helps a lot. Thank you for your quick response!
<Most welcome. Cheers, Neale.>

Female Discus chases all Males.      3/14/19
Hi Mate,
<Shri>
I have a scenario in my tank. One of the Female Discus (who is the Queen of the Tank) keeps chasing the Blue diamond males (Both small and big ones).
He does not seem to disturb the other pair.
In total I have:
Males: 4 (2 small Blue diamond, 1 Big blue diamond and 1 with green and blue patterns))
Females: 4 ( 1 Green and Blue pattern, 1 big with blue dots, 1 big with blue patterns and 1 small yellow).
Sorry for the rough description.
Please suggest what would be the correct ratio and what changes should I be doing to have the right ratio.
<Mmm; more really has to do w/ the amount of space/room for all... such that they can form pairs, engage in tolerable fighting (with enough area to get away; avoid further pummeling). Sex ratios of about 1:1 are fine. IF one or more fish are getting "too beat"... as evidenced by darkening, hanging out at an angle, in corners, the surface; it is best to immediately move the one doing the damage elsewhere.>
Waiting for your response as always.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram Natarajan
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Very sick Black spotted eel        3/9/19
I write to you because I am at the end of my rope with this poor guy, his name is Bartleby, I bought him and his 4 friends (who are all lighter in color then him) from a exotic fish store 12 days ago.
<Do bear in mind that Mastacembelus species tend not to be social. If this really is the Black Spotted Spiny Eel, Mastacembelus dayi, then you can expect adults around 50 cm in length. I'm a little skeptical that these really are Black Spotted Spiny Eels because that species is very rarely traded and expensive, but if you did get some, well done! They're nice fish.>
He was in better shape, not as ragged as he is now, but cloudy eye. One of the others has a could eye too, but is active and eating and doing awesome after I treated them. Then live in 125 gallons with two bichirs. The guy at the fish store said they hurt themselves because they were in very coarse gravel tank and sent me home with Methylene blue and said they'll be fine.
<Nope. Methylene Blue is essentially and anti-fungal treatment, and your retailer really should know better. Your Spiny Eel has a bacterial infection, almost certainly caused by the rough substrates he has been exposed to. The substrate you have is MUCH too coarse for these fish; just looking at it made me wince. Either smooth lime-free sand for these fish, or else something organic such as coir fibre or peat. Never, ever gravel.>
I treated as it says on the bottle and got zero relief for him.
<Indeed.>
The guy said well I don't know then, he'll live or die. My water parameters are good for the species and no one else is like this.
<When you say, "good", what do you mean? Please do send us the water test kit results next time. To recap, neutral water chemistry is ideal for Spiny Eels, with the addition of a little salt (not enough for brackish, but 1-2 gram/litre) often being helpful. Indawgyi Lake, where your species comes from, has slightly soft to medium hardness and an around neutral pH, so I'd suggest pH 7, maybe 5-15 degrees dH. Avoid extremes. Obviously zero ammonia and nitrite, as with any fish. Replace the substrate with smooth silica sand (such as pool filter sand, though check this is soft and lime free first) and medicate as per Finrot using the best antibiotic or antibacterial remedy you can get; Seachem KanaPlex would be a good choice if you live in the US or somewhere else antibiotics are sold in aquarium shops. Alternatively, a proper antibacterial, such as eSHa 2000 or Waterlife Myxazin. A little salt, as described above, will help. Do not use any general purpose or New Age cures such as Melafix as these are completely useless even at the best of times, and your Spiny Eel needs urgent help. It won't recover in a tank with gravel, so if changing the gravel today isn't an option, use a hospital tank with no substrate but several hollow ornaments he can hide in. Also, bear in mind what a white substrate like yours will stress any fish, so really, needs to be disposed of just for their sanity, let alone physical health. Fish despise upwelling light as it is so unnatural.>
I've been reading through everything I can on here and I'm just not sure what to do for him. I'm willing to try anything, we've grown very attached to him.
<I would imagine! These are superb fish, so a good catch.>
Maddie
<There's a bunch of reading I'm going to direct you to, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_4/v4i3/Spiny_Eels/Spiny%20Eels.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/spinyeelsmonk.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/matacembelids.htm
Hopefully these'll get you some more information for long-term success.
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Very sick Black spotted eel      3/14/19
Unfortunately our little Bartleby was too sick to save, he passed the morning after I emailed you.
<Sorry to hear that. The sad truth with Spiny Eels is that it is a million times easier to keep them healthy than to heal them when sick. So it really pays off to ensure substrate, water chemistry, and diet are all correct.>
I am absolutely determined to make the rest of them happy in their glass home though. Is this better for them? I've replaced all substrate and got a second filter for absolute pristine water.
<Sounds good. Did you send a photo? Nothing arrived. In any case, a clean tank with a soft, smooth substrate will help. Beyond the substrate, the other major cause of mortality is escaping the tank, so check for openings in the hood. As with all predators, a varied diet is key. Earthworms are the ideal staple (so readily taken they're like crack cocaine for these fish!) but a mix of seafood and white fish fillet will do fine. Smaller specimens enjoy bloodworms. I've avoid Tubifex because of how they are
farmed in essentially dirty water, though these are very readily taken.
Prawn and mussel meat is popular, but rich in thiaminase, so ensure only a small part of their diet.>
They all seem much more interested in me now.
<Good. When healthy and happy, these fish are widely recognised as being intelligent.>
Coming to greet me when I come home and swimming right up to the front of the glass. The littlest is even burrowing again! I feel like an idiot but you live and learn :)
<Indeed you do!>
Thank you,
Maddie
<Most welcome and good luck, Neale.>
Re: Very sick Black spotted eel      3/14/19

<<Looks much better with the sand. When you get a chance, I'd suggest replacing the rough rocks with smooth cobblestones too, and ideally, if the plastic plants feel sharp, replace them too. I'd strongly suggest floating Indian Fern. Floating plants do two key things. Firstly, Spiny Eels will "burrow" in a thick layer of floating plants, making them easier to watch.
Secondly, it inhibits their tendency to jump, so you're less likely to find them dead on the carpet. The bottom of the tank need only have sand; anything else is clutter as far as they're concerned, but anything hollow (like ceramic ornaments or clay pipes) will be used as hiding places.
Cheers, Neale.>>

Tropical Water Lily        3/9/19
I have a 200 gallon pond with one flowering tropical water lily. This week I added a filter with a heavy water spout. Is it true lilies cannot have moving water?
<Yes, this is correct. Lilies are adapted to ponds with no water current, or else very sluggish water bodies, such as canals and ditches. If their stems are pulled too hard, the plants are simply snapped or uprooted. If the current is not that strong, but still brisk, then what happens is the stems of the leaves and flowers get twisted up and tangled, resulting in the leaves and flowers dying. Another problem is if water droplets splash on the leaves. These cause some sort of 'burning' that damages the leaves, leading to rot. So by all means have a filter, fountain or waterfall in your pond, but plant the Water Lilies well away from them, in a spot with little current and no risk of splashing. This might be in a shallow edge away from the waterfall for example, protected by rocks that diminish the water current.>
Thanks
Alfredo
Puerto Rico
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

African dwarf frogs, systems, trauma        3/9/19
To who it may concern,
<That'd be me!>
My name is Erica and my I have had three African dwarf frogs now for three weeks and all are doing great except last Sunday, one of my little guys got his leg stuck in our filter intake.
<Oh dear. Avoid internal canister filters, and instead use air-powered sponge filters if possible.>
We removed him and it definitely appeared he broke his leg.
<Certainly seems plausible.>
I isolated him for almost two days until he jumped out and went back into general population. Now today there is some huge white gross thing growing out of his leg and I have no clue what to do! Please help!!
<Going to direct you to some reading. First here, and if you look at the 'Red Leg' section at top, the antibiotics recommended are probably your best bet:
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
More generally, do read here for care:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
While these frogs are adaptable and easy to keep, they do have a few non-negotiable needs.
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: African dwarf frogs      3/10/19
Hello Neale!!
<Erica,>
Thank you for helping me!
<Most welcome.>
Can these antibiotics be used on the frog that shares a tank with two other frogs And fish?
<Yes and yes! Do be careful about mixing fish and frogs -- often ends up bad for the frogs.
Cheers, Neale.>

Question
Can I keep a Pangasius shark with Koi?     3/8/19

<Theoretically, yes. But in practice it will be very difficult. Pangasius Shark get to over 100 cm in length. They are truly massive fish. So you'd need a huge aquarium (thousands of litres) and more likely, a pond. You would also want to keep temperatures moderate, around 22-24 degrees C suiting both the Pangasius and the Koi. In the tropics it would be possible to keep specimens of similar size together in a pond. But big Pangasius would view smaller Koi as food, and you also have to work around their very
different diets, Koi being herbivores and Pangasius more omnivores, though both should thrive on good quality floating pellets. Finally, Pangasius are nervous, highly active, even migratory fish that normally live in groups that swim up and down rivers. It's very hard to keep a singleton happy for any length of time, and they usually end up damaging themselves (often their eyes) when they panic. Again, a large, circular pond would be ideal for a group of both species, but it's hard to justify keeping a single
Pangasius in an aquarium or small pond.>
Thank you.
<You're welcome. Neale.>

Sick guppy - black spots        3/6/19
Hi guys,
<Hello Luciana,>
Could you please help me?
<And if you could help us, too, by not sending 18 MB of photos! Such big files fill up our email mailboxes, causing other people to have their messages bounced back. Some of us travel around the world and rely on using phones or modems to access the Internet, and it goes without saying that
big files really cause problems in that situation.>
I was reading through the conversations you published, but I thought it would be better to ask directly.
<Sure thing.>
I have some guppies living in a planted aquarium. I've done a water change 2 days ago and yesterday I noticed one of my white guppies had his tail crumpled. I went to check the parameters and they are fine (no ammonia, nitrites, nitrates), the pH has changed a bit, and the temperature, due a change on the water dropped a bit ( I live in Brazil, so it was quite hot, and now the temperature dropped, so the aquarium has went back to the usual 26 Celsius).
<Guppies are adaptable, but they dislike soft, acidic water chemistry. So when you say the pH has changed, do you mean down? A steady pH around 7.5 is ideal for Guppies; anything below 7 tends to cause problems, at least with farmed 'pet' Guppies. There may well be wild populations living in softer, more acidic water conditions.>
The aquarium is heavily planted (and I use dirt under a layer of 1. 1/2 inches of black basalt).
<Sounds fine.>
I do not know if the last change disturbed the soil or something else, but anyway, my white guppy got black spots. I've checked the other fish and they seem fine, but this guy was very upset since the change, so I'm guessing he is the only one affected.
<Indeed. The two commonest explanations for black patches are these:
Firstly, exposure to ammonia. This causes chemical burns, and the dark patches reflect that. The second is sometimes called Black Spot Disease, and it is caused by a parasite that occurs in ponds and other environments where its complex life cycle is viable. Neascus is one such parasite; there may be others. Because their life cycle needs snails and/or birds, this parasite never lasts for long in aquaria. But in ponds it may persist for a while, infecting healthy fish.>
Besides the spot on his back and had, he had one on his tail too. I believe it's a fluke, but since I did not know for sure, I made a blue Methylene dip of 10 minutes with him
<Methylene Blue is mostly for fungus, and doesn't really help much with anything else. I'm skeptical of a fluke, but since your photos are after the dip, it's hard to be sure. Flukes are very varied, and difficult to
identify without a microscope. Praziquantel is the most popular option for treating Flukes, though other antihelminth medications may work better. Often you need to use several treatments for a complete cure.>
He was not happy, but then went quiet. After the dip, I notice that some of the spots turned vivid red (I'm guessing it's a sign of blood) and he was very prostrated for one hour. Now he seems better, he has eaten, but he still have some black spots.
The pictures are from after the dip.
Could you please help me? And if you can, please tell me what I should do to prevent other fish to get sick.
Cheers,
- Luciana
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Sick guppy - black spots       3/7/19
Hi Neale,
<Luciana,>
OMG, I'm very sorry for the photos sizes! I've forgot to change it. Wont happen again.
<Cool.>
Actually, the pH went a bit up, from 7.2 to 7.4, my tap water is alkaline.
And as for ammonia, I check the parameters one per week, 2 days before the water change it was normal (by normal, I mean less then 0,25).
<You do want zero. Any ammonia is bad. Check your tap water. Sometimes this has ammonia in it. Use a good water conditioner to neutralise this.>
Uhn, I have some ramshorns on that aquarium, they were acquired in a store.
They are there before the fish (this particular one is with me for 2 months, the snails are with me for 4, I guess - I have the red, and I wanted the blue ones).
<Should be harmless.>
Thank you a lot for your considerations. Is there any "soft treatment" that you would suggest in his case? He is quite stressed, and I would not like to go with treatment since is not possible to know if it might not be a fluke.
<If the fish is happy and feeding now, I'd not treat with anything. If you are only keeping Guppies, you could add some salt, maybe 2-3 gram/litre.
This will help recovery.>
And thank you for your time :)
<Welcome.>
Luciana
<Cheers, Neale.>

Zebra Nerite Snail Anatomy - 03/06/19
Dear WWM Crew,
I have scoured WWM (and the internet) trying to find an answer to my question which is:
What is the function of the white apex (i.e. tip) found on Zebra Nerite Snails? (i.e. what purpose does it serve?).
<The function/purpose? As with the stripes, it's likely just part of its camouflage. There are lots of insects and animals which have a prominent central spot, or pair of spots, as part of their coloring. Theories as to the purpose these spots serve are largely speculative. Depending on the animal, they could either serve to confuse predators or perhaps attract mates - or maybe both.>
Can you help?
Thanks in advance.
John P Coates
<Cheers,
Sara L.>
Re: Zebra Nerite Snail Anatomy        3/6/19

Hi Sara,
Many thanks for your speedy reply, which is very much appreciated. I posed the question for two reasons. Firstly, because I am simply curious to find out about these things. Secondly, because someone suggested that it was caused by erosion.
<Well, of course, without a photo or specific species identification, I can't say for sure, but from what you are describing, I doubt it. There is some natural subtle variation among individuals, the apex of some will be just a bit flatter or whiter than others.>
I don’t think it is the result of erosion as it is too perfectly formed. It is a complete white circle that is indented at its centre. Erosion would likely take on an irregular shape.
<Typically, yes, erosion is less symmetrical.>
John P Coates
<Cheers,
Sara L.>

Re: Goldfish Listless need help       3/5/19
Hi Bob. - Hope you are well. Lina here again.
<Yes Lina; thank you>
My fish tank water reads perfectly and my goldfish of 22 years is getting better slowly. But that's because I gave up on just salt and water changes and added Maracyn 2 as directed.
<Ah good>
My fish had a couple symptoms that I didn't see right away - one of his front fins looks like it is partially
torn and his left eye has a whitish circular discoloration where the iris would be. He is eating now is no longer listless but his 2 above symptoms look almost the same after the 5 th day of Maracyn 2 treatment. I am changing out the water tonight putting in new filters etc. should I wait a few days and try the Maracyn 2 again or just stop meds altogether and wait longer ?
<I would use either/both Maracyn products for three consecutive treatments, three days apart, with substantial water changes twixt re-treatments>
Also I am feeding him small bits of some boiled organic spinach to supplement his regular flake food. ( He likes it.) Unfortunately I have to travel to Dubai and Nepal from March 11 to April 4 to work and Fishy will be in the hands of a pet minder so I am desperately trying to get his health back up to normal before my trip. The Maracyn 2 seemed to help. - he is better But not 100 per cent. But the little white bit on his eye is still there. I think his fin will heal I have stress coat and will use it with this 25 per cent H20 change tonight.
Thank you for your advice !!! Lina
<I say steady on w/ this plan. BobF>

Tetra sudden illness        3/4/19
Howdy,
<Doody,>
We’ve a 29 gal tank we clean & test weekly. Normal ranges. 5 Serpae tetras, 3 other tetras (silver?) a loach and a Pleco. been with us 2+ years with no problems. Everyone ELSE is fine.
<Cool.>
Between yesterday morning roll call and today’s, this Serpae tetra went ghost pale, floating weird a la swim bladder, and I think he/she looks bloated. Wedged itself into plant leaves. And stopped moving & swimming. Infrequent breathing.
Any ideas on illness?
<Hard to say. Small tetras sometimes contract diseases that are all very similar in appearance (lethargy, loss of colour, disinterest in food, perhaps social behaviour oddities like leaving the group and hiding instead). In some cases they are bacterial, in others microbes of other types, like Pleistophora. In all honesty, with these very small fishes, it's often best to simply euthanise to reduce the risk of cross-infection. Clove Oil does the job nicely.
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/euthanasia.htm
Serpae Tetras are generally very tough, legendarily so, though they are also notoriously nippy towards other fish and aggressive towards their own kind, especially when feeding. There are some lookalike species (such as Ember Tetras) that aren't nearly so tough, and don't handle hard water (for example) as long as Serpae Tetras. So I'd keep an open mind in that direction, too. Cheers, Neale.>
Crack
I have a 75 gallon freshwater aquarium. I just noticed a small crack on my front panel near the top. I am going to replace the tank, but cannot do so immediately. Is my tank less likely to break if I lower the water below the crack?
<Yes; much more so the lower you drain the water down>
I have had (and moved) many tanks and am disappointed this one cracked as it is the only tank I haven’t ever moved. I really just want this tank to hold on until I can replace it. Anything advice to keep it going? Or is this an emergency situation?
<Can't tell from the data provided. See/Read on WWM re if interested>
Any advice would be helpful.
Thanks,
Deb
<Bob Fenner>

Crack        3/4/19
I have a 75 gallon freshwater aquarium. I just noticed a small crack on my front panel near the top. I am going to replace the tank, but cannot do so immediately. Is my tank less likely to break if I lower the water below the crack?
<Yes; much more so the lower you drain the water down>
I have had (and moved) many tanks and am disappointed this one cracked as it is the only tank I haven’t ever moved. I really just want this tank to hold on until I can replace it. Anything advice to keep it going? Or is this an emergency situation?
<Can't tell from the data provided. See/Read on WWM re if interested>
Any advice would be helpful.
Thanks,
Deb
<Bob Fenner>

Re: Oscar health concerns      3/3/19
Hi Neale,
<Sean,>
A little update for you, because hell, this is what it's all about right?
<Something like that, yes!>
Now, I was mistaken when I said my nitrate levels were zero -- I didn't even have a test for nitrate, it was nitrite! Which, were indeed *near* zero.
<Good-ish. You do indeed want zero nitrite, and anything above that can honestly be a stress factor for many fish, even below 0.5 mg/l. Cichlids are notoriously sensitive to ammonia and nitrite compared with, say, Danios or Corydoras, which is why the latter have been used to mature new tanks, whereas cichlids almost never are. If you're detecting any nitrite at all, you probably need to decrease stocking, decreasing feeding, or increasing filtration, because the filter isn't keeping up with the amount of ammonia excreted by your fish. The backlog, so to speak, is the nitrite you detect.
The only exception here might be if the tank is relatively new, with a filter less than 6 weeks old, in which case the nitrite part of the biological filtration maturing process might not be completed yet.>
Having to get a test for nitrate, I bought some 5 in 1 API test strips and found the following: GH 0 mg/L, KH 0 mg/L, pH 6.0, nitrite 0-0.5 mg/L, and nitrate 80+ mg/L.
<Yikes!>
Immediately, I knew it was time for a water change and I even fasted them for a few days in hopes of mitigating the amount of ammonia they might produce until the situation was under control.
<Part of the solution, yes; but more frequent or more substantial water changes are the usual way of minimising nitrate.>
Taking your advice, I did a full Metronidazole treatment and the results couldn't of been better!
<Good oh!>
Whether this was the solution to my problem or not -- I know it is not the magic formula in having long term success. Unfortunately, I don't have the equipment to test the oxygen in the tank, but with tons of surface agitation and very few "dead spots," I don't see this as being a problem.
<Indeed.>
Having been about a week, everything looks great and I couldn't thank you enough.
<Glad to help.>
However, my waters nitrate levels still seem to be considerably high based on your suggestions -- that is, somewhere between 20 and 40 mg/L in the tank and nearly 20 mg/L out the tap.
<So this is, realistically, the minimum nitrate level you'll have in your aquarium. Not the end of the world, but you have to accept that this is not ideal for cichlids. Frequent water changes, light stocking, and minimal food input are the main things you can do here. In other words, ensuring the nitrate creeps up as slowly as possible. Oscars are greedy, but they're also omnivores, so with luck you can offer bulky, but less protein-rich, foods that will result in less ammonia. Many will eat peas and other vegetables, which is a good start. Otherwise, just be really, really careful not to overfeed.>
Is there anything I can really do here? Or is it time to enjoy the fish?
<A little from column A, a little from column B. Yes, you should be trying to manage the nitrate, but yes, if the fish has perked up, and you can keep nitrate below 40 mg/l, you should be fine. If practical, 'cutting' tap water with deionised water or rainwater will obviously reduce the nitrate a lot. Nice Fire Eel, by the way! Cheers, Neale.>

Discus Aggression 2/28/19
Hi Crew,
<Hello!>
I recently came to know that that WWM crew works out of time to respond to the high email traffic you guys get and run the site. YOU GUYS ARE DOING A GREAT JOB by providing sensible and practical advise to the fish keeping fraternity.
<Thanks for the kind words.>
I am sure I have dropped in many annoying emails to you guys and I keep checking my mail waiting for your response.��
<Sure thing.>
Here is my question for today.
I have 3 pairs of discus in my tank out of which 2 are bigger in size and the other 4 are smaller. Out of the 4 2 are blue diamond which seem to be more timid and of the weaker section.
<Can happen. All the artificial varieties are inbred, and a rule, the more extreme the variety compared to the wild fish, the more inbreeding has happened. Consequently things like genetic diseases, poor growth rate, inept breeding behaviour, and overall lack of vigour can be commonly seen in such varieties. Not always for sure, and farmed Discus are generally easier to keep than wild-caught specimens. But there's a fine line between breeding fish to favour a particular colour pattern and inbreeding them so much they're demonstrably weaker than the more genetically mixed wild-looking (rather than wild-caught) Discus.>
I observed recently that one of the bigger discus seems to chasing the blue diamonds every time they try to come out to the open. This bigger guy seems to only like to chase the blue diamonds alone. He doesn't seem to disturb the other smaller pair. This has led to the blue diamond to hide and stop eating. I would like to know if adding another pair of smaller discus would reduce the aggression or do I need to add a pair of bigger discus to divert the bully.
<It's a challenge. Yes, usually adding extra specimens reduces bullying. So often people keep Discus in large groups, 8-12 specimens, if they want to keep a school of them. Bear in mind that wild fish only school together outside of breeding, so it's entirely normal for them to form territorial pairs once breeding.>
The count of my discus (3 pairs) is it a good number or are any changes required. My tank should be around 50 gallons
<Here's part of the problem. A pair of Discus will hold a territory with a radius around 30-45 cm around their egg-laying rock or whatever. So you really need to allow a circle maybe 60-90 cm in diameter for each mated pair, and any extra Discus will be chased away if they get into that patch. Realistically, you're not going to be able to have that sort of space in a 50-gallon tank. You'd do rather better keeping a single pair, perhaps alongside suitable dither fish (Silver Hatchetfish, Rummynose Tetras and Cardinals are classic choices) and bottom dwelling catfish (Corydoras sterbai is the definitive catfish for Discus set-ups). I doubt additional Discus will be tolerated for long in a tank this size.>
Waiting for your advise as always.
Regards,
Shriram
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

African Cichlids wasting away   2/26/19
Folks,
<Hello Mike,>
I am taking care of a tank (180 gallons) that recently has had problems with assorted African Cichlids. The fins on the fish are looking ragged, the fish are lethargic, most hovering over the same spot, have had quite a few losses, now all other fish are not really affected, have Synodontis cats, several Bichirs, some clown loaches, and two Parrots.
<This is not exactly a textbook community, is it? Even if it isn't overstocked -- though "some" Clown Loaches could easily fill 180 gallons on their own -- it's a mix of fish with different needs. Hard to imagine the conditions are ideal for them all, simply because they cannot possibly be.
Clowns need soft to medium hard water with a slightly acidic to neutral pH.
Such conditions would be toxic to Rift Valley cichlids. Furthermore, "African cichlids" covers a lot of different types. West African cichlids like Kribs are happiest in soft water, while Malawian and Tanganyikan species want hard water. Given you have a number of predators (in the form Bichirs) then chances are you're offering meaty foods (please, no live feeder fish!) and that in turn means high levels of nitrate are very likely. Nitrate is very toxic to cichlids, much more so than for most other fish; 20 mg/l can stress then, and 40 mg/l will noticeably increase mortality via things like Hexamita and HLLE/HITH infections.>
No new fish were added. I have tried to treat with Seachem Kanaplex as it appeared to be a bacterial infection which did not help or stop the progression. Due to increased feedings I have had to adjust my water change schedule to every two weeks and I am removing thirty to fifty percent of the water, will email the water parameters upon demand, but have increased the water temperature to 80 just to see if it would help, I am at a loss with this (I am maintaining this tank but not responsible for the feeding and additions). Please help. Thanks, Mike
<Cichlids are very much the miner's canary when it comes to high nitrate, low oxygen, and overstocking. They're exactly the fish you'd expect to see becoming stressed and sick. I can't pin down the exact problem here, certainly not without things like water quality test results (nitrite and nitrate in particular) not to mention water chemistry (general hardness and pH, for a start). But I'd bet dollars to doughnuts that the problem is environmental, not a specific pathogen that's sneaked into the tank. A thorough review of stocking, feeding, aeration, filtration and water changes will need to be carried out. I'd be looking to clear out the tank a bit, ensuring it's optimised for one particular set of conditions --
whether softish rainforest type environment or a hard, alkaline Rift Valley setting. I'd then be aiming for the usual zero nitrite and ammonia, and for a cichlid tank especially, nitrate levels below 40 mg/l, and ideally below 20 mg/l. While the classic Metronidazole plus an antibiotic combo is a useful one with cichlids showing vague, but severe, sickness, I'd still only be doing this alongside a complete environmental review. Hope this helps, Neale.>
Re: African Cichlids wasting away   2/27/19

Crew, Thanks for the prompt reply,
<Most welcome.>
will run the water tests, the problem has been that this tank is in the local YMCA and the feeding has been erratic, no live foods only flake and pellets for African Cichlids.
<Flake and pellets safest, so likely not a problem here, though some fresh greens (such as cooked peas and spinach) do help many types of cichlid, including Mbuna.>
Yes they are almost all Lake Malawi Cichlids. The aeration is good, oxygen in the water should not be problem, filtration is performed by two Aquatop 500 with UV canister filters. I can only perform so many water changes
since they are paying and will only authorize so many.
<Understood.>
I am removing 30 to 50 percent of water each time.
<Sounds good.>
The parameters have not been ideal as far as feeding but the pH is set up for African Rift Lake Cichlids especially for Malawi Cichlids.
<Understood. But bear in mind that not all fish will handle such conditions well. Conversely, Rift Valley cichlids won't thrive if the hardness and pH aren't right.>
Will run water tests this weekend while I have access to the tank and let you know.
<Cool.>
pH was at 7.6 with Ammonia and Nitrite at 0,
<pH is far too low for either Malawian or Tanganyikan cichlids -- and just to be clear, mixing them is a really bad idea with one or two exceptions.
You really want to make sure the general hardness is high, and the carbonate hardness is high. The old Rift Valley Salt Mix is a cheap and effective way to provide this:
Per 5 gallons/20 litres, add --
1 teaspoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
1 tablespoon Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate)
1 teaspoon marine salt mix (sodium chloride + trace elements)
Stir into the bucket until all dissolved, and then add to the tank. The baking soda should stabilise the pH around 8, while the Epsom salt helps avoid bloating. The marine salt mix, while optional, is helpful in adding tiny amounts of a few other chemicals that keep cichlids in good shape. You can of course use commercial Rift Valley salt mixes, often called 'cichlid salts' or similar. But the recipe above is good 'n' cheap!>
however the Nitrates have been high in the past but will retest this weekend for updated parameters.
<Anything above 40 mg/l can easily explain unexpected cichlid deaths.>
Originally the crew that put this tank up had this scheduled for maintenance once a month and we reduced it to every three weeks, when that was not enough now we do it every two weeks. Thanks
Mike
<If time/money is an issue, the easiest option is to reduce stocking level.
This will slow down the build-up of chemicals between water changes, making it much more easy to maintain good conditions. Tanks often experience problems after a few years, so if the tank is old, with a lot of muck in the substrate, pipe work and/or filter, and thorough break-down and deep clean can work wonders. Do, of course, think about how you're going to keep the fish and the filter bacteria happy while doing this! Cheers, Neale.>

Platy problem   2/26/19
My female platy, who has given birth before, has a small, bulbous match extruding from her anal orifice. It looks as if a fry got stuck being born. What is happening?
<Likely a degree of prolapse... part of the combined sex and excretory process extending outside the body... Usually due to nutrition, water quality issues; with a modicum of genetic predisposition mixed in>
The fish is still eating and swimming well.
<Good>
I am struggling with excessive mold in this tank. Thanks for helping.
<Do your best to keep up the environment, provide sufficient roughage/greenery in the diet and this bit should pull back in on its own.
Please read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/platyfdgfaqs.htm
Bob Fenner>
Re: Platy problem   2/27/19

Thanks a lot. I’ll keep trying.
<Way to go Laura. BobF>

Mbu Puffer, Teef    2/27/19
My 5” puffer had teeth but what’s interesting it disappeared. It has a hard time eating now. Confused and don’t know what to do.
<Really do need a picture here! The usual problem with pufferfish is that their teeth grown too long, in which case they can't open their beak properly, ultimately leading to starvation. Trimming such teeth is doable; see for example here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/smpufferdentistry.htm
But pufferfish actually losing their teeth entirely is something is very uncommon. Sometimes they crack a tooth and lose part of the tip, and on occasion they may even lose most of the tooth. But to lose all four? That's really remarkable! Given the size of their teeth, and how strongly they're built, they shouldn't just fall out for no reason, so there's something else to this story. Did you offer your pufferfish some food that was much too tough? Like a whole crab or crayfish? Or a big snail? That's the most likely way they can damage their teeth, but as I say, losing all four teeth is very difficult to explain. So some background on care, diet, and of course some photos, would really help. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Mbu Puffer   2/27/19
Thnx for your help!
<Welcome. Neale.>

Oscar health concerns MOV   2/24/19
Hi WWM,
<Hello Sean,>
I have a 125 gallon aquarium with two 10"+ Oscars, one 12" fire eel, and a jack Dempsey. For their filtration, I use an aqua clear 110 and two 60 gallon sponge filters. Maintenance includes weekly 50% water changes, vacuuming, etc. Lastly, my water parameters show no sign of any nitrate or ammonia and is set at 78 F.
<I'm always skeptical of zero nitrate readings. Are you really sure your nitrate test kit is working properly? Or being used correctly? Zero nitrate is virtually impossible in an aquarium. You'd need to have zero nitrate in the tap water -- which is unlikely if you're using standard tap water in most cities, towns or anywhere near farmland. Pristine well water might have zero nitrate though. Anyway, most tap water has nitrate levels somewhere between 10-40 mg/l, and since the filter doesn't remove nitrate,
it'll only ever go up thanks to the biological filtration process that turns ammonia into nitrite and then into nitrate. Water changes dilute nitrate, of course, but that'll half (or whatever) the nitrate level in the
tank, not zero it. Furiously rapid plant growth can remove nitrate at appreciable levels, but you'd need intense lighting and would literally be cropping the plants back weekly if this was the case. Given your selection of fish, the idea you have rapid plant growth seems unlikely. So we come back to the original point, the nitrate surely can't be zero. Why harp on about nitrate? Because it's the silent killer for cichlids! Anything above 20 mg/l seems to stress them, and above 40 mg/l there will be increased
mortality, particularly with the more sensitive species (such as dwarf cichlids, Tanganyikans, and so forth). Oscars are among the more nitrate tolerant species, but prolonged exposure does lead to issues such as Hexamita infection and Hole in the Head disease.>
Overall, I think we have a happy and healthy tank, fish included.
<Good.>
However, I'm concerned with the looks of my butterfly Oscar. Now, he's always been an ugly boy with his lumps and bumps, but the amount of slime that covers his body has been progressively increasing.
<Slime generally represents the first line of defence against skin infections. Assuming no fish have been added recently that might have introduced, say, Costia, I'd be thinking about Hexamita infections, HITH,
and HLLE.>
I'm worried that it may be in response to something more serious. I've attached the following video.
<He looks chirpy enough, which is good.>
In general, he seems healthy - eats well (if not the most), swims around his companions, and has minimal instances of aggressive behavior (although, he is the moodiest). It's just the looks of him, like a kid with acne.
<Indeed. While I'm not seeing the classic pitting you associate with HITH and HLLE -- yet -- that would be my worry here. The classic combination of Metronidazole alongside a suitable antibiotic would be my recommendation if you have access to these. Certainly review nitrate levels, and if you can,
oxygen levels (high nitrate and low oxygen cause particular stress to cichlids). While your tank is reasonably large, you've got some big-ass fish in there, and since they're all carnivores, the sheer volume of ammonia being excreted will put a lot of pressure on any filtration system.>
Do you know what this might be? Our appreciation goes out to you and WWM in advance. Thank you!
Kindly,
Sean and Lumpy (the butterfly Oscar)
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog suddenly sick   2/24/19
Hi,
<Hello,>
I’ve been having some issues with my female ADF who is in quarantine before I add her to a bigger tank. I’ve provided information about the current quarantine tank and my maintenance of it below, as well as a description of the problems.
<Understood.>
The tank is a 2.6 gallon Fluval that’s been running for 3 months.
<Much too small. While these frogs aren't all that demanding, I'd be looking at something around 5-10 gallons as the absolutely minimum for a singleton or small group. Smaller tanks aren't ideal for a variety of reasons we've gone into many, many times before.>
I’ve had the frog for about 2.5 months now; she’s in 3-month quarantine for chytrid and I’d hoped to move her into my 10 gallon cycled tank after.
<Ah, good, yes, 10 gallons much better!>
It’s filtered with the input and output flow baffled by sponges, and kept at 76F. I do 30% water changes weekly/a little more than weekly with Seachem Prime.
<Good.>
It's bare bottom except for like 5 pieces of gravel (it didn't used to be bare bottom) and I use a turkey baster to suck up all detritus on the bottom of the tank during every water change; I started doing 30% changes daily as soon as the ADF started getting sick.
<Sounds like you're maintaining the tank well.>
The pieces of gravel are all bigger than the frog’s head so she wouldn’t be able to swallow them.
<Good! I do prefer fine lime-free sand for African Dwarf Frogs.>
The tank was instantly cycled using seeded media from one of my other cycled and well-established tanks prior to acclimating and adding the frog, and I use the API Master Test Kit to test parameters (0,0,0, but it's cycled; I've just been doing 30% daily changes recently and these are my most recent readings). pH is 7.4.
<Do be skeptical of 0 nitrate levels. These are very unlikely in aquaria.>
I feed thawed frozen bloodworms and brine shrimp about 2-3x a week, and occasionally I use ZooMed frog and tadpole bites instead but I'd say no more than once every two weeks. I feed her until I see that her stomach is a little round.
<Good.>
As for the issues that came up with her, basically I’ve been seeing some reddish spots, a spot of torn webbing on her left foot, a bump on the back of her neck with some fuzziness, a lump on left side of abdomen, and puffing out of her mouth – all suddenly arising on Thursday/Friday.
<Does sound like an opportunistic bacterial infection, possibly with a fungus component as well. Cotton wool-like tufts are usually fungus. Anything more like off-white slime or speckles with pale reddish patches tends to be bacterial. Essentially the same thing as Finrot on fish, and treated the same way.>
She was hiding a lot on Thursday but now isn’t; she stays on the bottom as usual and seems relaxed when going up for air but overall seems a little tired and less reactive. I thought she had tattered sheds at one point and was freaking out about chytrid but turns out she was just biting at it and tearing it after it came off in one piece.
<Hymenochirus, like Xenopus frogs, will moult sheets of skin periodically. They will use their front legs and their mouth to sometimes tear sheets off. So if the shreds are clear, very thin sheets, they're probably dead skin.>
I've had this frog since December 3rd and as said earlier I am quarantining her for chytrid. (Originally I had a small male frog with her as well, but he never ate in my care no matter what I tried and passed away about a month later; I think he was sick when I got him but I never figured out what it was.)
<I would agree; often these frogs are starved in the tank at the retailer, and stand little/no chance of recovery.>
I last successfully fed this current frog with thawed frozen bloodworms on Sunday and she looked and behaved normally for the next few days, but Thursday night I noticed a large bump on the left side of her abdomen and it seemed to be filled with gas since she kept floating to the surface - she had to wedge herself under some driftwood in order to stay at the bottom. She also kept puffing her mouth up; this was when I started daily water changes even though upon testing the water the parameters were normal and temperature was still 76F. Friday morning she was halfway out of the water when I woke up but went back down when I dripped some water on her with the turkey baster; she seemed a bit better then and could stay at the bottom of the tank but her left side (the side with the bump) kept floating up a bit so she was kind of tilted.
<Odd, yes. Do suspect a bacterial infection. I'm going to direct you to some of my favourite reading on frog health, here: http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
While you're dealing with Hymenochirus rather than Xenopus, basic healthcare is very similar. Bloating can be a problem with both types of frog, with bacterial infections one possible explanation. Antibiotics, alongside a small amount of Epsom salt in the water (1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres) can help.>
Later that day I noticed a red spot on her chest near her right front leg and also a red spot on the back of her left back leg; I did another 30% change that night. Saturday morning the red spot on her chest seemed a bit bigger (also looks like it’s spreading up to her throat) and I noticed some redness on the veins of her right front foot; there was also a small hole in the webbing of her left back leg, as well as a small bump behind her neck which looks a tiny bit fuzzy. Another 30% water change was performed (of course, all of these are done with temperature-matched water and Seachem Prime). This morning (Sunday) the bump looks fuzzier and red. Her mouth is less puffed up but she’s still kind of tilted. She didn’t respond much to bloodworms on Thursday night and isn’t responding to brine shrimp today.
<Again, I do think you're dealing with a bacterial infection.>
I haven't started any treatments, though I have ordered Maracyn 2, API fin and body cure, and Methylene blue, all of which will arrive on Monday.
<Maracyn 2 is a good choice here. Methylene blue is a treatment for fungus, and if you're not dealing with fungus, isn't necessary. Too many medications can cause new problems, so it's best not to use ones you don't need.>
I currently have Fungus Clear (active ingredients Nitrofurazone and potassium dichromate) but haven’t used it because I don’t know if it’s safe for frogs and I can’t seem to find any information about that online.
<Nor I; while Nitrofurazone is probably safe, I don't know about potassium dichromate at all.>
The only thing I've been doing is the daily 30% water changes since Thursday in the hopes that it was just some issues with water quality even though the API water tests that I did didn't show that anything was wrong, and the redness just seems to be spreading and the fuzziness appeared yesterday morning despite the water changes. She seemed perfectly healthy when I got her 2.5 months ago. As of today (Sunday) she hasn’t eaten, and last night I noticed something which I’m about 99% sure was poop but she still has the lump on her side and although she’s not floating uncontrollably to the top anymore she’s still tilted as if there’s still gas in the lump.
I'm thinking it's potentially red leg/some bacterial thing, constipation/impaction (though I'm not sure what she would be impacted from), and maybe fungus? I’m also wondering if it’s possibly an internal infection that’s causing the lump, but of course I’m not an expert. I'm just at a loss of what to do since it all came on so suddenly and it seems like there’s so many things wrong with her so I don’t even know what medication(s) to use. I know tetracycline is the recommended product for red leg, but it doesn't come up on Amazon - API Furan-2 comes up instead, but I'm not sure if that's the same thing.
<Is not; API-Furan 2 contains Nitrofurazone; whereas tetracycline is an antibiotic.>
The active ingredient in Furan-2 is Nitrofurazone and I wanted to double check before I ordered it in case it's not safe for frogs. What do you recommend me do in terms of medication, feeding, and anything else I could do for her?
<Do see above.>
Thanks in advance,
YJ
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>
African Dwarf Frog suddenly sick   2/24/19

Hi,
<Hello,>
I’ve been having some issues with my female ADF who is in quarantine before I add her to a bigger tank. I’ve provided information about the current quarantine tank and my maintenance of it below, as well as a description of the problems.
<Understood.>
The tank is a 2.6 gallon Fluval that’s been running for 3 months.
<Much too small. While these frogs aren't all that demanding, I'd be looking at something around 5-10 gallons as the absolutely minimum for a singleton or small group. Smaller tanks aren't ideal for a variety of reasons we've gone into many, many times before.>
I’ve had the frog for about 2.5 months now; she’s in 3-month quarantine for chytrid and I’d hoped to move her into my 10 gallon cycled tank after.
<Ah, good, yes, 10 gallons much better!>
It’s filtered with the input and output flow baffled by sponges, and kept at 76F. I do 30% water changes weekly/a little more than weekly with Seachem Prime.
<Good.>
It's bare bottom except for like 5 pieces of gravel (it didn't used to be bare bottom) and I use a turkey baster to suck up all detritus on the bottom of the tank during every water change; I started doing 30% changes daily as soon as the ADF started getting sick.
<Sounds like you're maintaining the tank well.>
The pieces of gravel are all bigger than the frog’s head so she wouldn’t be able to swallow them.
<Good! I do prefer fine lime-free sand for African Dwarf Frogs.>
The tank was instantly cycled using seeded media from one of my other cycled and well-established tanks prior to acclimating and adding the frog, and I use the API Master Test Kit to test parameters (0,0,0, but it's cycled; I've just been doing 30% daily changes recently and these are my most recent readings). pH is 7.4.
<Do be skeptical of 0 nitrate levels. These are very unlikely in aquaria.>
I feed thawed frozen bloodworms and brine shrimp about 2-3x a week, and occasionally I use ZooMed frog and tadpole bites instead but I'd say no more than once every two weeks. I feed her until I see that her stomach is a little round.
<Good.>
As for the issues that came up with her, basically I’ve been seeing some reddish spots, a spot of torn webbing on her left foot, a bump on the back of her neck with some fuzziness, a lump on left side of abdomen, and puffing out of her mouth – all suddenly arising on Thursday/Friday.
<Does sound like an opportunistic bacterial infection, possibly with a fungus component as well. Cotton wool-like tufts are usually fungus. Anything more like off-white slime or speckles with pale reddish patches tends to be bacterial. Essentially the same thing as Finrot on fish, and treated the same way.>
She was hiding a lot on Thursday but now isn’t; she stays on the bottom as usual and seems relaxed when going up for air but overall seems a little tired and less reactive. I thought she had tattered sheds at one point and was freaking out about chytrid but turns out she was just biting at it and tearing it after it came off in one piece.
<Hymenochirus, like Xenopus frogs, will moult sheets of skin periodically. They will use their front legs and their mouth to sometimes tear sheets off. So if the shreds are clear, very thin sheets, they're probably dead skin.>
I've had this frog since December 3rd and as said earlier I am quarantining her for chytrid. (Originally I had a small male frog with her as well, but he never ate in my care no matter what I tried and passed away about a month later; I think he was sick when I got him but I never figured out what it was.)
<I would agree; often these frogs are starved in the tank at the retailer, and stand little/no chance of recovery.>
I last successfully fed this current frog with thawed frozen bloodworms on Sunday and she looked and behaved normally for the next few days, but Thursday night I noticed a large bump on the left side of her abdomen and it seemed to be filled with gas since she kept floating to the surface - she had to wedge herself under some driftwood in order to stay at the bottom. She also kept puffing her mouth up; this was when I started daily water changes even though upon testing the water the parameters were normal and temperature was still 76F. Friday morning she was halfway out of the water when I woke up but went back down when I dripped some water on her with the turkey baster; she seemed a bit better then and could stay at the bottom of the tank but her left side (the side with the bump) kept floating up a bit so she was kind of tilted.
<Odd, yes. Do suspect a bacterial infection. I'm going to direct you to some of my favourite reading on frog health, here:
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
While you're dealing with Hymenochirus rather than Xenopus, basic healthcare is very similar. Bloating can be a problem with both types of frog, with bacterial infections one possible explanation. Antibiotics, alongside a small amount of Epsom salt in the water (1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres) can help.>
Later that day I noticed a red spot on her chest near her right front leg and also a red spot on the back of her left back leg; I did another 30% change that night. Saturday morning the red spot on her chest seemed a bit bigger (also looks like it’s spreading up to her throat) and I noticed some redness on the veins of her right front foot; there was also a small hole in the webbing of her left back leg, as well as a small bump behind her neck which looks a tiny bit fuzzy. Another 30% water change was performed (of course, all of these are done with temperature-matched water and Seachem Prime). This morning (Sunday) the bump looks fuzzier and red. Her mouth is less puffed up but she’s still kind of tilted. She didn’t respond much to bloodworms on Thursday night and isn’t responding to brine shrimp today.
<Again, I do think you're dealing with a bacterial infection.>
I haven't started any treatments, though I have ordered Maracyn 2, API fin and body cure, and Methylene blue, all of which will arrive on Monday.
<Maracyn 2 is a good choice here. Methylene blue is a treatment for fungus, and if you're not dealing with fungus, isn't necessary. Too many medications can cause new problems, so it's best not to use ones you don't need.>
I currently have Fungus Clear (active ingredients Nitrofurazone and potassium dichromate) but haven’t used it because I don’t know if it’s safe for frogs and I can’t seem to find any information about that online.
<Nor I; while Nitrofurazone is probably safe, I don't know about potassium dichromate at all.>
The only thing I've been doing is the daily 30% water changes since Thursday in the hopes that it was just some issues with water quality even though the API water tests that I did didn't show that anything was wrong, and the redness just seems to be spreading and the fuzziness appeared yesterday morning despite the water changes. She seemed perfectly healthy when I got her 2.5 months ago. As of today (Sunday) she hasn’t eaten, and last night I noticed something which I’m about 99% sure was poop but she still has the lump on her side and although she’s not floating uncontrollably to the top anymore she’s still tilted as if there’s still gas in the lump.
I'm thinking it's potentially red leg/some bacterial thing, constipation/impaction (though I'm not sure what she would be impacted from), and maybe fungus? I’m also wondering if it’s possibly an internal infection that’s causing the lump, but of course I’m not an expert. I'm just at a loss of what to do since it all came on so suddenly and it seems like there’s so many things wrong with her so I don’t even know what medication(s) to use. I know tetracycline is the recommended product for red leg, but it doesn't come up on Amazon - API Furan-2 comes up instead, but I'm not sure if that's the same thing.
<Is not; API-Furan 2 contains Nitrofurazone; whereas tetracycline is an antibiotic.>
The active ingredient in Furan-2 is Nitrofurazone and I wanted to double check before I ordered it in case it's not safe for frogs. What do you recommend me do in terms of medication, feeding, and anything else I could do for her?
<Do see above.>
Thanks in advance,
YJ
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>

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