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Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831), the Oscar. To seventeen inches (45.7 cm). South America: Rio Amazonas basin in Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Northern Paraguay and French Guiana. Freshwater: pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5.0 - 19.0, temp. 22 - 25°C. Wild type at  the Shedd Aq. 2015 
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Freshwater FAQs, Ask us a question: Crew@WetWebMedia.com

Updated 7/22/2017
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: General, Planted Tanks, Ponds, Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios

New Print and eBook on Amazon

Betta Success
Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy long-term

by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Turtle Pals    7/22/17
<Hiya, Darrel here>
My name is Kori and my boyfriend and I already have a baby Eastern Painted Turtle named Archie. We saved him from my Aunt's garage during our Memorial Day party. They do have a rather large pond at their house but they also have very large fish and significantly larger than littler Archie turtles. My Uncle is also trying to have a specialist come out and catch the huge snapping turtle they have. So we figured we'd take the little guy home.
<Good thinking. Archie would be just a snack for a snapping turtle>
When we first rescued him he was almost about the size of a quarter. He has grown some but not a significant amount as we've only had him for a short time. He seems to love his tank and the setup and is always swimming over to say hello to us! Anyways my boyfriend was wondering if we could purchase another baby eastern painted turtle around the same size and be able to keep them in the same tank. If so at what size/age is best for introducing them? I.e. Should we wait longer or is it better to have them together at such a young age?
<The younger the better, but it makes no real difference since all of the Emydid turtles (what we call pond turtles, like Red Eared Sliders, Cooters, Red Belly, Painted, Map, etc. – all the turtles with that same body shape) will usually get alone fine as long as their sizes are similar. That said you WILL get turtles that just have bad attitudes and that can cause problems.>
<Here is the secret to dealing with that: the SIZE of the enclosure is not as important as how you have it set up: Just like with fish we try to create hiding places, etc. for reptiles we try to create VISUAL PRIVACY. Place rocks, stones, dividers or whatever so that they can get out of each other’s site if they feel too much pressure. (Not a bad idea for people, too.) Usually basking sites are neutral territory and we rarely see fights on land, so as long as they can swim out of the other’s site they’ll learn to get along just fine)>
Also we believe that Archie is a boy because his tail is quite long as are his claws. With that being said he is still a baby and we cannot know for sure. We were wondering if we do get another turtle should we try for another male or a female or if it is even possible to specify when they are so young.
<No, you really can’t tell at that age and they all get along fine anyway. Here’s the thing; If you do get a boy and a girl, the boy matures before the girl and annoys the crap out of her for mating … years before she’s ready. Just get two (or three) and enjoy!>
Our last question is how large of a tank should we have if we end up with two little cuties? Thank you so much we've tried looking this up but it seems to be most about RES and we weren't sure if the same rules applied! (:
<Every rule for Red Eared Sliders applies in exactly the same way. They even mate and produce babies if they get the chance. 100% same rules!>

I need help my turtles shell looks like as if it were shedding     7/22/17
please help me I don't know what to do
Dear Crew
<Hiya, Darrel here>
It looks as if it were snake skin shedding from its shell plz help me As the turtle grows the plates on the top of the shell, called "scutes" come off in thin layers. Is that what you're seeing? If so that's completely normal.>
<here is everything you need to know about keeping him healthy and growing:

Best approach for current and O2?      7/20/17
<Hey Jude>
Just wondering what is the best for a 38 gallon tall tank with two angels, 6 Glowlight tetras and one Medusa Pleco.
If I need current for the Pleco what is the best way to obtain that?
<Complete circulation... pulling water from the bottom, to top... and redundancy. Two mechanisms at work at the same time. Perhaps an outside power filter and... Oh, I see you answer the question below!>
I have nothing in there now, but the filter which is an Aquaclear for a 70 gallon. I am thinking of lowering the water a few inches to get splash.
Would that help like an air stone would?
<I would add the airstone here>
Just wondering what is best for the Pleco at the bottom and aeration overall? Thanks
<As stated. Bob Fenner>

Amazon Puffer      7/20/17
I've been thinking very hard of adding a trio of Amazon Puffer to what will be a species tank of Clown Loach (5 to 6 total) which will include 1 Pleco (thinking of a golden nugget for algae issues and general clean up --are gold nuggets decent algae eaters? I'm finding conflicting information.)
<Assuming the Gold Nugget Plec you have in mind is Baryancistrus xanthellus, this is a typical Baryancistrus; in other words, it's not a specialist algae eater but actually a substrate sifter, a bit like Corydoras catfish. In the wild at least, they not only scrape rocks for aufwuchs but also consume mouthfuls of silt that they can sift for organic material and tiny invertebrates. Under aquarium conditions they are very omnivorous, happily consuming algae wafers and small frozen foods, as well as soft vegetables like courgette. But rely on Baryancistrus to clean the glass is optimistic. If very hungry they may well suck onto the glass, but they aren't anything like as good as true Hypostomus species or even Ancistrus spp. Bristlenose Cats.>
From my research I've found they share the same soft water requirements, heat requirements, Ick or white spot vulnerability (hence UV filtration), and reduction of medicine if needed sharing the small scales dilemma, similar food requirements. I've found a vet who makes house calls and would be willing to trim teeth (my largest concern.) I'm also planning on adding a steady diet of nuisance snails (not Malaysian though.)
<Baryancistrus xanthellus are Rio Xingu fish, and yes, do need soft, slightly acidic, slightly warmer than normal water to do well. As well as high temperature, the challenge is high oxygen level, which tends to mean under-stocking the tank because, of course, the warmer the water, the less oxygen it holds. They are challenging catfish ill-suited to community tanks, but not hard to keep in the right sort of tank.>
I already feed a steady diet of live black worms, brine shrimp, and ghost shrimp, occasionally frozen bloodworm, and some shrimp pellets (I do not feed flake food because apparently my clown loach are spoiled on live meaty foods and will not take the flake food unless apparently half starved and desperate which doesn't occur).
I also know the puffers are not good with slow moving fish such as Cory or Gourami since they can be fin nippers even though a fairly peaceable fish. I assume, when not at rest, they tend to occupy more of the top half of the aquarium and the clown loach tend towards the bottom half.
<Indeed, though they do sleep among the roots of plants.>
I have a 55 gallon aquarium now to get them started with plans of increasing tank size within a couple of years (I'll upgrade to 100 plus gallon custom corner tank due to space limitations) and I water change / clean usually weekly.
<Sounds nice, but Baryancistrus xanthellus do reach a fair size, so while 55 gallons might be okay for a singleton, the fact you've got Clown Loaches *as well* does put space at a premium.>
My questions is will the clown loach, Amazon puffers and Pleco coexist well in a tank together provided lots of plants, driftwood, and hiding spots.
<Amazon Puffers are, like all puffers, impossible to predict with total certainty
. What I will say is that I've kept them with Panaque nigrolineatus without any trouble at all, Panaque having a tendency to get their retaliation in first, so most fish learn to leave them alone. I would expect Baryancistrus to be rather similar. So given suitable hiding places, they'd reach an understanding where the Puffers left them alone. The Clowns are a bit less of a certainty. While much bigger and very fast, they're also more highly strung. Again, I've kept Cherry Fin Loaches with Amazon Puffers, and they were fine. But I'm less ready to "sign off" on the Clown/Puffer combo compared with the Baryancistrus/Puffer combo. If you do try, keep a close eye on the Clowns for signs of damaged fins especially.>
I dislike when my aquarium is not peaceful excepting the occasional minor squabble. Is there anything more that I need to be aware of regarding the puffers? Any information you may provide would be helpful in making an educated and informed decision. I dislike and find it distressing when I fail to properly provide a proper environment for 'pets.'
<Amazon Puffers are lovely fish. I'm glad you're getting a group because they are nervous when kept singly, and groups tend to be a bit less neurotic. While your water conditions should suit them fine, they do need a lot of oxygen and are extremely active swimmers, so tweaking the tank to have robust (rather than turbulent) water flow and plenty of air/water mixing will be a plus. They like exploring things, floating plants and leaves being particularly favoured. They aren't at all shy once settled, and my specimens quickly became tame enough to hand-feed. Of all the common freshwater puffers, they're the least aggressive, with practically zero territoriality (I believe they're migratory in the wild). But they do nip, probably more out of hunger than anything else, and that needs to be borne in mind.>
<Welcome. Neale.>

update, and question (RMF, any thoughts on this?)<<I agree w/ your stmt.s. RMF>>
Fresh-water... trtmt.     7/18/17

Greetings Neale,
<Hello again, Byron,>
It has been over a year since our last correspondence on the problem of flashing/cloudy water. It was two separate issues as we had worked out, and the heat/salt cleared up the flashing (none since then).
<Cool. It's an old treatment, but safe, and as you report, often (if not always!) works.>
The cloudy water was an organics issue as you surmised, though I never did find out why (we had gone through the possible causes at the time), but more frequent filter cleanings has kept it at largely bay for most of this year. Anyway, that’s all solved, with my sincere appreciation to you.
<Welcome. Sometimes tanks go through phases, and sometimes it's actually seasonal -- the tank in my classroom receives hours of direct sunlight this time of year, and turns pea soup colour within two days of a complete water change! Nothing I can do about it, and since the Guppies and Limia are fine, I've stopped worrying. By September it'll settle back down to normal.>
I have a question about water conditioners, and specifically the amount to use. I am a very firm believer in not adding any substance to an aquarium with fish unless it is essential, and then keeping these minimal.
I believe that everything added to the water does end up inside the fish via osmosis through the cells or gills, and while these may not kill the fish, they don’t benefit except for the purpose needed, like dechlorination of the water.
<Makes sense.>
I have always used sufficient conditioner for the volume of the replacement water. So in a 90g tank, holding an actual 70 gallons of water, if I replace 60% of the water, I add conditioner for roughly 35-40 gallons, the replacement volume.
<Sounds about right, but I'd err on the side of over-dosing water conditioner than under-dosing. So if you think 42 gallons is being replaced (42 being 60% of 70 gallons) I'd round that up to, say, 50 gallons.>
I should mention that the replacement water is going directly into the tank from the faucet via a Python, not being pre-treated.
<Quite so. Did exactly this process this morning, changing 90% of the water in the aforementioned Guppy and Limia tank.>
Manufacturers like Seachem recommend adding the amount of conditioner for the entire tank volume, and even exceeding this by two or three times “will cause no harm.” Over on TFF, it has been suggested that the organics in the tank will somehow nullify much of the dechlorinator when water is added directly to the tank, so the conditioner should be for the full tank volume or more. I’ve never had identifiable problems in more than 25 years of doing it minimally, so I question this reasoning.
<I think their rationale is this: When you add dechlorinator to a bucket, you stir in the dechlorinator, neutralising all the chlorine before adding the water to your aquarium. When doing the Python approach, you're adding new water (including its dissolved chlorine) straight to the tank, which is a far bigger volume than a bucket, and much less evenly mixed, especially if you turn the filter off during water changes. If you add the "right" amount of dechlorinator, it might take, say, 30 minutes to completely mix with all the chlorine particles and neutralise them. Add two or three times as much, and you increase the chances the dechlorinator particles collide with chlorine particles. Very roughly, if you add two times as much, you half the time the chlorine is "free" and able to hurt your fish; add three times as much, and that chlorine is able to hurt your fish only one-third the time. Make sense? What the water conditioner manufacturer is suggesting -- quite plausibly -- is that the potential harm a triple dose of dechlorinator might do is less than the harm free chlorine will do in the X minutes it's un-neutralised in the aquarium. I honestly have no idea how long chlorine would take to neutralise in the aquarium, but for some fish, even a few minutes exposure could cause damage, particularly if this happens week after week after week.>
I’d be interested in your views on this. Particularly, am I correct in thinking that substances dissolved in the water will get inside fish (whatever the consequences)? And is conditioner for the replacement volume adequate?
<I dose extremely approximately using pond-grade dechlorinator. For all practical purposes this stuff is extremely low toxicity, so I'd have no reservations about using a double or triple dose. Conversely, if the plain vanilla dosage has always worked for you, I'd see no harm in sticking with it.>
With thanks,
<Cheers, Neale.>

3 Polypterus species and sizes and tankmates    7/16/17
I have a 75 gallon tank with
1 Senegal Bichir 7”
1 Polypterus teugelsi 5”
along with
1 African Feather fin Catfish 7”
<Lovely, peaceful catfish.>
2 Turquoise Rainbows 3” each
<I'd add a few more of these.>
1 Pictus Catfish 4” and
<No threat to all but the newly hatched Bichirs.>
1 Angel fish 4.5” tall.
The tank is well decorated with many hinding spaces and a 2” sand bottom. I have recently found a 3’ Polypterus delhezi 3”. My question is, how long should I allow my to get before I can add him to the 75 gallon tank., and will any of the other occupants cause a threat to him? Thank You
<I would not combine such a small Polypterus specimen with substantially larger specimens. Once the little Polypterus delhezi grows to within a couple of inches of the existing specimens, you should be fine combining them. But very small juveniles, especially those with their external gills present, are extremely vulnerable. Bichirs are snappy, and even the smaller, more tolerant species like Senegal Bichirs can't be completely trusted to leave smaller or weaker specimens alone. Use your common sense here, even though the three species you mention should be compatible, given space. Cheers, Neale.>

Water Chemistry Question    7/15/17
Just the prelims; this is Renee from Idaho (human remains place), uses RO water, Equilibrium, and baking soda to keep my kH where it needs to be to keep my pH stable which is working beautifully). As the weather heats up, I am losing more and more water to evaporation. According to the instructions on my bottle of Equilibrium, I am NOT to add Equilibrium to water I am replacing due to evaporation - so I don't.
But what about baking soda? It's a chemical compound composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions (I'm doing my homework :)), but do those ions compose a mineral or not AND as such, will it evaporate with the water or not?
<The Sodium stays, the bicarbonate can be (is) used up by reductive events>
Things are going along so well, everyone (fishy) is doing terrific and I don't want to screw things up.
<I would get/use a combination carbonate and bicarbonate product... and utilize this via the new/water change water (pre-mixed). Am partial to the SeaChem line here. Bob Fenner>
*Renee *
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/15/17

Do you have a suggestion (or are you allowed to suggest) which Seachem product?
<Oh, sure: http://www.seachem.com/marine-buffer.php
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/16/17
Ok, thanks.
<Renee... this is a saltwater system? If not do experiment with the amount of product used (in the change out water). Bob Fenner>
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/16/17

No, it's freshwater with only scaleless species.
<Ah, we're back to sodium bicarbonate then. Added to the change water. B>
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/16/17

But what about the water I replace from evaporation? The directions from Seachem say not to add Equiibrium, should I still add baking soda?
<Place/mix all additives in the new/change-out water. B>

Blood Parrot -ongoing paleness
Dear Crew-Neale

I'm so sorry to be taking up so much of your time, as this is now my forth correspondence to you. To recap- I have a 47 gallon wedge tank inhabited by 2 (4year old) blood parrots and a Pleco(11 years old)on 5/25/17 became aware of over fed polluted tank- broke filter while cleaning, waited week for new filter (Eheim 2215).
<An effective and reliable if old-school unit.>
In the beginning male BP showed more stress than female until around 6/19 and then female became pale , hanging by heater and poor appetite. Male now fine, with no further issue. Pleco fine.
<Good and good.>
I have been keeping the water with Nitrate at or below 20%, pH 6.5-7.5
<Sounds fine, but would make the observation that pH 6.5-7.5 is an odd range, slipping between acid and alkaline. Parrot Cichlids, being Central American in origin, are best kept in medium hard, slightly alkaline water.>
6/29/17(per your advise) added 16 tsp Epsom salt and I treated tank with" API- General Cure"(Metronidazole 250mg and Praziquantel 75mg) which is a 2 dose product -treat wait 48 hr, 2nd treat wait 48 hrs, do 25% water change. I replaced nearly 50% of water and I replaced 8 tsp of Epsom salts at that time.
7/3/17- my female BP appeared much better dark orange color returned and was hungry!-
until 7/5 when she went pale again. Now no appetite (she will catch a skinless par boiled pea, chew for a few then spit out. I have been removing uneaten food immediately)
<Indeed, remove food, then wait and see. Is the female isolated from the male? If not, if they're together, what are their interactions like? Cichlids aren't 'nice' animals, and will sometimes bully weakened specimens.>
7/9/17- I began second round of API General Cure (waited a week between last treatment per your advise)
7/13/17-today- I did an almost 50% water change. My water, before change, was; nitrate <20% and pH 6.5 water temp 82. My water following change- nitrate between 5-10% and pH 7.0 .
<Do feel the water is a bit too warm, and a bit too acidic. I would aim to optimise -- use sodium bicarbonate to raise the pH and hardness (around 7.5 is an ideal pH) using a dosage of maybe 0.5 teaspoons per 5 US gallons. Experiment with buckets of water, and once you get something useful, do this for all new water changes. And yes, Epsom salt and sodium bicarbonate can be used together -- the first affects general hardness, the second affects carbonate hardness.>
What now? As you can see from photo- she is still pale, still hovers by heater, still with no appetite, but will swim to greet me at front of tank(occasionally)and will still harass the Pleco occasionally( she is not completely with out energy). Since I changed nearly half of water, how much Epsom salt should I replace(if any)?
<Replace added minerals pro rata -- per 5 gallons/20 litres, up to 1 teaspoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and up to 1 tablespoon Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate). So if your bucket contains 2.5 US gallons, then add up to 0.5 tsp sodium bicarb., and up to 0.5 tbsp Epsom salt, to that bucket of water. These minerals aren't 'used up' in any meaningful way, so you don't re-dose for the whole tank. Just the bucket or buckets of new water being added!>
What I see when I look at her is a pale fish with a slightly rounded abdomen(compared to male). Abdomen appears firm. Scales appear smooth. I do not see any visible fin, scale, or gill issues. I do not see white stringy poop- I do not see poop of any sort-and I have been watching. Well, I did see her pooping following the original application of Epsom salts(6/29/17) but none since.
Should I now treat with" API Furan 2"(Nitrofurazone 85mg)- If I do, will this product negatively impact my filter bacteria?
<It shouldn't do, but keep an eye on ammonia or nitrite levels, whichever test kit you have.>
Additional, not sure if this has any relevance but these BPs are a pair and up until this began routinely, about monthly, laid egg clutches( cleaned up nicely by Pleco).
<I bet!>
I know how difficult it must be to diagnosis and treat a fish by the information presented in writing . Please let me know if I can provide any more data or photos to assist you.
I am ,as always , so very grateful of your efforts. Thank you. ❤
Lisa W.
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Fine porcelain "crackling" Turtle Eggs     7/11/17
Dear Crew,
<Hiya, Darrel here>
My 26 year old Eastern Box Turtles eggs look like a fine porcelain vase, with small crackling on the eggs. All pictures of eggs online show them looking like eggs from the fridge.
<The look of your eggs is more in line with my experience. They look white, shiny and perfect when they are first laid but usually was they dry they get a matte finish with blemishes>
The four eggs sit in Sphagnum Moss, half of the eggs covered, with moist paper towel over them, and a lid sitting on top. They are kept at a temperature of 78-82. The container has small hole in the lid and in the base. The eggs are about 58 days old.
<Sounds perfect>
Anyway, do some eggs have the appearance I've described, and still hatch?
<If they are fertile, yes. They may take anywhere from 75 to 120 days to hatch based on the temperature swings as well as the average temperature. The rule is to never give up hope until/unless the eggs collapse and begin to grow mold or fungus>
Thank you for your expertise, and time.
<no charge! -- good luck.>
<Oh ... when you get hatchlings there may be issues with initial feeding. They tend to be carnivorous when they are young, so what I do each day is soak them in 1/8 inch of lukewarm water for a few minutes and then offer them a teeny-tiny bit of moist cat food on the end of a toothpick. Sometimes it took two weeks after the yolk sac adsorbed before they showed the slightest interest>
Lori ��

Betta distress; trauma      7/11/17
Hello there!
My name is Saffron and I have an established community sorority tank. It's 29 gallons with 6 girls, 9 diamond tetra, 2 Otos and 5 bronze cories.
*Here is my issue*:
A few weeks ago now, one of my girls got sucked into the canister filter through my surface skimmer on my lily intake pipe which had fallen below the water line. I happened to be in the right place at the right time.
I quickly unplugged the filter, released the quick release and out she plopped. I immediately put her in a plastic container with an inch or so of water so she didn't have to support herself by swimming. She was obviously dazed and pale. I diluted some aquarium salt, added another inch of water and added some Seachem stress coat and left her floating in the tank over night.
When I released her into the tank she had coloured up a bit, but was not her full vivid red (she is a koi). Lately she has been keeping to her corner and swimming alright, and while she still never coloured up she has been doing better.
Now when I got home yesterday from a weekend trip, I noticed she was pineconing slightly and keeping to herself more than usual. So I immediately took her out and gave her an aquarium salt bath and added some
stress coat. I kept her there for about 5 minutes and added her back into the tank. This morning she was resting in the bottom of the tank, and when I get home tonight I will be quarantining her in a 4 gallon tank. She is not as pale as she was when she first got sucked in, but more pale and slightly bloated, although she did come up for food.
I also noticed one of my cory's had a white spot on his fin, and preemptively dosed the tank with API fungus cure, as I do have Nerites and a mystery snail that I would like to keep around.
I will try and get pictures later, but the Cory is quite shy and runs every time I move near the tank, but my biggest concern is my little girl.
<I would not be concerned w/ "one spot" on a Corydoras... likely this is nothing... perhaps a minor wound site>
Is there anything you can recommend for me to try for Vivian? I'm just trying to be a good fish parent, and I'm at somewhat of a loss for what to do besides start dosing with medication, which isn't always the answer because it will suppress the rest of my fish as well.
<Understood; and at this point, given what you state, I would NOT treat the tank, life there... but just endeavor to keep good, stable conditions. Likely this fish will heal on its own>
*Here is the background:*
It's a heavily planted tank and I have just started experiencing some black beard algae which I have been addressing by minimizing the light exposure and dosing directly with excel. I have a co2 system ready to go, but given my last couple of weeks I have been holding off on setting it up because I don't want to imbalance the tank too much, or risk a crash.
I have been battling a bacterial bloom in the tank from my auto-feeder dumping too much food while I was away (which is my fault but I had little choice as I go away weekly during the summer). Which has led to a Ramshorn
explosion. I have since changed vacation food types when I'm away to small slow sinking pellets and will be getting a feeding circle. When I am home during the week, I have been doing 30% water changes every other day or so to manually manage the system in the tank.
Sorry for the novel and thank you for taking the time to read.
<Steady on here; and please do send us a follow up with your further observations. Bob Fenner>

Re: Betta distress     7/12/17
Hi Bob,
thank you for taking the time to read my mini novel. I had dedicated well over two months to planning and setting up the hardscape for my koi Betta sorority, with a few disasters in between, so I suppose this is just one more lesson for me to tuck into my book of learning.
<Good attitude>
I really appreciate the amount of time that you have dedicated to creating such a vast resource on the internet for like minded folks. I have been keeping a blog/journal so to speak, for other newbies (I only started serious fishkeeping in February) and documenting all of my resources. So thank you again!
<Thank you for your efforts>
I have attached a couple of pictures of Vivian in her 4 gallon quarantine tank and the 29 gallon tank during the bacterial bloom.
<Nada attached; oh, I see below linked>
Her injury first happened on June 3, so it took a little over a month for her symptoms to get worse. I also believe that the worsening was directly related to the small bloom that has been happening in my tank, which I finally have under control. It has taken about 3 weeks with 2-3 water changes a week of about 10-30% for the bloom to completely subside from one weekend of accidental overfeeding. In the picture there is white sand, and you can see the slight fuzz over the sand. Her little bit of claimed territory is the top left corner of the tank (incidentally why she got sucked into the intake in the first place).
I gave her a short Epsom salt bath last night and one of her eyes has reduced in size, and her pineconing (which was slight) has also reduced. So now she just has one swollen eye, and she floats tail up intermittently, but she is swimming and eating. When I get home tonight I will check in again. I too am not too worried about the Cory. He doesn't seem to be inhibited at all, and is just as skittish as ever.
<Good behaviors>
I tend to scour the internet before I ask for help because I know that I am not the first person who has run into problems, but the reassurance that you are offering just by taking the time to read this is very helpful.
Thank you :)
I hope you're having an awesome Tuesday.
<And you. BobF>

Strange ADF lady lump      7/9/17
Hey there! Looking to see if I can get some help Identifying what my female African Dwarf Frog has; I've tried some different forums, but no one has seen this type of bump before!
I've had her and her boyfriend alone together in a 5 gallon tank *(heated @75, gentle filtered)* for about just under 2 years; woke up to her with a strange pointy bump on her back!
<I can see this from your photo.>
Now, I know when they Amplexus she'll sometimes get 'ridges' on her back from him squeezing her so much, but those are symmetrical, and they go away shortly * (in the pics you'll see one in front of the bump)*
But, this lump is asymmetrical, only on one side of her. It's particularly pointed, and not something she's had before. It doesn't seem to be hard.
She never shies away from my hands, so I took a chance and gave her a gentle patting-down when feeding them, to see if I could feel the lump.
Sure enough, I can, but it just feels like a little squishy nub, like the rest of her body. Nothing hard or pointed. She also didn't show any negative reaction to me touching her (albeit disappointment that fingers are not edible), so it looks like it's not anything that causes her any pain.
<So far as you can tell, anyway.>
Her behavior hasn't changed at all, she's still as feisty as ever. She doesn't shy away from me at all, and she's still eating *(bloodworms, brine shrimp, vitamin supplement added) *as usual. She's not trying to rub up against anything, nor is she acting like she's in any pain. Her tankmate is just fine, no growths or any other physical changes, so it's not contagious.
Does this look like something to be worried about, like a tumor or abscess, or something similar? The only thing vertical in my tank is the filter intake; maybe she fell asleep next to the it and it kind of pulled her skin there like a little hernia?
<It's a possibility, as is some type of post-coital damage, starvation, or for that matter an avitaminosis of some kind, which often leads to rickets-type things where fish or frogs develop odd deformities. Initially, observe rather than treat if the frog is feeding and otherwise active; certainly review diet, perhaps adding a vitamin supplement if possible. Only if the frog fails to improve after a week or two, or shows signs of stress or starvation, would I think about medicating. Cheers, Neale.>

Can you tell me what this is please???      7/9/17
<Hi Kelly>
I am hoping you might be able to help me. I have indoor/outdoor cats and of course leave a water bowl out for them. Recently though I have been finding strange worm-like organisms stuck to the inside of the bowl. I've included a picture of one to show you. I would just like to know what it is and if it is harmful to animals. I appreciate you taking the time to read my email and thank you.
Kelly Michel
<Mmm; this looks like some sort of flatworm/Platyhelminth to me... Likely not an issue, but I would share this pic or better, specimen with your veterinarian just to make sure. Bob Fenner>

Re: Can you tell me what this is please???      7/9/17
Wow a flatworm?
<Yes; look in your reference works, the Net.>
Thank you very much for your help, and advice. I will be showing it to my veterinarian.
<Ah, good. BobF>


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