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FAQs About Anurans/Frogs, other than African Dwarf/Hymenochirus and Xenopus/Clawed Species

Related Articles: Keeping African Clawed Frogs and African Dwarf Frogs by Neale Monks, Amphibians, Turtles

Related FAQs: Frogs other Than African & Clawed 2,
FAQs on: General Frog Identification, General Frog Behavior, General Frog Compatibility, General Frog Selection, General Frog Systems, General Frog Feeding, General Frog Health, General Frog Reproduction,
FAQs on: Bullfrogs, Fire Belly Toads,
Leopard Frogs, Surinam Toads/Pipa, Tadpoles of all Sorts, Toads/Terrestrial Frogs, White/Tree Frogs, Amphibians 1, African Dwarf Frogs, African Clawed Frogs, Newts & Salamanders, Rubber Eels/CaeciliansTurtlesAmphibian Identification, Amphibian Behavior, Amphibian Compatibility, Amphibian Selection, Amphibian Systems, Amphibian Feeding, Amphibian Disease, Amphibian Reproduction,

Keeping bullfrog tadpoles in community tank...and a rescued convict cichlid  3/26/14
Hello Crew!
I have this insane humanitarian impulse to save whatever animal in distress I come across,
but unfortunately when it comes to fish I don't have the necessary resources.
<A common challenge, I fear, for many animal lovers.>
I bought a bag of feeders on impulse after seeing two beautiful tadpoles in there and thinking, "NO WAY am I letting these guys get sold for fish food!" And of course, I tried to save the fish, too, but they all died. I had a 5 gallon tank with no equipment to keep them in at school...less than ideal, but better than the tiny tank they were being kept in with hundreds of other dead and dying feeders.
I've raised tadpoles before, on frozen lettuce, in a plastic sled full of rainwater,
<Would add some tap water, maybe 50/50, dechlorinated of course. Why?
Rainwater is very soft, and the minerals in tap water are important for most aquarium animals.>
but these are bigger and they are in a tiny tank. I would like to know what I should feed them, and whether they will harm my fish if I transfer them to my filtered, planted, heated, aerated and cycled community 63-gallon.
<Bullfrog tadpoles are omnivorous, and like most tadpoles feed primarily on algae and decaying plant matter. But I wouldn't trust them with very small fish, small enough to be eaten.>
Can tadpoles carry fish diseases?
<Yes; especially if kept with feeders.>
I have some snails (lots of ramshorns and one or two tiny MTS), will they eat them?
<Possibly, but probably not.>
Also, on my second try at saving feeders, I got what appears to be a 1" convict cichlid in the bag. I loved him on sight and took the fish home
with me so they wouldn't get sold as feeders, but he leaped onto the floor and I pulled him up already dry and gummy skinned, but alive. I gave him a salt/Methylene blue dip to boost his slime cover and kill any external parasites. I know convicts are aggressive, but is there any chance he'll get along with my angels, swordtail and Betta until I can rehome him?
<If "he" is a "she", then possibly; female Convicts can be relatively mellow. Males are a good deal more aggressive, and while some specimens do settle into community tanks just fine, most do not.>
He's only 1" long and my angels are bigger than that, the Betta is always hidden in a huge mass of hornwort and the sword is *fast*.
<Indeed, Swordtails are fast fish adapted to flowing streams. They can actually cohabit with less aggressive cichlids reasonably well given sufficient swimming space.>
If there is a chance, how can I ensure he's parasite and disease free before adding him?
<You can't be sure, so quarantine him, or at the very least, medicate him for Whitespot and Velvet, the two biggest risks.>
I'd like to add him now, because he's looking very stressed from his jump and the move, and he's in a ridiculously small tank ATM. Also, this is unrelated, but I have three angels around 2" long. The two silver
pearlscales (my vet uncle said they are a male and a female) keep chasing after the paraibo blushing angel (male, according to my uncle). The female does the most chasing, but sometimes the paraibo angel will turn around and chase them back. Does this mean they have formed a mated pair?
<Possibly, but Angels are notoriously difficult -- actually, impossible --
to sex until they start spawning. Sometimes even they get it wrong, and there are stories of two females mating, both laying eggs together! Anyway,
mated Angels tend to defend a dark corner of the tank, usually a tall plant leaf or something upright like that. There is occasionally a bit of mouth-tugging. But serious fighting, chasing etc. seems to be territorial
rather than pair-boding behaviour.>
Also unrelated...I have 6 "peppered" cories but 2 of them are of a darker hue, are they still the same species?
<Likely so. This species is very variable. Wild-caught ones can look very different to the farmed ones. But there are also some similar species out
there, such as Corydoras longipinnis, though you'd usually have paid a premium price for these lookalike species.>
Sorry for the long wall of text...I am just so confused about this! Thank you in advance!
<Hope this helps, Neale.>
re: Keeping bullfrog tadpoles in community tank...and a rescued convict cichlid  3/26/14

Thank you so much, Dr. Monks! :)
I just have one more question: what could I use to treat both the tadpoles and cichlid so that I can put them in my main tank?
<Tricky, because amphibians are often more sensitive to things like copper than the commonly kept fish. The salt/heat method for Whitespot should
work, and if you had fungal infections, Methylene Blue should be fine.
Likewise proper antibiotics (such as Maracyn) are going to be safe too. But otherwise check with your retailer before using a certain medicine in your
tank to find out if it is safe to use with amphibians. If you look online about healthcare of aquatic frogs (such as Xenopus) what you read should apply to bullfrogs too.>
All my fish are bigger than they are, so I'm not worried there :D
Thank you again, sooooo much! :D
<Most welcome, Neale.>

Sexing Fire bellied toads.   8/26/10
Hello WWM.
I have recently decided to try keeping fire bellied toads and I have some questions regarding gender identification.
<Indeed; this is not easy to do.>
It seems there is quite a large quantity of conflicting information on the proper method of sexing these amphibians. Some people seem to think the bumps of the skin are greater in number in males, while fewer on females "others say its the reverse" I've also been told that there are black stripes on the females bodies and on males there are small spots instead "again some say its the reverse" The people at the LFS claim the Middle digits on the rear legs are longer on females and the webbing between them is shorter.
<As with most frogs and toads, the males have stronger arms and during the mating season develop horny pads on the inside of their hands used to provide extra grip during amplexus. These are by far the best traits.
Females tend to be a bit more rounded than the males, especially during the mating season.>
The Sounds also seem to be Significant factor as the males allegedly make more noise.
<Males are the ONLY ones that croak.>
the sound the males make has been described as a barking sound. And despite all of this I have read cases where the gender was misidentified.
<Yes indeed.>
could I get some clarification regarding this? with all of this conflicting info on the net I thought it prudent to ask the experts.
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Sexing Fire bellied toads. Hlth. now 8/28/10
Thank you for replying so quickly!
<My pleasure.>
You have provided useful information.
<Glad to hear it.>
I have some questions I forgot to ask. I noticed today there seem to be a small patch of slightly lighter colored Green skin on the back of this one fire belly. The patch in question is located just behind the skull, actually it looks as though there are two tiny patches. This is normal?
<Not normal, no. But difficult to say if actually harmful or merely some genetic abnormality. A photo would help. Do be aware that amphibians have skins that are easily damaged, and they should never be touched with dry hands, and even with wet hands handling must be only when 100% essential. Once damaged, they quickly become prone to opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections.>
Also today I had to remove the fire belly from the tank for some maintenance but the toad managed to jump to the carpet. I immediately caught him again only to have him jump on a blanket. From here I moved him into a proper container and from there back to the tank.
I wouldn't be as concerned in this were a reptile or a mammal but I have been told Amphibians are prone to absorbing cleaning agents and other hazardous chemicals through there skin which are fatal to them. It seems uninjured from the jumping but I am skeptical that the animal could get away with crawling on the carpet without somehow suffering some ill effects.
<The walking on the carpet shouldn't be too bad, but being grabbed with anything washed with laundry conditioner isn't going to be helpful. With amphibians, the best approach is to either use wet hands to catch them, or else drive them into a plastic container like a Tupperware so they can be lifted back to their vivarium.>
I tried feeding the animal afterward and it didn't have a problem eating but I'm not sure if that matters. What can potentially happen in these situations?
<Well, the damage is done now. Just have to see what'll happen. With luck you'll be fine. But do make yourself aware of the early signs of bacterial secondary infections such as Red Leg so you can act should things take a turn for the worse.>
Thanks again.
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Sexing Fire bellied toads. 8/29/10

Thanks for the heads up.
I will monitor him to see if anything occurs. so far it seems fine.
Oh and to clarify in case I did not make it clear, I did use wet hands to catch it, and he was indeed deposited in a empty Tupperware container during the tank maintenance. it was not actually grabbed with anything except my hand, the only thing I think the animal came into contact with was a blanket that the he landed on.
I have tried researching Red leg disease just in case. I am curious though,
Since these animals have red undersides to begin with how can you determine if red leg is present.
<Very different! Red Leg is more like Finrot or for that matter an open wound on a human.>
Specifically how does the disease manifest, does it resemble a rash, lesion or a growth of some type?
<The first two in your list. Starts off as a sore or bloody rash, and then becomes more severe. Usually fatal by that stage.>
Thanks again.
<Cheers, Neale.>

Most likely the wrong forum, but am going to ask anyway. Rana sexing, beh., nutr., sys.  - 8/1/10
Hi again guys,
I have a frog that was captured from outside. The frog is a common green frog, *Rana clamitans*. From what I read male frogs have ears that are significantly bigger then their eyes, female frogs have ears the same side as their eyes; male frogs have yellowish under parts and throats, and girls frogs have creamy white throats. Now, when I first got my frog I was convinced it was a girl frog (the underside seems white, and the ear was just a little bigger, you could say it was the same size. BUT, my frog croaks, and the throat puffs out/extends with the croaks! Does a female frog croak?
<Not usually, no. Croaking is for males to attract a mate. Males also have a much larger ear drum, about twice the size of the eye, so it should be pretty obvious.>
I understand that there are 6 different calls that this species of frogs make, but do girls make croaking sounds? If I sent a picture of the actual frog, could someone here tell me if it is a male or female?
I really want to know. The one book that has an actual picture of a male and female has no caption with the picture to say WHICH is male or female, mores the pity. It's in a semi-aquatic aquarium/vivarium which is 20
gallons and has Zilla brand foam insert kit called "rain forest rapids" kit. Also, I read somewhere on the internet to only feed this kind of frog 3 times a week, what happens if a frog is over fed? My frog eats a LOT.
<Yes they do.>
Like, last night it ate: about 9 pill bugs, a slug, about 6 worms, a centipede, 2 spiders, and about 3 or 4 meal worms, a moth, and one unidentified insect. Also, most of the food I go out and catch outdoors, in this case, should I use the powder that contains multivitamins that is sprinkled on foods for lizard and amphibians to keep them from getting metabolic bone disease?
<Is well worth doing.>
Also, I am using just a daylight lamp from Exo Terra it says on the package it is good for all amphibians. It is very hard to find any information on frogs not generally found in the pet industry, I mean it is easy to find out what you
have, but not specific husbandry for the frog like you could if you had one common in pet stores. Could I have more than one of these frogs in this tank?
<Generally, Rana species are kept singly in small tanks. They tend to do only fairly well in captivity, and never really become tame. They're quite nervous and prone to bashing their noses on the glass as they jump about
when scared. You could certainly try keeping a pair in your tank, but you'd have to keep an eye on them, and the problem is that after spawning, should they do so, the male would likely harass the female. If the female goes off
her food, that's a good sign of trouble.>
P.S: I use a lot of Seachem products in my aquariums, one is called "Prime". It is a water conditioner, but I am wondering, could this be dangerous to a frog? I know frogs can absorb water through its skin and it cloaca, and this does have a harsh sulfur chemical smell.
<This product should be safe.>
I also use the Seachem's version of live bacteria called "Stability",
and a carbon replacement for planted aquariums called "Flourish Excel" and also Seachem's "Flourish Iron" Iron supplement for planted tanks, and the general plant supplement from Seachem caller "Flourish". Would these
products harm my frog?
<Shouldn't do so, no.>
I did use the live bacteria product-no ill effects yet. I have live plants in this tank in the water section- water sprite floating and java fern on the bottom. Could I use the water conditioner and the plant fertilizers?
<Should be able to, but if in doubt, consult with the manufacturer. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Most likely the wrong forum, but am going to ask anyway... where does this go?   8/4/10

Oh, my Gosh! Seachem fooled me good to the tune of $41.00 American!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
<Could be worse. Those poor folks in Pakistan have just had their homes washed away in floods. Always good to have a sense of perspective.>
From now on I will ask someone here if what I am buying is a crock of poop before I chuck my bucks around at aquarium store.
<By all means do so.>
Seachem has a nice website, and explains why the products are so good.
<And they are. But you do need to understand what products do, and like all businesses, they tend to promise a little more than their products actually deliver. Coca Cola doesn't make me sexy, and eating Bran Flakes doesn't
imbue me with glowing sense of happiness.>
Last time I went to the aquarium store I purchased $120.00 dollars worth of products from Seachem (This was for 3 items!!!!!!!!) Now I feel like a fool.
<Please don't feel foolish. Two of the three products you bought are good ones, among the best in their niches. The one product I'm not wild about is Seachem Stability, and that's only because most of these "good bacteria"
products are unreliable and, once the aquarium is more than half mature, don't provide any benefits whatsoever. They don't do any harm, but these bacteria potions often don't do any good either.>
Thanks for helping me with my frog. It is getting bigger, and the ear is getting bigger so it must be a boy frog. But it was much smaller first and the ear was the same size as the eye so I was fooled there, too.
<If it makes you feel any better, frogs are pretty bad at telling their sexes at times. If you watch them in the wild you'll see every possible permutation of male and female frog you can imagine!>
<Have fun with your frogs! Cheers, Neale.>  

Water, Toad tadpole sys.   7/21/10
To Whom It May Concern:
I have Western Toad tadpoles. I have read up on recommendations and I am changing their habitat. However, I have read conflicting information on the type of water I should use when cleaning the tank out. Some sites say
to used distilled water others recommend tap water that has been left out for 5-7 days, while others recommend bottled water. What is your recommendation?
<Distilled water should certainly not be used. As you probably realise, distilled water contains no minerals at all. That means it experiences rapid pH changes and can cause odd osmotic effects on animals kept in it. A few animals like Triops are adapted to living in rainwater pools which would be broadly similar, but most animals are not. Mineral water is safe but expensive. Tap water is good assuming it is not passed through a domestic water softener. If you have a domestic water softener, your kitchen tap is probably not connected to that softener because domestic water softeners add sodium that is not good for drinking. So use the kitchen tap to draw unsoftened water. Add a good water conditioner -- one that neutralises ammonia, Chloramine and copper as well as chlorine. This should ensure optimal water quality. Obviously you also need to filter the water in the aquarium, for which I'd recommend an air-powered box filter or sponge filter. Tadpoles are messy and 25% water changes per week will be essential. Doing complete water changes isn't necessary, and not a substitute for proper filtration. You will need 8-10 gallons of water for the tadpoles, and adult toads will require a vivarium not less than 20 gallons in size and preferably more. Toads are not aquatic, hence their warty skins, so once they've left the water they need a mostly dry land vivarium with just a small pool of water for bathing and drinking. Cheers, Neale.>

Tadpole with air bubble 7/7/10
We received two leopard frog tadpoles about 30 days ago. They have done very well. Yesterday we noticed one was swimming upside down and appeared to have an air bubble in it's belly. Is this normal? Is it dying? What do we need to do. I have a very emotional 6 year old thinking his tadpole is going to die.
<Greetings. Without any information on the environment I cannot say anything at all useful about what precisely might be the problem. So instead, let's recap what you need to maintain Rana pipiens tadpoles.
Anything on the following list you're not doing is likely the cause of the issue you're seeing here. First you need a reasonably big aquarium, 10 gallons upwards. Anything smaller would be a waste of your money and inhumane in terms of living conditions. Obviously, if you want to keep the frogs as pets, you'll need a tank larger than that, 20 gallons or more.
Rana species are rather nervous in captivity, and in too-small quarters tend to bash their heads on the walls trying to get out. What's the point of keeping a pet that's clearly unhappy? Anyway, your 10 gallon tank needs to be partially filled with *dechlorinated tap water*, not mineral or RO water, to a depth of about 15 cm/6 inches or so. Install an air-powered filter of some sort, a bubble-up box filter filled with ceramic noodles would be ideal. You MUST have a filter. It's not an option. Without a filter ammonia builds up in the water and eventually kills the tadpoles.
This may take some weeks, which is why tadpoles can seem "fine" for a long while in an unfiltered tank, and then suddenly die for no apparent reason.
Every couple of weeks gently rinse the biological media -- e.g., the ceramic noodles -- in a bucket of aquarium water to rinse away any solid waste. Don't clean biological media any more aggressively than that or you'll kill the filter bacteria. You don't need a heater, and in fact the aquarium MUST be somewhere relatively cool and out of direct sunlight. By all means use a fluorescent light to illuminate the tank, but don't use a hot incandescent bulb like an angle-poise lamp. If the water gets too warm, above 18C/64F, the tadpoles will become stressed and eventually sick. Stock the tank with some inexpensive floating plants if you have a light to keep those plants alive. Elodea, also known as Pondweed, is ideal. Once or twice a day feed the tadpoles good quality tropical fish food. Feed sparingly, aiming to keep the tadpoles obviously rounded but not swollen-looking. Rana pipiens tadpoles take about three months to grow into froglets, at which point you will need a bigger tank that provides 15 cm/6 inches of water plus lots and lots of bogwood and rocks above the waterline where the frogs can climb about and feed. The frogs eat only live foods, so at that point you'll be providing a mixture of earthworms, small crickets, fruit-flies,
etc. Frogs are VERY POOR choices of pets for 6 years olds since they're almost entirely nocturnal as adults and cannot be handled; children are far too rough and end up damaging the sensitive skins of frogs. Note also that
amphibian vivaria will culture Salmonella bacteria, not because of the frogs as such, but because of the damp and organic material like uneaten food that accumulates around the enclosure. Healthy adults shouldn't be at any risk at all -- I've swallowed gallons of aquarium water over the years while siphoning out tanks -- but very small children as well as adults with immunity problems are at some risk. Consult your healthcare provider for more information. Cheers, Neale.>

Is it possible for frogs to have hiccups? 3/10/10
<Not as such, no. Frogs don't chew their food, and if they swallow a morsel too large for comfort, they may regurgitate it and try again. But they're unlikely to send food down to their lungs, so hiccups like humans have them
aren't something you're going to see.>
I'm not sure what's wrong with him but he seemed to jerk continuously after he ate some food
<If things settle down eventually, I wouldn't worry too much. But do be sure to offer food in sufficiently small morsels that the frog can swallow them easily.>
<Cheers, Neale.>

Quick question about adding Plantation Soil for Fire Bellied Toads   6/10/09
I just changed over my fire bellied toads 20 gallon with new plantation soil
<Are you referring to the Exo Terra product:
and was curious if I should wait for it to dry before I add it to the aquarium.
<If so, no, not necessary>
I just put it all in and put a layer of fresh moss on the top but was thinking afterwards that it might cause mold if it is still somewhat moist.
<Mmm, no>
I thought that perhaps the light would just dry it out as long as I don't keep misting any water in there.
Any input would be greatly appreciated,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Fire bellied toads questions :D 5/14/09
Hi, I was just curious if I want to watch my fire bellied toads at night is it alright to use a fluorescent black light?
<I don't know for sure. Certainly, I'd only use this UV light for short periods: some animals can detect UV light (we can't) and UV light can, over long periods, cause health problems. To be honest, you might find a row of dim red LEDs rather more effective.>
Also, if my terrarium only has about 600ml of water in it, if the fire bellied toads happen to mate will they be able to lay eggs in the dish?
<For want to anything better they may do, but it certainly isn't enough water for the eggs to stay healthy. Just like the tadpoles, the eggs need clean, filtered water.>
Thank you very much,
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Fire bellied toads questions :D 5/14/09

Thank you very much for your response to my questions, as for the my second question, if they toads were to lay eggs in the small water dish I have put in the terrarium I would definitely transplant them into another terrarium with more suitable living conditions.
Thanks again,
<Happy to help. Cheers, Neale

A couple of questions about fire bellied toads terrarium... 05/09/09
Hi, my name is Don. I just purchased 3 fire bellied toads. I have a 20 gallon terrarium set up with a water dish roughly 7 by 6 inches and about an inch and a half deep. I am going to be using tap water for the water dish so I purchased a bottle of Aqua plus tap water conditioner. On the bottle it directs to use a capful to cleanse 37.8L of water however I am only using it for a rather small amount of water. I was told by the person whom I spoke to before purchasing the toads to put approximately 5 or 10 drops in order to cleanse the water. I just want to make sure that this is a good amount and be certain that it will cleanse the water enough for the fire bellied toads and whether or not I should use more or less.
<Sounds about fine. The dish here is 18 by 15 by 4 cm = 1080 cm3, or slightly over a litre (1000 cm3). So you're going to need about 1/37.8 of each cap, which really isn't very much. You could find out how many drops it takes to fill the cap, and then divide that by 37.8 to get the precise amount required. But much better if that cap actually says how many millilitres it contains, let's say 20 ml for an example. All you'd need to is divide that by 37.8, to get roughly 0.5 ml per litre of tap water. Even if the cap doesn't quote it's capacity, you could work it out easily enough: one level US teaspoon is just under 5 millilitres (4.93, to be precise). So you'd fill the cap with teaspoons of water, and multiple the number of teaspoons needed by 5 to get its capacity in ml.>
Also, when decompressing Exoterra Forest Moss it says on the package to mix with tap water. I was curious if the water should be treated with the Aqua Plus before I mix it with the moss.
<Ideally, yes, but in reality, it won't make much difference.>
I was intending to do so myself however I accidentally added the tap water and put the moss in the terrarium before I realized that I had not conditioned the water first. Basically I want to know if, having this happen the one time, is it likely to cause any damage or sickness to the toads?
<If you under-dose water conditioner, you can set the toads up for problems via skin irritations, so there's an argument for taking the time to get it right, at least first time around. Once you've calculated how much you need, you can write it down, stick that note on the fridge, and just refer to it each time you do water changes.>
Thank you very much for your time,
<Cheers, Neale.>

Frog comp.  04/07/09
Hi! I have a bullfrog tadpole that is just turning into a frog.
It has it's front and back legs and its mouth is starting to widen, so he is not completely a frog yet. I wanted to know if he could live in a big cage with a fire bellied toad? Please answer.
<Unfortunately no... Most frog species are not compatible... better to keep in separate settings. Bob Fenner>

Fire bellied toads, beh., sys., hlth.   12/22/08 Hi, <Hello.> I need a little help with our fire bellied toads. We have 4 of them, and have had them for about 2 years. They are in a 40 gallon breeder half and half tank. The water area is maybe 3-4 inches deep, sloping (gravel bottom) upwards towards a ramp. The ramp connects to the land section, which is suspended above a false bottom. Drainage is very good, there are live plants, and we change the soil maybe 4-5 times a year. There is, in total, about 8 gallons of water. It is filtered by a canister filter which contains mechanical and biological media, as well as carbon. We test the water for ph, nitrates, and ammonia every few days, and though we've never seen anything change or spike, we do a full water change every 2 weeks or so. We use only bottled spring water. The toads are fed a diet of mostly live crickets, which are fed with commercial calcium supplemented feeds and watered with the commercial cricket drinks. The air is generally around 70-75 degrees. Humidity depends on the weather, but in the winter time here, I can't seem to get to hold above 60-70%. <During the winter it likely doesn't matter so much. These toads are somewhat seasonal, and in the wild will become dormant in winter, hiding under logs and in other damp niches. So long as there's some moss and a cork (or similar) cave into which they can crawl, they'll find local pockets of moisture more than adequate to their needs.> Anyway, about a month ago the toads all seemed to become lethargic, and are much less enthusiastic about eating. All of them are plump, and have not begun to lose weight. They also seem to keep their heads to the ground, and keep their eyes closed a lot. I thought maybe it was just because of the winter, then I noticed clouded eyes, and it appears a white substance (fungus I assume) has appeared around the eyes. <Yes, these toads will rest a lot more in winter, though whether they truly hibernate is debatable. So cutting back food as the tank cools down to a minimum of, say, 15 C is just fine. But if your toads show signs of secondary infections, then treatment is important. Use a proprietary anti-fungal treatment of your choice; your local reptile-centric pet store should have a variety. Avoid anything based on either salt or tea-tree oil (e.g., Melafix/Pimafix) as these products tend to very unreliable.> We moved them all to a temporary habitat and did a complete cleaning and reconstruction of the main habitat, and then moved them back and attempt to keep the habitat very clean. Two weeks later, no change in behavior has occurred, and the white eyes persist on 3 of the 4. Tonight I set up an alternative, aquatic habitat treated with Pimafix, and plan on putting the 3 with cloudy eyes in there nightly. <Pimafix has not been medically tested and isn't recommended by vets. We don't recommend it either. It's just too inconsistent as a treatment. If you had a bacterial infection and the doctor offered you an untested tea-tree oil potion or an antibiotic proven to work for decades, which would you go for?> I don't like resorting to meds or chemicals, but I felt like something needed to be tried. Is the Pimafix an appropriate and safe treatment? <Safe, yes, appropriate, no.> Is there another course of action you would recommend? Should all 4 go in? Thanks for any help you can give. Pat <Would treat all 4 at the same time, just to be sure. If anti-fungal medication doesn't work, try something anti-bacterial in case of such an infection. Some medications treat both, and such would be ideal in this instance. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: fire bellied toads_followup 1/14/09
Hi, <Hello!> Just wanted to let you know how things were going with our sick fire bellied toads. After your advice, we actually continued the Pimafix for a few more days while searching for an alternative, frog safe antifungals are difficult to find over the counter, and we figured Pimafix at the very least couldn't hurt. <"Couldn't hurt" is about as far as I'd go! Tea-tree oil is a mild antifungal at best, and in terms of results, very inconsistent. Some folks swear BY it, others swear AT it.> The eyes of 3 of the 4 toads cleared up either due to the Pimafix, or on their own and were moved, as a group, back to their freshly cleaned habitat. <Well done! Probably a mix of both the Pimafix slowing down the problem and the immune system fixing the problem.> Feeding took a few more days, but those three have all since resumed feeding and their eyes have remained clear. The 4th toad got worse, his whole face became engulfed in the white stuff, even becoming bloody, and he became very lethargic and seemed afraid of food and water. He was separated from his tankmates, and we took him to the vet. <Good.> The vet felt the most likely answer was that the sickest toad was injured by a cricket, and it became infected. <Can indeed happen. It is crucially important to select prey of appropriate size for your pet.> I was skeptical as I thought it was a fungus, but we followed her advice. <Generally very wise.> The vet prescribed 0.03 ml of Baytril (diluted I think) orally daily for 10 days, and Neo-Poly-Baci + Hydro to be applied topically to the white area for 7 days. We were unable to get him to take the Baytril orally without hurting him (small toad), so we applied it topically to the infected area, let him sit for 10 minutes, and then applied the Neo-Poly-Baci. For 7 days we saw little improvement, but then the infected area began to shrink. Today was the 11th day, the first day without treatment, and the infected area seems limited to a small area between the eyes, and it isn't white anymore, more of a clear shiny looking surface (scar tissue?). And tonight, I'm happy to report he ate for the first time in a month, and he was quite hungry and hunted energetically, 4 crickets. <Brilliant! Sounds as if this is a success.> They are still separated and will continue to be until the one who saw the vet is completely better. But I sit here tonight with 3 toads who are eating, calling, climbing and jumping like toads should. The sickest has resumed hunting and I hope he's on his way to recovery, but he still has a little ways to go. Thanks for your help. Pat <This is a nice story to hear. Usually we only hear the front end of the tale, when the animal is sick, and don't always hear back after the animal in question has got better. So thanks for sharing. Enjoy you pets, Neale.>

Thank you for your fabulous web site...and... (Bombina orientalis; diet, winter)  10/5/08
Dear Wet Web Media Crew,
While searching for information and advice about our relatively new fire belly toads I stumbled across your web site. It's fabulous; I've only read one page and I already know more than I ever thought it was possible to know about the different sorts of amphibians people keep as pets.
However, I didn't find an answer to the question I had Googled: Do captive Fire Belly toads slow down in the winter months?
<Oriental Fire Belly Toads (Bombina orientalis) are temperate zone animals, and should indeed be kept cold in winter. They need to "slow down" as you put it, otherwise they are less healthy overall, and will certainly live shorter lives. The recommended wintertime temperature is 10-15 degrees C, compared to around 20 degrees C in summer. While they don't actually hibernate, they will need less food (perhaps half as much, and with any uneaten food quickly removed).>
Since July we have had two such toads living in a luxurious 10 gallon aquarium that has a filter, plenty of plants for them to float with, a lovely deep section for them to swim in, a gentle slope for them to hang around on and a pebbly section for them to catch crickets on.
<Do offer a variety of foods: crickets by themselves are not "well balanced", although dusting with vitamins and gut-loading across a few days prior to use helps dramatically. Even so, single food diets are never a good idea, and at best the toad will get bored with them, and at worst you'll have a problem with vitamin and mineral imbalances over time.>
I've noticed that over the past week the darker colored of the two isn't particularly interested in eating. Both of the toads used to swim eagerly to the pebbles whenever they heard me banging the cricket tube onto the side of the aquarium to get their dinner out. Now neither comes over at all at first. If I encourage them to swim to the side the bright green one will eat a couple of crickets, but the darker one won't go after a cricket unless I really encourage him to do so. He even lets the crickets jump on his head and his back and he won't try to eat them. Both of the toads swim and float as much as before, their only change has been their interest in food.
<Do consider boredom and simple slowing down due to dropping temperature.>
If the problem were just the one little guy I would be a little more concerned, but because both of the toads are less interested in the crickets than they had been it seems as if they could just be slowing down for the winter. The temperature in our house and in their aquarium has remained the same so if they're noticing that it's getting closer to winter they must be noticing the change in the amount of sunlight.
<These toads do need strong sunlight or better still a basking light. Unlike most other amphibians, which tend to avoid direct light, these toads actively bask, much like reptiles. Whether they need this for good health (as do reptiles) I cannot say, but it is generally recommended that anyone keeping these toads plan around their needs and supply some sort of light.>
I'd appreciate any information you can give me about how Fire Belly toads spend the winter. Thank you.
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Thank you for your fabulous web site...and... (Bombina orientalis; diet, winter) 10/5/08

Hello again, Wet Web Media Crew,
Thank you so much, Neale, for this prompt and informative response to my fire belly toad questions. I'm so glad to know there are people out in cyberspace, such as yourself, who can help us novice pet owners with our minor issues. Of course, nothing takes the place of quality veterinarian care and we're lucky to have a practice very close to us which is recognized for its competence caring for small and exotic animals.
<Happy to help.>
My comments on your points, and a few additional questions, are as follows:
We try to feed the toads some mealworms when possible but mealworms are practically impossible to fine here in eastern Pennsylvania. Most of the pet stores claim there's a 'nationwide shortage' of mealworms, prompting my boys and me to wonder if we could make a fortune in mealworm farming. Superworms are available but they don't look like anything the toads or the juvenile leopard gecko would eat. (The gecko has her own habitat in her own
20 gallon aquarium; of course she doesn't live with the toads). The Superworms are so large so I think that even if the toads or gecko could bite one in half, once they're bitten and stop moving they'll also stop being food in the minds of the animals. We also tried some sort of red wiggly worms that came in a little container at the pet store. They were probably red wigglers but I don't remember now. The darker toad sometimes took a worm but the bright green one always ignored them.
<Do also try stuff from the garden, such as earthworms, assuming you don't spray the garden.>
I agree with your other posters who mentioned that feeding the toads is very time consuming, having to wait for the toads to eat the food before the crickets jump into the water or the mealworms or red worms burrow into the pebbles. Sometimes particularly determined crickets have leapt out of the aquarium while the lid is off because I'm rescuing a swimmer. Since the mealworms aren't very fast I put them into a little bowl but it took the toads many feedings before they would look into the bowl for food. At first they happily hopped into it and out of it but didn't seem to notice they were sitting on their potential dinner. Any crickets that the toads don't eat within what I consider to be a reasonable amount of time - 5 to 10 minutes - get flushed away. Do you think it's OK to either return these crickets to the cricket keeper or feed them to the gecko?
<Both are fine.>
I never have because I don't want to transfer any bacteria or other contaminants from the toads' most environment to the gecko or to the other crickets who will eventually get their turn to be a meal. If they can't become another food source, can I let them go outside?
<They'll die outdoors; the crickets and mealworms sold are from tropical countries and not likely to survive in the temperate zone.>
To alleviate the toads' boredom we rearrange their habitat every time we clean the aquarium. Of course, in a 10 gallon aquarium we don't have a lot of choices, but we've come up with three arrangements. Sometimes their 'land' area is on the side closest to the window, sometimes on the other, and sometimes on both sides with the swimming area in the middle. Sometimes all the plants are in the deep part making it seem (to us) jungle-like in the water, and sometimes only one or two plants are in the deep part (still giving the toads plenty of surface leaves to hang around on) but making the 'land' area a bit more lush and cricket stalking a little more difficult. To one of your posters you mentioned changing out only a portion of the toads' water when cleaning the tank. Please tell me if we've been a little too fastidious with our tank cleaning and if we could back off on our regime, at least every other time we change the water. We always transfer the toads and a little of their tank water to the container they came home in. Next we vacuum out as much of the water and junk as we can and replace it with regular tap water and water conditioner. Then we vacuum that water out, taking with it more floating junk. Next we replace that water with more tap water and water conditioner and dig deep into the pebbles and stir them all around. This creates eve more floating junk which we try to remove with the vacuum. Finally we arrange the pebbles and plants and filter the way we want them and refill the aquarium with tap water and water conditioner.
<This all sounds good; because amphibians are prone to skin infections when exposed to poor conditions, erring on the side of caution when it comes to cleanliness is no bad thing at all.>
Then the toads are allowed to return. As you can imagine, this is quite the process, especially since the aquarium is in a bedroom and there are a lot of trips to and from the bathroom with a bucket of water. Many of those trips are made by a 10 year old. Is there any way we can cut back on this, maybe doing it every other week, with just a water replacement
on the off week? Do we have to put water conditioner in all the water that goes in and comes right back out or is it only necessary for the water the toads eventually live in?
<Add conditioner on a _pro rata_ basis to any new water added to the aquarium. To be honest, with terrestrial amphibians, replacing 100% of the water is a good idea.>
Thank you all again for this wonderful site full of information about our pets and our ponds.
<No probs.>
Yours sincerely,
<Cheers, Neale.>

Aquatic Frog Excessive Shedding  7/29/08 Dear WWM Crew, <Jean> I have an aquatic frog who is shedding excessively; is this a form of a fungus? <Mmm, no... perhaps an indication of something noxious in the environment... water quality...> If so, can you recommend treatment. <Mmm, really just to look about, see if there is something toxic... metallic, shells...> I do know that aquatic frogs shed and then eat their skin for protein and etc. I also noticed he has not eaten in the pass two days. Please give advice. Thanks again for your help. Jean <Mmm, and to take care in water prep. Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/taptrtmnt.htm and the linked files above, and on WWM re Anuran Husbandry period. Bob Fenner>

damaged frog -05/07/08 Hi, I was out walking and found this frog in the road hit by a car he seems to be ok except for his back legs, the flesh is tore and bleeding slightly. he is not using these legs and I can't take him to a vet I hated to leave him there because I know a car would finish him off. My main questions are what can I put on his wounds? and what over all should I do for him? I have him in a tank with a little water on two paper towels. He can hold his head up but the two inner thighs are split down on the seams exposing his muscles with slight bleeding like I said before. He hasn't moved at all either just now he moved slightly <Hello Candie. There's not much to do with a frog in this condition. In the wild this fish would be quickly eaten by a predator. You could certainly maintain him at home in a cool, damp enclosure with some water to paddle in and see if he improves. He probably won't eat much at first, but you could offer an earthworm or two. If he looks better after a few days, then consider "adopting" him for a while. We can offer some more detailed information on this issue down the road. Otherwise, painlessly destroying the animal is the most human way forward. Cheers, Neale.> Re: damaged frog -05/08/08 Thanks Neal, for emailing me back sadly he died the next day. <Too bad. But thanks for writing back and letting me know what happened. Cheers, Neale.>

Please tell us what's wrong!! Spinning toads... No data  4/12/08 Hello, We are starting to get a little bit worried about one of our twelve fire bellied toads. We call him Spinny because every time he gets in the water he starts to spin uncontrollably. <Mmm, not good> At first we thought he was just one of those "freak" frogs... You know the one, a little bit different from the rest. But as time progressed and the spinning got more and more out of control, we feared something might be seriously wrong. Especially when we noticed that even his land behavior is kind of strange. His head bobs in this strange way... What is going on? <Mmm, likely genetic trouble... perhaps developmental... not likely (as all would be affected), but possibly pathogenic> Is there something wrong with his equilibrium? Is he sick? <Likely just this one> To top it all off, we just recently noticed there is now a Spinny number two. <Oh oh...> Is Spinny number one infecting our entire population of toads?? Love, <3 <3 <3 Cochina <Mmm, perhaps environmental... nutritional... Need to know much more re what it is you're doing to keep these specimens... Their systems, maintenance, foods/feeding... Bob Fenner>

Re: Please tell us what's wrong!! Spinning frogs 4/15/08 > <Mmm, perhaps environmental... nutritional... Need to know much more re what it is you're doing to keep these specimens... Their systems, maintenance, foods/feeding... Bob Fenner> Okay... Here goes... These "specimens" a.k.a. frogs... reside in a 30 gallon tank. <Mmm, may need more room than this... many amphibians are very sensitive to metabolite build-up> It's set up with sand, rocks, trees, water which is continuously filtered and changed weekly... <... how changed? With pre-stored water I hope/trust> Even a floating lily pad. The frogs are fed every six days. They are given crickets for sustenance... Also the crickets are dusted each time they are placed in the tank. The tank is heated and maintained at a constant temperature of 77 degrees... The water is always flowing and moving... There is even a waterfall. There is also something else we forgot to mention earlier. Almost all of the twelve frogs have these white dots around their mouth and head area...Some have them on their legs also. Is this yet something else we should be overly concerned with?? Thank you for your time and any assistance you might provide. We love you. <Do see the Net re the care of this species... and do please include previous correspondence when writing us. I suspect the same general issues as above... the environment and nutrition are lacking. Bob Fenner> Sincerely, Miss Katrina Joyce Newsome and Jimmy James

Help with tadpoles 3/30/08 Dear Crew, I am hoping to find advice! We got our science loving daughter a frog habitat for Christmas from a sciencey type store. <Danger, Will Robinson! Almost everything related to what I know anything about -- astronomy, biology, and fish -- offered for sale in Science stores is overpriced rubbish in my opinion. These stores prey on parents who want to stimulate their children academically. But what they're selling is junk. Others may disagree, but that's my opinion as a PhD and former science teacher.> After spending 7 dollars and waiting 6 weeks, we got a dead tadpole in the mail. I complained, and today we received ANOTHER dead tadpole in the mail. The company- Ribbits Galore - insists that tadpoles are inactive....however, I have seen hundreds of them over the years in my neighbor's pond, and those little suckers are FAST. I had considered one of those tadpoles, but they are gigantic bullfrogs and we just wanted a little frog. What would be the best way to obtain tadpoles to study the life cycle of a frog? What species are best? Should I trash the fifteen dollar habitat in favor of an aquarium? <Ah, have answered this sort of Q a few weeks ago. Go here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/anuranfaqs.htm And read 'Leopard Frog Tadpole 2/29/08'.> We have enjoyed fish and hermit crabs for quite a while, and would really like to add to our family with a nice little frog. <Rana spp. don't really make particularly good pets, and certainly not for children. They are nervous and never really become tame. Much better to go for an aquatic species like Xenopus or Hymenochirus that is basically hardy and much easier to maintain. If you must have a terrestrial frog, then the relatively inactive species like Pac-Man Frogs (Ceratophrys spp.) have much to recommend them.> I am reporting this company to the BBB. They are preying on the emotions of little kids and their well meaning parents who want them to learn something more than video games and Hanna Montana. Thanks, Tonia <Tonia, sadly this sort of thing is very common. These frogs are bred in large numbers for biological supply. Some may be collected from the wild as well. In any case, they aren't "pets" any more than seagulls or red deer. They're basically wild animals that should be enjoyed in the wild. By all means watch them in your pond, or maybe catch a few tadpoles and rear them yourself. But once they metamorphose, let them go. Wild amphibians here in Europe as well as in the US are not having a great time of things, and many species are in severe decline. I'm not a huge fan of buying non-tamable pets for small children. The animals usually get terrified and eventually die. If you want something "instant" to try out at home, then Triops are rather fun; they grow from nothing into armour-plated swimming things an inch or two long in just a few weeks. They die, you dry out the tank, add more water, and with luck get some more. Mine only lasted one generation, but they cost very little and are very funky. But amphibians and reptiles are very dubious pets for small children. They don't do much, they need a lot of care in most cases (including expensive things like UV-B lamps), and if kept properly live for decades, so you're stuck with them even when the novelty wears off. Anyway, I think that's me making my point for the day! Cheers, Neale.>

Arizona pond with frog dying   3/5/08 Hi Crew, I have a 600 gal. in-ground pond. My neighbor's pickerel frogs (I believe) come hang out at my pond. In summer this is fine, even great. In winter, the die off begins and I don't know why. Now, come spring, they are coming out of hibernation and dying off again. I don't like it, but I have been buying crickets to feed them as the insect population has not caught up with the frogs. Is this why they are dying, nothing to eat. Even though I have been putting out crickets, they are still dying. Any feedback appreciated. Marty <Hello Marty. Frog mortality is unfortunately increasing. The causes are multiple, but likely include things like poisoning and air pollution. For example, some people use pesticides in their gardens, and while excellent for killing slugs and insects, these pesticides also kill the things that eat them: frogs! Lack of food may be an issue, but to be honest amphibians are very good at surviving without food for a long period of time, particularly when it is cold. Your first step is probably to visit Frogwatch USA; they have lots of information about frogs in your area and the pressures on them, plus an "ask an expert" area that'll put you in contact with a real amphibian expert. http://www.nwf.org/frogwatchUSA/ Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Arizona pond with frog dying 3/6/08 Thank you. I will check out Frogwatch. I do not use chemicals, but I live in a neighborhood and I know they travel around from water source to water source. Marty <Hello Marty, good luck with your researches and hope you can do something to help all those frogs! Cheers, Neale.>

Leopard Frog Tadpole 2/29/08 Hello, My son waited two months for the tadpole that finally arrived via the mail today. It was shipped in a plastic tube that was inside a 3x5 inch padded envelope. I happened to hear the postal delivery person so I was able to immediately bring it indoors. However, I cannot tell, nor can I find any information online, to help me determine whether it is alive or dead. It is not moving by the Ribbits Galore (vendor) website said the tadpole would be inactive. Do live tadpoles sink to the bottom or float on the top of the water like dead goldfish? "Fire" is sitting on the bottom of the glass jar. Thank you! You have the best Web site of any that I have spent the past three hours reading. <I'm assuming this is Rana pipiens, which is very similar to the Rana temporaria I'm familiar with here in Europe. Generally these tadpoles are easy to rear in clean water, though they are VERY intolerant of dirty water, so make 100% sure you have a filtered aquarium and perform 25-50% water changes (with dechlorinator) weekly. Don't ever use water from a domestic water softener! Tadpoles should be very active, and scooting about looking for food from the moment they hatch. I don't really understand your comment about them arriving inactive, and couldn't find that information on their web site. Actually amazed anyone can sell one tadpole for $10 a pop! That's a nice little earner! You do realise this thing will be a froglet in a couple months? Rana temporaria at least don't adapt terribly well to captive life and never really become tame. Cheers, Neale>

Re: Leopard Frog Tadpole 2/29/08 Hello, Neale, <Kate,> Thank you very much for your very prompt and informative reply. About one week ago, I received a "your tadpole will be shipped this week e-mail," from Ribbits Galore, that read: "Your Ribbits Galore order will ship this week, via first class mail. Please remember that we do guarantee live arrival but after that your tadpole's care is up to you. Allow your tadpole adequate time to warm up to room temperature. Cooler weather can put your tadpole in a sedentary state. Young tadpoles do not move much so do not worry if your tadpole is not very active." <Hmm... certainly tadpoles are "cold blooded" animals and will be less active when body temperature drops. And I'd agree that suddenly taking it from cold water and placing it into warm water would be a bad idea. But once added to a suitable aquarium with water around room temperature, you should see the thing at least wriggling it tail periodically and moving from place to place.> With regard to the price, we had a coupon for a "free" tadpole that came with the Planet Frog Habitat (name of brand) http://www.livesciencestore.com/56796.html but we did have to pay $6 for shipping. <Honestly, GARBAGE! Almost anything sold at 'Science'- or 'Nature'-type stores is utter rubbish. Overpriced plastic gimmickry that parasitically feeds on anxious parents who want to buy educational products for their offspring. Great for the Chinese economy, less great for someone hoping to start a new hobby. I have yet to see a single product sold in these stores that represents even adequate value, let alone a sensible purchase. Pet frogs can be fun, and there are indeed lots of ways to rear tadpoles at home. Far better value would be a basic 10-gallon glass aquarium with a simple air-powered sponge filter and a bit of silver (smooth silica) sand at the bottom. Maybe some plastic plants. Rana pipiens isn't really suitable for captive life as an adult, but if you wanted to do so, a 20-gallon tank divided into a "water" and a "land" area using a pile of granite or some other non-calcareous rocks would be a good start.> I am attaching a picture of the habitat that I copied from the Planet Frog Web site that I referenced above. <Couldn't open artwork; in an AOL-only format.> Based on the information available on your outstanding WWM Website, it seems like we should toss the aquarium and the poor tadpole I unwittingly participated in abusing and start over with a proper aquarium. <If the tadpole is dead (in which case it would have rotted by now) then yes, start over. I'd recommend going with Dwarf African Frogs, Hymenochirus spp.; they're small, permanently aquatic, and relatively easy to keep when fed properly and kept away from fish.> Thank you, again, for your kind assistance. Kate <Happy to help. Cheers, Neale.>

Tank Diversity... I'll say! And a partridge in a pear tree?! 2/18/08 Hello and thanks in advance. <Hail.> I've jumped in feet first here and I feel slightly overwhelmed. I am trying to be as conscientious as possible and want to offer the best environment possible for the animals I've chosen to support. <For the love of God, please tell me this is research *prior* to purchase. Obviously these animals won't get along. One is big and aggressive, one is soft and easily damaged, and the other is a land animal that drowns when it falls into deep water. No chance whatsoever of these animals coexisting in an vivarium.> I have a new 29 gallon tank with a very young Red-Eared slider turtle, a Fire Belly Toad, a Hermit Crab (species unknown to me). <Oh dear.> I have the tank divided into three distinct "zones"; I have a tall pumice stone which offers a place to climb and explore and where I deposit the food for all of the animals. In the middle I have a 2-2 1/2 inch deep area intended for swimming. And finally I have a raised, dry, sandy area for the turtle to bask and for the crab to burrow/bask. I've also planted a few small aquatic plants throughout each "zone". <Water area too shallow for the Terrapin, but fatally deep for the Hermit Crab.> I have a new UVB light and a new infrared light which keeps the humidity and temperature within nominal limits and I regularly test in each of the three respective areas. I have a new 140 gph filter and a heater in the swimming area. I am using decomposed granite and aquarium gravel as substrate in the wet areas and washed play sand in the raised "beach" area. <Hermit Crabs need moss or coir (Coconut fibre) to burrow into when resting. Sand doesn't hold moisture so well. In any case, the crab can't be kept in this enclosure.> I have been reading as much as I can about the animals and believe that I have provided an ample environment for each of them. While I understand that a new environment and new "roommates" can be intimidating, how do I ensure a good quality of life for the inhabitants? <By keeping each in a tailor-made environment specific to their needs. Firebelly Toads for example need relatively cool water less than 24C, but this is too cold for Terrapins. Conversely, while Terrapins appreciate a gravel substrate for resting on while basking, Toads can swallow gravel and die, and should NEVER be kept in enclosures with gravel. They need bare glass or pebbles in the water side of their tank, and damp moss 5 or 6 cm deep over the gravel on the land side of the system. Again, terrapins are hugely polluting animals that dump a lot of ammonia in the water; toads are highly sensitive to ammonia, developing the amphibian equivalent of Finrot, known as "Red Leg".> I've never seen a tank divided like this and believe there is no reason why it can't be successful. <Many, many reasons. Too numerous to list here, but even a quick read of the literature on each species should make these immediately obvious.> Please give as much detailed information as you can afford. ~ Joel <Separate these animals into their own systems, or else return two of them and specialise on just the one. There is no way these animals can be kept together. Cheers, Neale.>

Leopard Frog, hlth.  1/26/08 To whom it may concern, My son has a Leopard frog, which he has had for about a year now. He has had it since it was a tadpole. His first grade class was giving some away. <Progressive. Good for them> Anyway, after about 6 months, he became kind of sluggish, and started to have difficulty catching the live crickets we feed him. I just figured it was due to the winter months and him just feeling like hibernating. <Could well be> Next, as time went on, on occasion, I noticed that when he tried to move, he would start twitching, and could not move, until the twitching stopped. He is still eating, but the condition seems to be getting worse, and he is getting weaker. My son is extremely distressed about his pet. Any ideas? We do turn on a light / heat lamp for him each day, for anywhere from 2-6 hours. Thanks, Brian <Mmm, could be simply "age"... and likely influences of captivity. Exposure to sanitizers in your source water, treatment... How is new water prepared, system water filtered, tested?... Perhaps a deficiency syndrome nutritionally... Do you supplement the food/s at all? Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibdisfaqs.htm and the other Amphibian files linked above... to grant you insight, raise questions here. Bob Fenner>
Re: Leopard Frog  1/26/08
The frog is only about a year old, <Mmm, well, Rana pipiens is relatively long-lived for an amphibian (up to about nine years), but generally only a year or two in captivity... due to vagaries of water quality, nutrition...> and his little water "dish/pool" is filled with bottled water only. <... "Bottled water" may not be a good idea... what are the chemical qualities of this product?> His diet consists of live crickets, nothing else. <Need more...> His tank has the moist coconut medium in the bottom. Brian <Do take the time to read on the Net re this species husbandry... You read as a conscientious keeper, but am sensing the same issues hinted at as in our previous correspondence. BobF>
Re: Leopard Frog 1/31/08
Can you give some examples / manufacturers of calcium supplements and vitamin supplements for frogs? I found "JurassiCal" for a calcium supplement (says ok for amphibians), but I haven't found a vitamin supplement yet. Thanks, Brian <Ah, yes. Baby/children's liquid vitamins are fine here, as are commercial aquarium products like Selcon, MicroVit... BobF>

Mixing Frogs with Turtles   1/9/08 I have a red eared slider turtle and I also have bull frog tadpoles an they are now turning into frogs, can I put the frogs in the same aquarium the turtle is in? Thank You Brenda < Not recommended. Turtles eat frogs as part of there natural diet.-Chuck>

Meds and Frogs 11/20/07 My name is Banjo, I have 2 tanks. 1) 2 gallon with one male Betta (Mitch) and his plant. I have had him for 1.5 years. He is right next door to the larger tank so he gets to see and occasional girlfriend that swims by. 2) 10 gallon with 7 small to med sized plants, 6 fancy guppies (2 males, 4 females), 2 female Bettas (which do great with everyone including each other. I do put them in a floating cup at feeding time so the frogs don't starve. What pigs!) <Heee, good technique> , 1 Albino Pleco, and 3 DAF's (I have now had for just under 2 months (I'm still crossing my fingers, hoping that fungus doesn't show up). So far things have been going great except for one thing (of course!). I noticed on my Betta's, a light outline on the gills, two rows on each side. Everyone likes to rub against the decorations pretty often (not obsessively but often enough to know they have an itch they cant get rid of), and it seems like they are rubbing their gills. On the guppies I cant see any other visible signs of disease besides flashing. When I installed my heater, it was my first time working with a heater, so the temp took a 10 degree jump in one day! Oops! I now have the hang of adjusting the temp by only a few degrees at a time. I lost one guppy a few days later (the one that was most pregnant), she then developed inflamed and red gills and hung around in one spot, and her color was slightly cloudy on the front half of her body. I put her to sleep. I figure I have a parasite, b/c of the itching and the lines on the gills of the Bettas. It seems to only kill a fish if they are stressed (i.e. being ready to give birth and then a 10 degree jump in temp). I'm sure if left unattended it will eventually kill my fish one by one. Water parameters are normal Ammonia and nitrites are 0 and nitrates hover between .05 and .15. I always treat and let tap water sit for at least 3 days before water changes. <Good> My ph hovers between 7.7 and 8.0, is that ok? <Mmm, a bit high... but not likely worth "fooling with"... Mainly an issue here (with high pH) IF you have any ammonia or nitrite present. MUCH more toxic at elevated pH> and my water is about as hard as it gets. So here is my question. I have Jungle parasite clear. Ingredients: Praziquantel, Diflubenzuron, Metronidazole, and Acriflavine. Is that safe for the frogs? Will it stress them? <Is "pretty" safe in terms of the first three, not much stress> Unfortunately I don't have a QT tank at the moment, but I can put them in with my Betta if I have to (It is only a 2gal). <I would do this> Are the parasites something that will bother the frogs? <Am not so sure there are parasites present here... Could be residual stress from the heater incident, or the high pH alone...> I also have a total of 4 teaspoons of aquarium salt in there to help the fish. <Not a good idea to expose the frogs to> Will the frogs be ok with that? <Not likely> I have heard mixed opinions Also how does the stocking sound? Do you think I am over-stocked? <Getting there> I will be getting a 20gal long within the next 5 months for everyone so I can let some guppy fry make it to adult hood by adding more plants with more room. For now all the guppy fry will be live food for everybody. Thank you for your time. I appreciate it. Banjo <I would move the frogs now. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Question About Firebelly Toads... spoogie   11/12/07 Crew, We have 2 Firebelly toads. We do not know the sex of either. Every once in a while we get a clump of clear "jelly-like" substance usually in the water. Obviously this comes from the toads but we don't know if its an egg sack or just some sort of secretion. Looking closely we cannot see any small dots inside the clump. Do you know what these clumps are ? Pierce, Joy and Eden <Greetings. What you're describing does sound a lot like toad-spawn. Each egg is about 1 cm in diameter, but the developing embryos are (at least to start with) very small, maybe one-tenth that. So they're easy to overlook. The eggs are normally deposited on plants close to the surface of the water. If cared for well (i.e., given a coldish sort of winter and then a moderately warm summer) Bombina orientalis breeds quite freely in captivity. The tadpoles will swim out of view for a the first couple of days; just like fish fry, there's a period of time where amphibian tadpoles consumer the remains of their yolk sac before actively foraging for food. Rearing isn't difficult, but it probably goes without saying that the parents will eat the tadpoles given half a chance. If you want to rear them, you'll probably need to move them to another tank (or at the very least a covered breeding trap of some sort). Cheers, Neale.>

Aquatic Frog... Sys.. No salt pls.   11/07/07 Hi WWM Crew, Can you tell me if aquarium salt is good to use for an Aquatic Frog besides Stress Coat conditioner? Thanks ahead of time for your help. Jean <Hello Jean. No, frogs neither need salt nor appreciate it. Aquatic frogs want neutral, moderately hard water. Stress Coat is neither here nor there as far as Aquatic Frogs go, but dechlorinator and good water quality are essential. Cheers, Neale.>

Question... Can two fire belly toads and a red eared slider turtle live together in the same aquarium?  8/10/07 I think the tank is 20gals and is a terrarium. we have a filter, heater and a filter/water circulator. I have had some bad experience with previous turtles and don't want the same to happen. A few years ago two of my turtles that I had for approximately 2 years were eaten by a craw fish that was supposed to be a treat for my painted turtles. the crawfish was living under a rock eating the turtles fish and other food sources for a couple months, ate one turtle then a few days later the other. It was a big surprise when I drained the tank and found a crawfish about three times the size it was when we bought it. Especially since I thought it was already eaten because I didn't see it for two months. Anyway if I put the two toads in the same tank as the turtle which is about 2 and a half inches will they stay away from each other and be able to live healthy? I know the kinds of environments they both need and am just wondering about having a variety of species living together. Is there any species that can coexist with a red eared slider? <Greetings. No, you must not mix frogs/toads with your sliders or for that matter crayfish. Sliders are largely herbivores and 75%+ of their diet should be plant food, particularly when they are adult. But that doesn't mean they aren't opportunists, and in the confines of an aquarium they will catch and eat anything. Even if they don't manage to kill the toads, their nipping are likely to damage them and let fungus or some other infection set in. Furthermore, your terrapins are very messy animals and pollute the water heavily; the toads, by contrast, are largely aquatic and require good, clean water. Bottom line, you can't mix them. Now, you're mentioning feeder fish, and I'm just going to remind you that [a] sliders don't need to eat live fish; [b] live goldfish and minnows especially are a source of thiaminase, a substance known to harm reptiles in the long term; and [c] your terrapins should be mostly eating greens anyway. I mention all of this because of your story with the crayfish; if I'm feeling charitable I'd suggest you hadn't done your homework on how to keep terrapins in captivity. Crayfish don't mix with anything, period. Not even each other. Terrapins and turtles cannot be mixed with anything but other terrapins and turtles of comparable size. Please understand a red-ear slider get to the size of a dinner plate, so before adding "tankmates", consider whether you have space enough already for the ones you have. Realistically, you're after something around 55 gallons for one or two specimens. So, be sure and read the articles here at WWM about keeping red-ear sliders; there are several of them, all good, and brim full of useful information. Cheers, Neale

Fire Belly Toad With Infections I have a fire belly toad with cloudy eyes and a swollen leg and have no idea what is wrong with him. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks. Sarah <Frogs are very susceptible to infections when the water is not kept perfectly clean. Start by doing a large water change, vacuuming the gravel and cleaning the filter. If things don't get better in a couple of days then try treating the tank with Myacin.-Chuck>

Frogs...    5/7/07 I'm sorry but what kind of water do frogs live in? Also what kind of foods do they eat?   Thank You very much -Shane <... What sorts/species? Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwlvstkind2.htm Scroll down to the tray on Amphibians... BobF>

Firebelly Toad Changing Color   3/21/07 Hello! I am writing to you because I have a Firebelly toad in my kindergarten classroom. I have two frogs in the tank, one of which was adopted from our local petstore because he was born with only three legs. Normally his color is green, but today we noticed that his coloring is much darker than usual and the frog is not as active as usual. Could it just be an off day or could something be wrong?? Thanks!! < They do shed their external skin so this just could simply be a case of a toad getting ready to shed. Just in case do a water change and clean the filter to see if he perks up.-Chuck>

Fungusy Firebelly  3/12/07 Hi, <Hi, PufferPunk here< I had wrote to you before regarding my Firebelly toad that has a fungal problem, I think. You had told me to use erythromycin in the water and it has not helped at all. His upper lip is red and he still has the discolored skin near his eye and around his mouth. He is not very active and is always hiding his face or has his head way down to the ground. Any other suggestions?  Thanks <Try adding Melafix & Pimafix, in addition to the antibiotic already recommended, for an added boost.  Be sure to keep it's water clean. ~PP>

Fat Fire Bellied Toads   3/4/07 I have one female who has become large in the stomach region.  Tank has river rock and lots of live plants.  She is active and likes to stay in the shallow end of the water.  Just recently, another female has begun to get large but spends most of her time in the deep end.  Their diet consists of small crickets, mealworms, waxworms, and chopped up earthworms.    Humidity is between 80 - 100 and water temperature ranges between 70 - 75 degrees.  There is a total of 9 fire-bellies in a 56 gallon tank. Can you tell me what is wrong with them?  Some people have said they are with eggs and others say bloat but have no idea how to tell which is which.  Like I said, both are very active and act completely normal.  Any help will be very much appreciated since I have been researching this for quite a while and haven't found any answers.  Thank you! Nicole < Keep track of where the food goes. If these two in particular are actively eating prey then I am going to assume that they are healthy and may indeed be pregnant. If they are not eating at all and still getting fat then it may be an internal infection.-Chuck>

Tadpole... fdg., care  - 02/21/07 Hi: We have recently received a tadpole that was in a shipment of fish from the hardware store in our town.  We don't know what kind of tadpole it is but it is a larger one.  His back legs are there but small.  We were wondering if you could tell us what to feed it. Deb <Please see/read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibians.htm The linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Feeding Firebelly Toads Bugs from The Garden  2/18/07 My name is Daniel and I have a Firebelly toad. I (accidentally, had a lot to do that week) didn't feed him in around 4-5 days. When I realized this at 9:30 p.m., my pet store had already closed. When I went to check on him and he didn't move, so I tried pouring water around him, still nothing. Finally, I slightly moved him, and his eyelids opened, and within the next  couple minutes he started moving. Thinking he was very hungry, I went outside to find bugs. I was able to  find a grub worm, and I gave it to him. I an sure there's nothing wrong with that, but I was just wondering is it bad for Firebelly toads to eat grub worms? Just wondering.  Thanks,- Daniel <Most insects are harmless and are actually very good food for your toad. You only need to worry if you have put out some poison that may have been ingested by the bug and carry the toxin to your toad. I have kept toads alive for years in Sothern Calif . just by catching my own bugs and a few worms now and then.-Chuck>

Feeding Aquatic/Terrestrial Frogs   1/28/07 A work related friend asked me a question concerning two frogs his young daughter bought from Wal-Mart or some place like that.  They will not eat, and of course Wal-Mart has no suggestions.  All she knows is that they are white with black polka dots.  I know little or nothing about frogs, except how to catch tadpoles with a jar:):) Any help would be appreciated. <Most frogs only eat like moving prey. Offer some like black worms and I am sure they will gobble them up. Get some from a fish store and rinse them very well. Get some tweezers or feeding tongs and place a small clump of worms in front of their mouth. If they are terrestrial frogs then they will go after live insects like crickets and mealworms.-Chuck>

Cloudy Eyes on Fire-Belly Toad  1/16/07 Hi! <Hi Sue, Pufferpunk here> I enjoyed reading through other amphibian owners' questions but am still unsure of what to do for my daughter's fire-belly toad. Both eyes are very cloudy and have been for some time. I think I see a little blood around the edges too but that may be irritation. He/she is still feeding normally but seems to be in discomfort and is significantly less active that when his/her eyes were clear. After reading through questions and responses, I'm pretty sure it is a water quality issue. We can take care of the water quality by cleaning the 10-gallon tank and changing the water more frequently but I would like to get advice on treatment, as the irritation or infection looks pretty severe and I would like to keep the poor toad from going blind if possible. <Since these animals eat, sleep & drink in water that they poo in, water quality is definitely important.> I noticed that one Crew member's advice to one owner was to put one drop of MelaFix in each eye daily but that was an Asian bull frog. In answer to another question relating to cloudy eyes, a different adviser suggested sulfa drugs in the water. Could you please help? <Actually I was also thinking of using Melafix for the eyes (I believe that's what you meant?)  Worked for some of my frogs.  Be sure to dechlorinate the fresh water, after cleaning the tank.  ~PP> Thank you so much!! Sue W.

Frog ID And Care   1/3/07 Hi really hope you can help.  I am totally new to keeping a tropical fish tank and I have recently bought, what was labeled up as a Congo frog.  When I do a search on the net it points me to your website and African Dwarf frogs, are these the same with just different names? < Do a Google search on the African Dwarf Frog. If it looks anything close then that is what it is.> The thing is I have had my frog for a couple of weeks and when I first put him in my tank he didn't seem to move to much and just kept laying spread out face down.  I got him out of my tank into one on his own as I was unsure if he was ill and if so did not want to spread it around my tank.  He is still alive but still not very active and his usual position is face down and he doesn't move for ages.  When I go to where I bought him and other places the assistants just don't seem to know anything so you are my only hope, I don't want to be unintentionally killing the frog and also can you tell me what is best to feed him on too.  Thanks for your help, I'm sorry I'm a complete novice. Jo < These frogs, as are most, are ambush predators. They wait for prey to come by and then suck it into their mouths. If they move too much then larger predators may eat them. Make sure some small worms make their way down to him.-Chuck>

Dumpy Tree Frog Peeling   12/21/06 To whom it may concern. I'm beginning to freak out! My 7 month old white dumpy tree frog seems  to be peeling! I took him out of the tank take a closer look and it seems that he is a bit bloated and has a bump (or just a new bump) under his mouth. It also looks like he has "left-overs" around his mouth, as if its peeling there too, but its a much darker color (looks blackish, kind of like if something had been burnt). I don't know what to do, I've searched the web but can't seem to find my specific answer questioned. Please help! I appreciate anything. Sincerely, Nina Morato < Assuming that everything else is normal and as it should be, it sounds like your frog has been poisoned. As you place live insects in your terrarium not all of them get eaten. The ones that live may be eating some of the terrarium plants which may be harmful. When they get eaten by the frog they carry the poisons from the plant. The "leftovers " may be the result of your frog trying to vomit the poisonous item out. Go to Kingsnake.com and look for a reference to a vet in your area. I would say for now get him into a very clean and very damp container so he does not dry out. Used cool distilled water to spray him often so his skin does not dry out and get infected if he survives.-Chuck>

White's tree frogs. Noisy?  - 11/11/06 Do you know how loud they croak, would love to own one but will have to share bedroom with Viv <My friend Steve is visiting and kept Litoria species... says they don't make much in the way of croaking noise... just a bit sometimes at night... They're not real vocal at all> So the fact they croak might be a problem Many thanks Celia <Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Keeping Frogs And Newts Together  10/26/06 Hello, I have two Fire-Bellied toads together in a 10-gallon tank.  I feed them guppies.  I was wondering whether it would be possible to place some Fire Belly Newts in the same tank. < The frogs are way to active for the newts. The frogs would eat all the food and leave none for the newts.> Furthermore, I am curious whether the Newts can live off of the guppies, or whether I should  put some other food source in with them? < The newts require some slow moving invertebrates like worms and insects.> My main concerns are the  poisons in each species' bellies, also whether they will be able to  eat the same food.  Finally, I would also like to know whether the  presence of either newts or more toads will affect the breeding  ability.  Am I best with just two toads (I believe one is female but  can't be sure)?  Thank you so much! Jt < For best long term results I would keep each species separate.-Chuck>

Filtration For Tadpoles  10/06/06 Hi WWM, I am much relieved to have found your website. However I have not found much information relating to the types of filters to be used with frogs and tadpoles. I will be breeding and raising Xenopus as well as breeding wild caught Rana pipens (via in vitro fertilization) and housing these tadpoles. I have done this with well water and no filtration, just regular water changes and aeration, and all tadpoles did very well.  I no longer have access to well water. My understanding is that RO water is not good for them (they need the minerals etc naturally occurring in well water) although that is what is now available. I have consulted with a local lab which houses quite a few more frogs than I will, and they have tap water coming through their US filter carbon tanks (large compressed gas-tank size cylinders), a biological filter and a cation exchanger. I would like to copy this setup in a bench top format. I have been looking at petstore-variety filters such as the EHEIM Prof. II. I would like to use it to prepare the city tap water for the aquarium, then to use that water to put in my tadpoles' tanks. I am not sure yet whether I will invest in a unit to filter each tank continuously, as the tadpoles seem to do fine without that. Is the Professionel II the best model for my needs? < Using this filter to filter city tap water is a waste of money unless it is used solely to remove Chloramine or chlorine. You would be better off with a commercial drinking water system with a carbon cartridge. There are chlorine test kits available to check the system. Once you determine how much water you need then you can add or subtract cartridges based on the water quality required.> Also I have read that carbon block is better than crushed carbon. Do any of these bench top filters use that? <The quality of the carbon is the critical factor here. Not all carbon is alike. Go to Marineland.com and visit Dr. Tim's Library. he has done lots of research on carbon and I think you will find this very helpful.> All I can find reference to is "carbon filter pad". I want to make sure that these filters are ok to use; especially since I do not know the differences between keeping fish and amphibians, and every single filter available is marketed for fish. Also, what does a unit such as the Professional II leave in the water that an RO unit does not? < An R/O unit removes everything and leaves only pure water. The Eheim Pro II just recirculates the water until you place something in there to remove something out of the water. Check your tap water and determine what you want to remove. If you want to remove chlorine/Chloramine then add carbon. It will remove organics and a few other things that are mentioned in Dr. Tim's articles. If you want to remove other ions then add resins to remove what ever you want. Generally fish filtration is usually more critical than for amphibians. It just depends on the species and what they require.-Chuck.> Thank you so much for any help! Deanne

Fire Belly Toad On Fire 10/22/05 Hi. I have 3 Firebelly toads. I've had them for about six years or so. Just today, one of them started acting weird. It is very weak and has constant spasms in its legs and body. Its stomach sometimes pulsates and it can't jump. I have no idea what is going on and I was wondering if you could help me out.  Oh ya, and also its back legs have a lot of mucus on them. I don't know if that's related, but I just want to find out what's wrong with my toad. Thanks < Frogs can succumb to bacterial infections. One in particular is called red legged disease which is a bacterial infection on the legs of the frog. The mucus on the leg may be this disease. It is difficult to see on a frog when a red pattern is on the belly and legs already. Clean the tank and the filter. Heard of some remedies using dyes and antibiotics with mixed results.  Sometimes the frog is too ill to survive the treatment. Frogs in general are very sensitive to chemicals in the water since they seem to absorb everything through their skin. Isolate the toad from the rest so he doesn't contaminate the other two. I would try a product from Jungle called Start Right.  It is a little Methylene blue and salt. This should inhibit the bacteria and give you toad a chance to fight off the disease on its own. It looks like it is getting worse then antibiotics would kill the bacteria but I am not certain how the frog would react to the medication. I would recommend that you look online at some frog site that have had success in treating this disease to be sure.-Chuck> 

Bullfrog with possible fungus?   3/4/06 I have recently taken in a Bullfrog. A Friend of mine found it sitting in a parking lot here in Ohio. It's been snowing here. <Must've been imported...> He is very active and has a good appetite. I noticed over the past week he has developed white spots on his eye lid, hind legs and on his back. Is it a fungus? <Too likely so> If so what is the best way to treat it? <Mmm, this animal needs to be in a "proper environment" first and foremost... heated, filtered, with the water checked for metabolite build-up... Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibsysfaqs.htm> I have read a variety of different things about using fish meds on amphibians and am not sure what to do? Is Malachite Green, Formalin, or Methylene Blue safe? <No> Is Maroxy? I read somewhere that Malachite Green could be deadly to amphibians. <Yes... shades of the Jan. issue of National Geographic... which contained a harrowing piece on the disappearance of frogs... I would try a "sulfa block" devised for aquatic herps here. ZooMed, among others offer these... Along with an adequate environment. Bob Fenner> Erin

Frog with cloudy eyes   2/8/06 HI WWM Crew: I have had my White's tree frog for 8 years (he was full grown when I got him, so he is probably 9 or so years old). <This is a good long time for this species> I have always kept him in a 20 gal. tall tank with sphagnum moss and a water dish and some live plant, and fed him crickets.  Last month I traveled for the month and put him in a smaller container with moss and a plant which died.    I didn't notice at first, but he was sitting in the plant pot and when I picked him up his eyes were clouded over and so he couldn't eat.  I bought some Fluker's Repta-Rinse, but it wasn't working and he wasn't eating (or pooping) for about a month Finally, I took him to the vet and he gave me saline and atropozine (sp?) drops to treat corneal edema.  His eyes were getting better and he finally ate and pooped and I thought we were good...for 1 week, and now the clouds are back and he won't eat cause he is blind...again. Do you guys have any suggestions?  I feel terrible and would really like him to get better. Thanks, BEA <... Not much to do here... "old age"... accumulation of genetic anomalies, lack of ready fit with environment...: http://www.google.com/custom?q=Frog+with+cloudy+eyes&sitesearch=wetwebmedia.com Bob Fenner>

White's tree frog   2/8/06 We recently acquired a whites tree frog, after a couple of days we  noticed one of his toes looks broken or bent backwards. What , if anything can be  done to fix or at least prevent further injury. Its possible we got him that way but we still like him. >> There is not much you can do, and he will likely be ok so long as there is no infection on the toe. Make sure to watch for places where he can break his toes. Screen covers are the worst for these types of frogs if the mesh is too large. Oliver

Sick FW Frog Does Not Like Ich Medication  3/15/06 Hello and thanks for taking the time to answer questions.  I have two small silver dollars, two small pink Gouramis, and one African dwarf frog in a ten gallon tank.  My tank was cycled for about one month before the fish were added.  Recently I decided to change the gravel because I didn't like the color.  I changed half one week and the rest one week later.  Nitrates went up a bit but all seems to be leveling back.  A couple of days ago I noticed that one of my silver dollars had a small tear on a fin and small white spots.  I treated the tank for Ich and now he seems to be fine.  Now the problem is my frog.  Today I noticed that he has an off white film developing on his body.  Is it the medication or has the gravel change ruined the biological balance of the system?  Can my frog be saved?  I am only a beginner but I sure do enjoy my fish, especially the frog.  Thanks, Amanda < Frogs and denitrifying bacteria do not like Ich medications. Add a good quality carbon to remove any remaining medication in the system. Check the water quality for ammonia or nitrite spikes. Add Bio-Spira if needed to get the biological filtration going again.-Chuck>

Frog Damaged   7/7/06 Please help any one out there. It is 2:00am Chicago time and I don't know what to do. I was just awaked to a large rumble, so I start to investigate when I find my 3 year old frogs body hanging limp from the back of a box fan on the floor. I pulled him out and thought he was dead but decided to give him a chance and put him in a quarantine tank (about 2 to 3 gallons) put water in it. Still no movement. By the way he is severely hurt a part of his lip or mouth has been cut off, and still attached and hanging from the rest he is bleeding and I really can't tell if his eye is hurt or not its covered in blood. Well so I decided to put some MelaFix, PimaFix, and Ick away in the water and he started to move and hope around again. I don't know what else to do please help me. I want him to suffer to much any info you may need just ask. Thank you in advance. < The MelaFix and PimaFix were good ideas. Frogs don't like the dyes like the malachite green in the Ick medication. Keep the water clean and watch for infection. If any cloudy areas appear on the frog then that is a fungus and needs to be treated with Nitrofuranace. Lots of water changes will help. That is just about all you can do except take him to a vet for a more precise diagnoses and treatment.-Chuck>

Fire Pebbled Bellied Toad   6/16/06 Dear Crew, I know for a fact that my small fire bellied toad just swallowed a large pebble.  She was going for her second cricket and missed.  I was trying to catch her to pull it out of her mouth, but she choked it down.  I don't think that there is any way that she can pass that, unless these critters are extremely stretchy.  Is there anything that I can do?  I don't want her to suffer. Thank you, Linda < If the stone went down then it can go back up. When the toad is ready I'm sure he will cough it up.-Chuck.>

Cuban Frog - Damaged Leg - 07/18/2006 Hi Bob, <Actually, Sabrina with you, tonight.> Here at work we have a Cuban frog that has taken up residence outside. He seems like a friendly fellow, however, this morning when I saw him, apparently the lawn person had cut off the frogs rear foot with the weed eater. <Ouch!> It looks like a clean cut, but can you tell me if the foot will grow back or have problems healing? <It will probably grow back.  Frogs are pretty resilient animals.> Is there anything I can do to help? I would be open minded to setting up a terrarium for him if you think the frog would do well in captivity or make a good "pet". If you think so, then could you recommend set up and food options? <Mm, sadly, I don't know a huge amount about frogs and amphibians....  but do please take a look here:   http://talkto.thefrog.org/ and here:   http://www.amphibiancare.com/frogs/caresheets/cubantreefrog.html .> Thanks so much for your help! Love the website! <Thanks for these kind words!> Kimberly Searles <Wishing you and your amphibious pal well,  -Sabrina>

Frog With Respiratory Infection  7/15/06 Hi, my frog has gotten sick about 3 days ago and I was wondering if you all could help me. My frog is doing some thing really strange, he is not really swimming he is just floating above the tank and doesn't move when I come to him. He just stays there. He also shrivels up at times and opens his mouth  up really wide. He won't eat much either but he does eat a little when I am  not looking. I feed him gold fish flakes and he had no problem eating them  before. Also, he sometimes turns with his belly up when he is trying  to swim, when I think he's dead I flip him over and he moves. I have been  keeping him in a small tank with about 5 inches of water in it because he  cant swim back up to the surface when he is not floating, and I have been  boiling and cooling our city water to get all of the chlorine out. What else  should I do. From, Tina, 14 yrs old < Your frog sounds like it has a lung infection. The lungs fill up with fluid and your frog floats all the time. He stays at the surface and tries to breath through his skin. If this was a turtle I would say to heat him up. A turtle would go up to a basking site and the heat would inhibit the bacteria. At this point I would try to elevate the temperatures slowly to 82 F. Keep the tank clean and the water well aerated. At this point I think you need to take your frog to a vet for antibiotics.-Chuck>

Firebellied toad hlth.  - 09/01/06 Hi. < Howdy! >   I recently bought two young fire-bellied toads.  I have had  them for about one week, and they seem to be doing fine.  But today one of  them has started making weird faces and rubbing his front feet over his head and  kicking his back feet around as if he were in pain or something.  I can see  what looks like loose skin clinging to his sides and am wondering if he is just shedding? < Sometimes these guys are affected by excess metals and minerals in the water. Have you tested the hardness of the water? They are also affected by improper water quality: excessive ammonia and nitrites. Last, but not least, air-borne pollutants and contaminants can have this reaction as well. Aerosols, room fresheners, carpet fresh, etc. will cause chemical burn. >   He is even opening his mouth and making faces, and I wonder is  all this normal behavior just to shed his skin, or might there be something else  going on? < Possibly shedding, but more likely a chemical reaction. > Could he have swallowed a pebble or something and maybe it has  nothing to do with the shedding skin? < I hope not, pebbles can be hard to pass! >   Any advice you could give would be  greatly appreciated.  I've never had any type of frogs before, only fish  and turtles.   Thanks. < I hope I helped some. RichardB >   Paula
Re: Firebellied toad
  9/11/06 Richard, thanks so much for responding.  Believe it or not, I think he  was just shedding after all.  After he got the loose skin off, he resumed  acting normally.  A little later, I was looking through a book from the  library on frogs and toads, and there was a picture of a toad doing exactly what  mine was doing, and it said that he was shedding his skin and eating it and that  this was normal frog behavior.  So I think he's OK!  He's eating and  acting completely normal now.  Thanks so much for your response! < You are very welcome! RichardB >

Help!  My Lunch Is Stupid! - 04/04/2006 My fire belly frog is eating. <Uh, good!> i <Oh my.  PLEASE capitalize your "I"s.  For one, it shows some healthy self-respect in your writing, and for two, we really haven't the time to correct these....> bet your wondering why I'm writing. <Indeed I am.> the <Ack!  The beginnings of sentences too, please?> problem is his silly food! I get him crickets and they just dive right in the water and decide to go swimming! <Hey, I would too!  I love to be in the water.> And then I end up spending 20 minutes trying to save the dumb crickets but they just keep jumping to their death. <They really are NOT the brightest, are they? By the time its all said and done my poor frog eats 1 and the rest are dead! <A sad waste.  I can't tell you how many stupid gray/feeder crickets I've met.  I don't know how the species continues to live....> I recently bought him ghost shrimp but he my frog didn't even know they were there. They ended up living together and he wont eat them. <Neat!> I don't know what to do because at this rate I'm going to the pet store everyday! My poor frog eats the crickets that don't end up jumping to their death. I'm at my wits end and don't know what to do. I need an easier option on what to feed him. <A couple of options.  The best, and healthiest, is to keep the crickets in a separate container and only feed him a couple at a time.  In the separate container, you can feed them ("gut load" is one term for this) a high-quality fish food and give them a piece of fruit for water.  This will make them better for your frog to eat and keep them alive until feeding.  Optionally, you can give them something in the water at the surface that they can climb out on and not drown; a floating plant (real or fake) may do the trick.> PLEASE get to me quickly...... <As quickly as we could.> Thank you so much, - Needing a Resolution <All the best to you,  -Needing a Nap (Sabrina)>

Food For Tadpoles  5/31/06 Can you tell me how long it takes for a tadpole to become a frog and what I would feed the little fellows?  I tried fish food...they all died but one.  How about Hermit Crab food?  Any other tips?  I think this would be a great learning experience for my little girl. PS...thanks for your advice on the Hermits and Turtles....all are alive and well! God Bless You! <Tadpoles eat algae. The higher the water temp. the quicker they transform. Feed them Spirulina flakes and keep them at room temperature and they should transform into little frogs/toads in 4 to 6 weeks. Frog tadpoles are green, toad tadpoles are black, at least around here in CA.-Chuck>

Tree Frog Care   1/26/06 Hi  I have a tree frog, my children found him outside and I was told after some pet store calls he is either a NYS tree frog or a frog that escaped.  Anyway we kept him and he has been doing well.  Tonight I was watering and feeding him and he has a popped blister, saggy skin thing hanging from his neck, he also hasn't eaten and keeps opening his mouth.  I don't know what to do.  I have an over head lamp so I know he didn't burn himself, anything other than that and I'm clueless... Thanks so much for any help you can offer! < Your frog is being kept too warm. His mouth is open trying to let the evaporation cool him down. Sounds like a native frog. They will only eat moving objects. Try small crickets , mealworms and earthworms.-Chuck>

Frog May Not Be A Prince  - 03/09/2006 Hey, First off I would like to thank you for your time and website.  I learned how to take care of my problem with Planaria/copepod/white worm or whatever with ease. I have a 55 gallon tank filled about 1 inch from the black top on the outside.  It contains a gar, 2 cichlids (yellow with black lines on top), 2 cichlids (grey with neon blue stripes/spots), 1 fiddler crab, 1 other crab, 3 algae eaters, and a paco. However, I had one question regarding a tadpole we purchased from PetCo.  It is now in it's final stage of becoming a frog or toad (it was about 2-3 inches long as a tadpole).  It's tail is almost gone and has grown all it's legs.  As a tadpole I watched it feed on algae wafers and such.  But now I see it just floating at the top ready to transform fully. I have 2 questions...how do I feed it now and what? And do I have to get a new tank for the frog?? < Tadpoles are algae eaters. Adult frogs eat insects and whatever else will fit in their mouth. More than likely you now have a young bullfrog that is waiting for some insects to fall in the water to eat. They get big and you probably need to get another tank if intend on keeping him. Read up on bullfrogs and see if you really want to spend the time and effort to keep one. They can be very expensive to feed.-Chuck>

Undesired FW snails with amphibians    4/10/06 I have some Firebelly frogs and have noticed that's some really small snails just appeared. this is the second time this has happened to me with different aquariums. I find this extremely odd any info you can give me about these snails and how they manage to appear from thin air would be greatly appreciated <Likely "came in" with some live plant, food material... Can be removed... killed in a few ways, but I want to emphasize the need to remove the frogs if using toxins. Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwsnails.htm and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Frog and cichlid compatibility - 11/28/2005 Can Frogs, and cichlids live together, and also a 6" Pleco. If a frog can live in a 55 gallon aquarium, what kind. <It honestly depends on what kind of frog and what kind of cichlids you have, as well as your stocking levels. Two fully aquatic frogs are commonly available in the trade: African Clawed Frogs and African Dwarf Frogs. ACFs get quite large and have the reputation of harming or eating fish. I have two of these in a small, dedicated tank. ADFs remain very small and as such are unlikely to harm your fish, but may be picked on by your cichlids. Both can be quite messy and will place additional strain on your filtration. Despite not appearing to be the brightest of creatures, I think they make great pets, but I would prefer to keep them separately from my fish. Best regards, John>  

Toads and a Dead Turtle 07/04/06 I caught a bunch of nickel sized toads. at least I think they're toads, they don't have webbed feet. They're brownish with orangey red bumps on its back and a white underbelly. I found them in my lawn while I mowed it. What kind of toads are they and what should I feed them? <Sorry, I need to know where you are from to help you  ID a toad. generally that are terrestrial and eat all kinds of insects. They are great for the garden and eat lots of destructive pests.> While I'm at it I also have a red eared slider turtle that died, it was just so weak and it opened its mouth and sometimes made a kind of croaking noises, it was all limp and just laid around in his tank before he died. What was wrong with him and what should I do to prevent it from happening to my other turtles? William < Your turtle had a respiratory infection from being too cold. The basking spot should be at least 85 F. Turtles need to heat up to fight infections.-Chuck>

Frogs with Crabs? 8/6/05 I have hermit crabs.  I'm wondering if I can put frogs in the same terrarium? Sharon < The first chance they get, the crabs will attack and probably kill the frogs.-Chuck>

Amphibian and Chelonian mix 8.27.05 I keep my red ear slider in an aquarium with 3 Firebelly toads, a tree frog, and a chubby frog. I have the aquarium so one side is water and the other side is land. I have been wondering, however, if the mix of reptile and amphibian is safe.  I do have a filter and light source and the animals usually keep away from each other. Also, I used to have a soft-shell turtle; I had kept him with the frogs (but at that time I had one Firebelly). Sadly, he died in a weird way. A large, black, tube like thing with feathery ends came out of his anus, and hung out about an inch. We suspected that it had to do with the turtles eating habits, for it ate up to six fish a day. Recently, I have been wondering if it had to do with the frogs. I really don't want my red ear slider to die, so please help. Also, we have been feeding the slider a more reasonable amount of food. PLEASE HELP!! <I am not sure what the large black feathery thing might have been, but it might be worth contacting a reptile Veterinarian to find out.  I would not recommend keeping frogs with turtles.  Turtles foul the water very quickly, frogs and toads are very sensitive to the quality of their environment and will not tolerate less than optimal conditions for very long.  I am not sure if the frogs and toads you are keeping are toxic to animals that ingest them but it is definitely something you will want to look into, I am sure a turtle would sample a frog if given the opportunity.  I would definitely keep the turtle in a separate tank. I would also get some care sheets on the different types of frogs you are keeping to ensure that your setup is meeting their needs as well, heating, lighting, feeding, etc. -Gage>

Chubby Frog 8.27.05 My chubby frog has been acting strange. He doesn't seem to be eating and he doesn't move. I picked him up and he barely moved his leg. I have noticed him breathing so he is still alive, but I am concerned. I have also noticed that he is shedding skin. Could this have to do with it? I keep this frog with three firebellies, a red ear slider, and a tree frog. Is this bad? Please HELP! <In this situation I would seek the advice of a reptile/amphibian/exotic animal veterinarian, or local reptile shop. Your local reptile shop might be the best place to start; all of the reptile stores I used to frequent were pretty good at diagnosing problems and always knew a good Vet to refer me to. The links below are to care sheets for the animals that you are keeping.  Best of luck, Gage http://www.anapsid.org/bombina.html http://www.anapsid.org/greentreefrog.html http://www.anapsid.org/reslider.html http://thelilypad.org/?q=node/view/125  >

Melafix on Frogs  9/8/05 I actually want to compliment you guys on http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibfaqs.htm that article. I'm glad to see that SOMEWHERE on the net someone is able to use Melafix on frogs with success. I currently have a Whites Tree Frog that has some open sores ( they're healing with rinsing, but I want to keep them clean) and I was wondering , Melafix being a Natural substance , would it help me out with the problem. I see that people have used it with success from this link, and I really want to thank you! - Alicia < If you use this product as a bacterial inhibiter then I think it will work OK. If you try to use it as an antibiotic alone then I think you will be disappointed. Good housekeeping and sanitation goes along way in curing diseases. I think a combination of all of these is the key to a full recovery. If the frog shows signs of distress then I would discontinue to use it.-Chuck>

Frog With Bacterial Infection  8/31/05 My Aquababy frog just this morning developed some red, pussy globular thing over his right eye, and it suddenly burst, leaking blood and some other fluids into his tank, his eye looks like it is still there, but it looks like it might also just be an open socket in his head.  What may cause this and what can be done to help him.  He has been eating everyday, and I just cleaned his tank yesterday (which I'm worried may have been the impetus behind this injury). Thank you < You frog probably got a cut or scratch that got infected. As the infection got worse it grew until it ruptured through the skin around the eye. With it now opened up you need to treat the infection with Nitrofuranace. He may lose the eye but at least you can save the frog.-Chuck>

Tadpoles, Anchor Worms? - 09/16/2005 Hello. I recently acquired two new albino bullfrog tadpoles from a local PetSmart. Having worked in a reptile store a couple years ago, I know that PetSmart isn't exactly the place to get healthy animals, but because I had successfully raised another bullfrog tadpole that I got there, I thought it would be fine. Not only are these new tadpoles sickly, lethargic, and tiny (about an inch long still, as compared to my frog who was 3 inches or so) but they each have 3 copepods. <Hmm....> I am fairly sure that these are what they are, having skipped my first class of the day (ironically, biology) to do some research. They are about half a centimeter in length, thin, white / clearish yellow in color. They branch at the end. <Could be parasitic copepods called "anchor worms", Lernaea sp.  Definitely fits your description.> At first I thought they were small limbs, but unless the tadpoles are infected with Trematodes, this wouldn't make sense. If I look really closely, I can see that there is some sort of "pulse" inside of these things...a very tiny one but I don't know how to describe it other than that. In any case, my question is this: could the copepods, if that's what they are, be parasitically harming my tadpoles? <Yes.  And once reproductive, can be of more concern from greater numbers of them attaching....> They have both been sluggish and very very weak-looking lately. In fact, if I didn't think that removing the copepods would somehow harm my tadpoles, I would perform a small operation right now. How do I get rid of them? <Look up some images of Lernaea/anchor worms (many available on the 'net) to verify that's what they are, first.  Then, if so, you can remove these with forceps.> Thank you so much for your help. Sincerely,  Marisa <Wishing you and your frogs-to-be well,  -Sabrina>

FB Toads Won't Eat  9/12/05 We have 2 fire belly toads in a aquarium with a screen top they are on a bed of Jungle Earth with a water bowl the room is usually 78-80 with a lamp above them .The problem is that they won't eat anything we have offered crickets mealworms brine shrimp  canned crickets They also seem to have a blackish film growing over their face and eyes I think they can see but not positive What can I do? Paula Holcomb < The dust from the Jungle Earth has covered their most skin and eyes and they probably can't see. They won't eat what they can't see. I would actually set them up more for frogs than for toads. Use fine sand instead of the jungle earth.-Chuck>

What the heck are "they?"  They can live inside and out of the water! Day of the FW Triffids!   2/14/06 Hello, I have a 25 gallon freshwater aquarium that has been set up for about 5 months now.  For 3 and a half months the tank has had only two frogs living in it.  Then just 2 days ago I was feeding them and noticed that the water seemed pretty "cruddy" and was inspecting the tank and the frogs as they ate, when I noticed hundreds (probably thousands) of tiny tiny tiny round "bugs", maybe parasites floating around in the tank!  They seemed like they could not swim on their own, but moved around the tank with the filters current.  When they would touch the glass, an object or the bottom gravel- they would continue to crawl. (though they are too small to see legs etc.)  These things are smaller than the head of a pin!  The frogs had about 3 each on there backs, but seemed fine.  Panicked anyway I ran to the i-net to get some answers.  To no avail- I am still puzzled what this might be.  I have had other freshwater aquariums in the past and had some parasite clear left over and dropped 2 into the tank and let sit over night. <Toxic to your frogs...> It seemed to me there was no change this morning <The crud thankfully absorbed much...> in the amount of these things. So I decided do a complete tear down of the tank and bleach it. I removed all but 3 inches if water and poured straight bleach into the tank to sanitize. I let sit for 2 hours and then took everything into the bathroom to further bleach and clean. After the clean up- to my complete amazement quite a few of these things were actually crawling on the outside of the glass!  After using Bleach and scalding hot water!  I am in complete hysterics when it comes to anything that is or looks like it is a foreign bug or especially a parasite. I need to know what this is...HELP!  Also, can they affect humans?  Any answers would be helpful. Thank You. <... very likely not harmful... either to your frogs (or they'd be gone) or you. Some sort of crustacean... would go with good maintenance (regular water changes, gravel vacuuming) and addition of other livestock. No worries. Bob Fenner>

A Toad by any other name Hi my name is Mitchell and I have a question have you ever herd of a sernan toad <Surinam Toad my friend, Pipa pipa. My fave site: http://www.scz.org/animals/t/surtoad2.html> it's a toad that live completely under water like the clawed frog and it gives birth to its young out of its back and I was wandering if you know where I can find info in this kind of toad thanks Mitchell <Please try inserting the common or scientific name above in your computer's search engine/s... You will find a wealth of information and images of this amphibian on the Internet. Bob Fenner>

Snails, hermit crabs, and frogs, Oh my. Can you recommend a type of frog, something easy to maintain and care for? <In my personal experience, whether it is fish, reptiles, or amphibians, the key is to research the animal before the purchase, set up an environment to suit its needs and do not cut corners, because it will always come back and bite you in the you know what.  The only frog that I have kept is a "Whites" tree frog, also known as the "Dumpy" tree frog.  Adorable creatures and not terribly hard to care for (heat, light, humidity, clean water, and food).  However, I am not sure what type of frog would mix well with snails, I have never researched the captive requirements of snails.  I would start with a search on google.com for frogs, and a trip to the local pet store to see what they have to offer.  Find one that you like, if its needs and the snails needs are similar (and the frog cannot fit the snail in its mouth) then you may have a match.  Best of luck in your search my friend, let us know how it turns out, we are happy to offer help where we can.  -Gage>

Raising Tadpoles Kind Sirs, <Hi! Ananda here tonight...Bob must've guessed I tried raising tadpoles when I was a kid in northern Minnesota!> Over the Easter break, the children and myself came across some frog eggs in the mountain run-off in the in-laws back yard. We decided to bring some eggs home to hatch them. I did this as a child and had much success with it, but I had the availability to change the water daily from the creek by the house.   <I never had luck with tadpoles when I was a kid...then again, we didn't have a creek by the house, either.> I set up a 10 gal tank, bare bottom, (for easy maintenance), some rocks and fired up an old whisper filter and added charcoal. The eggs have been developing into small tadpoles and they have begun twitching inside the egg occasionally. We've read that the next stage the tadpoles will emerge from the egg and stick to the jelly enclosing the egg sack. <So far so good...maybe....> Then comes feeding time. First question, some recommend gold fish flakes, can marine flakes be substituted? Would vita-chem, Selcon and or DT's be worth adding? <Maybe some vita-chem, but I'd skip the expensive Selcon and DT's phytoplankton.> I've read that you can boil lettuce and then freeze, better way to go? Romaine? The article did mention something about tadpole food, I was going to check the LFS. Or if you know of anything better? <I did a Google search on "tadpole food" and found all sorts of stuff.> The article also recommended feeding only twice a week and performing water changes about 2 hours after feeding to reduce waste. <Sounds like a good idea.> Any other recommendations? <In all honesty, I would not recommend this project unless you plan to keep the frogs long-term, in a pond at your house. You have not indicated that you know what species of frog your tadpoles will develop into. Some species take two years to go from egg to frog. Without the benefits of growing up in their native habitat, with all the assorted bugs and critters in the water there, the frogs will likely not have the same immunities that their wild cousins will, and are more likely to succumb to disease once they are released. You will also have taught the frogs that they will be fed; in the wild, they will not know how to hunt...or, for that matter, how to escape from the creatures that hunt them. There is also the fact that they may introduce some disease that is accidentally transferred from one of your other tanks. We keep telling people that they should never release a fish that has been in an aquarium into the wild. I believe the same holds true of frogs.> and/or articles to research? As the tadpoles progress into froglets the plan is to reduce the water, remove the whisper, only use a air filter (?) And provide rocks so they can get out of the water. The long term goal is to release the frogs back at the mountain where they came from when ready and do it again next year. Thanks for your help...looking forward to Reef Inverts at the end of the month. <As are we all... heads up, though -- the book has acquired even more pages than planned, so the schedule is not carved in stone.  --Ananda> As you can tell, I found something to busy myself with. DaveK
Raising Tadpoles Revisited
Thanks Ananda, <Hi again, and you're welcome...> Happy to say I've found a pond interested in the tadpoles once they are further along. <Yay!! Local species may well do better in ponds than some of the commercially-available ones.> They hatched over the weekend (around 15 tadpoles) and seem to be doing well. There's a local creek nearby and I decided to go with changing 1 gallon of water every two days with creek water, and a 1 gallon RO water change (aerated) the alternating days. <Sounds good. Do check the pH of the creek and adjust the RO water to the same pH!> From what I can find the young tadpoles need to filter the water and since the 10 gal wasn't a established tank figured I'd better go to a source. <Plus it should have stuff in the water that should be beneficial for the tadpoles...> Can understand not releasing tank animals into the wild just wasn't thinking ahead at the time. <That's always a danger in this hobby...glad it worked out this time.> Thanks for your help, DaveK <You're welcome. --Ananda>

Mixing Amphibians Can fire belly toads live with baby whites tree frogs if they are about the same size? What about adding green tree frogs to the mixture? <I would not mix any of these, they all have different environmental requirements.  If you want entertainment go with the fire bellies, if you want an adorable frog that is not as active, go with the Whites Tree frog.  I like tree frogs as well, but they are really jumpy, open the lid to clean them an BOING! all over the room.  Ok, it is not that bad, but they are really fast.  Do some research on all 3 and go with the one you like best.  -Gage>

Fire Belly Toads I've had my 2 fire belly toads for 3 years in a filtered 10g 1/2 full tank with 1/3 land today while feeding one frog has lost more then 1/2 body weight and seems to have an equilibrium problem only seeming to move one direction (very little movement ) basking on land , with other frog standing guard in some type of protective mode the sick frog was not strong enough to eat. I feed once a week and dust crickets with Reptocal is there any thing I can do I don't think it will make it very long and is there any thing I'm doing wrong. <Well... you've got me stumped here, I do not have much experience with fire belly toads.  If I had to guess I would say the problem may have started with the diet and developed into something else.  Most problems that I have encountered with amphibians were related to problems with their environment.  The link below has some good information on captive care of the Fire Belly Toad. http://www.livingunderworld.org/anura/database/bombinatoridae/bombina/orientalis/ I would make sure I am meeting all of their requirements.  You could also try using google.com to search for common ailments or diseases.  A local reptile shop may have some good information as well.  Best of Luck, Gage>

Frogs and Fungus 10/8/03 I hope you can give me some advice on what may be wrong with my Congo frogs.  I have had them about a month. They are only young.  They were in with an African clawed frog but I put her in another tank as she will soon outgrow them and eat them.  Since she has been out of the tank, the water became very murky. I feed frozen Blood worms which seemed to go moldy an hour or so after they go in. I know the Congo frogs can't see as well and so maybe not all the worms are getting eaten now the African Clawed frog is out but the mould that started to grow on the worms has now begun to grow on the frogs. One of them is particularly bad.  I use spring water and keep the frogs at a temperature of 70 F.  and try to remove the uneaten food.  Is there anything you can suggest might be causing this fungus to grow on my frogs and if there is a treatment I can use to clear it? Thank you in advance for your help.  I look forward to hearing from you. Miss Vaughan. <Miss Vaughan... my apologies for the delay in reply. But we have been swamped with mail lately. It is also not clear what species your frog is. Do you have a scientific name to clarify... or more information to share? As to the fungus on the frogs, improved water quality alone (smaller but more frequent feedings... and bigger/more frequent water changes) alone can reduce the growth. Adding a small amount of salt to the water (1TBN per 10 gallons) is also quite safe and therapeutic. Best regards, Anthony

Feeding Frogs Hi! I have brought inside a tame 3-inch (northern leopard?) frog who has been living in our outdoor  prefab pond this summer, because the pond is only 15 inches deep and could freeze to the bottom.  (Our attached garage is too warm for hibernation.)  He and his "little brother," about the size of my thumb, are probably from the pet store tadpoles I added in the spring but I'm not sure. I got 500 earthworms through the mail to tide us through the winter (but that's another story...). <That's a lot of worms, my fish are envious.> Although the frogs  readily take worms from my fingers, I'd like to devise a self-feeding system.  Can you advise me of a good way of dispensing earthworms? <Boy, I wish I knew, I know with feeding blood worms to aquarium fish they make a small mesh cone that the worms will wriggle out of for the fish to munch, but I am not sure about earth worms, I guess I have not spent enough time with them.  Something similar would be sure to drop a bunch of dirt into your tank, and whose to say that they will even wriggle out?> Presently the frogs are in an aquarium with water 6.5 inches deep above 1.5 inches of pebbles, with 3 large rocks protruding above the water.   When I place a worm in a dish on the rocks, it usually slithers out of the dish, across the rock and into the water and pebbles before either frog makes a move! <I have the same problem with my sand fish skinks and wax worms.> I'm considering converting one end of the tank to "land" but am uncertain what substrate to use in it-- gravel would be the tidiest, but damp sphagnum moss more apt to keep the worm escapees out of the water.  But the most important question is, won't the worms simply continue to elude the frogs as they leave the dish and bury themselves in the substrate? <I'd go with gravel with moss on top.  The frogs will probably get the worms, but it would not surprise me in the slightest if some escape, dig, die, and foul your water.> I know frogs are commonly raised in captivity as lab animals and am sure someone has come up with a better idea than hand-feeding.  How do they do it??  Thanks for your suggestions! <I am afraid I do not know of any automated ways to feed them.  I am sure if any of our daily readers have a plan they will let us know and we will post on the daily FAQS (Anybody?).  You can also mix some crickets into their diet if you have a local supply, they do not dig, and it is easy to remove the un eaten ones.  Best of Luck, Gage> Peg

Mixing Frogs  5/2/04 Hello there!   <Hi, Pufferpunk here> I have a northern tree frog. I'm not quite sure how old he is, I found him in a parking lot and brought him home. I have had him for 3 1/2 years in a 20 gallon tank.  Now I have some bullfrog tadpoles, that I am raising, and I was just wondering if when the bull frogs get to be not tadpoles any more if I could keep one or two in the same tank as the tree frog? Or would you recommend getting a separate tank for each? <Bad idea to mix bullfrogs with any other frogs, sometimes even smaller bullfrogs.  They will eat anything they can fit into their very large mouths, even cannibalizing each other.  They also need a very large tank, as they have huge strong legs & can jump very far.  They can damage themselves jumping against the glass of a tank that is too small.>   Thank you for your help.  Allison <Good luck with your froggy friends!  ~PP>

Frog Query Hope you can help.  My son has two green tree frogs.  The smaller of the two has started to lose weight.  It doesn't seem to be interested in eating. There seems to be a brown patch on it's side.  The other frog in the cage is larger and very healthy and lively.  This little one just sits there and doesn't move around much.  It's eyes look closed or like the lid is shut. There are no vets in my area that can even answer simple "frog care" questions better yet what to do with this little one that is sick.  Help!! What do I do for it? Jen >>>Hey Jen, Sounds like a possible fungal infection to me, but I can't be sure without seeing the animal. Has the this frog been dewormed? It also sounds a little bit like he might have parasites. I'm mostly experienced with lizards so I'm going to refer your question. Please call this number (510) 841-1400, East Bay Vivarium -  and tell them you have a frog husbandry question. They will do a better job than I can. Cheers Jim<<<

Toad, frog questions Hi, I'm raising wild bull frogs in a fish tank. I would like to know if this will harm them in the winter and also what foods do they eat?. < Bull frogs are carnivorous and will eat just about anything they can get into their mouths including other frogs. You Firebelly toads are probably poisonous to the bull frog if he tries and eat them. Your frog will be fine in your aquarium but may require a hibernation or cool down period if you want them to breed in the spring.> I've been feeding them crickets, mealworms and also regular worms. Is this ok for all of them? < It all sounds good.>   I'm also raising a water frog in the same tank and 2 Firebelly toads. Do they all eat the same things as a Firebelly toad and will the Firebelly toads cause them harm? <They should all eat all the same things if they can  fit it into their mouths.-Chuck>                         Thank You,                         Gail

Frog Spawn Hello again, Thank you Don for your help a little while ago, you majorly calmed me down, and everything is AWESOME. I had acquired fish from a friend and a tank on Christmas. refer to "Suddenly Stocked Tank", WWM FAQs.) Well everything is going great, have done 6 water changes since I got the fish. All my levels are looking great (I think those established bio-wheels really helped). I got some ghost shrimp today, just to clean a little. Well my question is, I have noticed clear sacks with yellow dots in them in the bottom of one of my plants, kind of weaved through it. Quite a lot of it probably 50-80 little yellow dots(1mm) all in a single sack. And than there's like yellow brownish flecks and pieces of what look like clear egg sack all over my plant leaves. My plants are fake. Well I don't know who laid them, could it have been my Plecos? My Plecos are almost a year old and 1 is 9" and the other 6", one is obviously smaller, are they male and female? Or one is it that the one is more aggressive and gets all the food (which routinely happens, I put algae wafers in his\her little spot so he\she can eat)? How do you tell the difference? Is that what their egg looks like and where they lay them? I also have a 4" Gourami, 1" orange tetra, 1" clown loach, a frog (who seems to be in the eggs a lot), 6" black ghost knife (he's my buddy now, I got him frozen bloodworms and feed them to him on the end of a skewer). I don't think anything else could have laid them. I plan on getting 2 fire green tetras in a week, I finally found a place that will BUY my Plecos. I'm quite happy, after I have been trying to give them away. What should I do with the eggs? I'm not really too concerned about propagating, but something small in my tank might serve as a nice snack for my black ghost knife. Or the frog. Or anything. What do you think? Again thank you for all your help in my beginning worries. And the rest of the WWM staff for the amazing website you guys keep up. James <First thought was snail eggs. Very common. They are laid in a jelly like mass. But on re-reading the part about "weaving though" the plant leaves I now think they may be frog eggs. I never kept frogs, but do recall that some species lay long strings of eggs in a protective jelly. Snail eggs would be in a single round clump. Either way I would remove them. If they're frog eggs they will be infertile without a male and will decay. If they're snail eggs you're looking at a population explosion. Your Gourami and tetra would both lay single eggs, not in a mass. I don't think Clown Loaches have ever been breed in captivity and would need to be much larger. (BTW, will grow slow, but can hit 8" to a foot. Be aware) Plecos are cave breeders. They would spawn in a protected area that the male would be defending. So that leaves the frog and snails. To sex your Plecs look at the trailing edges of the fins and gill covers. Mature males will have frilly tassels decorating these areas. Also, when viewed from above the male will appear thinner and more tapered than the female. The larger fish may be getting mature enough to sex. At 6" the smaller is still to young. And another BTW, they may eat the ghost shrimp. Don>      

Frog with something stuck in its throat? I think my frog has a stick or something stuck in his throat.  When he swallows it appears as if he is in pain and he is not eating.  How could I open his mouth or what should I do? <Very carefully... hold the frog in a damp towel... and use a blunted thick wooden toothpick (maybe one you've chewed a bit on the end) to open the mouth from the middle... carefully look... a flashlight that you can hold between your teeth... or a friend who can help you with this. Good luck. Bob Fenner>

Aquatic Frog compatibility I want a aquatic frog but, will it bother my mollies and algae eater? Love Ellie <Your algae eater might actually bother it. Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibfaqs.htm Bob Fenner>

Black Lighted Frogs Okay thanks. I thought it would be something like that. He does scuba dive near the filter ( it just so happens the filter is near the heater too ). But I have yet another question for you. One night, I turned all the lights out in my room and I put a 15 watt tube black light above the Firebelly toad's tank to simulate night. I came back perhaps 1-2 hours later, turned the light back on, and looked in the tank. Jeff was scuba diving, Fred was on the log, and Bob and Joe were some other place. To my surprise, their skins were brownish-black ( even Jeff's, and he was underwater ) instead of green! After a while their skins turned green again. I think it was the ultraviolet light in the black light that did this, but is it safe to do it again ( and will their skin turn green again every time )? < Black lights do some amazing things to some animals. Never heard of any ill affects from black lights. Humans are exposed to them all the time but we are not frogs. Try using a ZooMed nightlight reptile bulb instead just to play it safe.-Chuck> 

FAT AND LAZY TOAD Hey it's me again! I'm sure you heard about Jeff, my scuba diving Firebelly toad. Well, he hasn't been as active as all my other toads are, and I'm just concerned. I dust the crickets I feed them with Herpcare cricket dust so he is definitely getting the proper amount of energy. He just sits under the log hut I have in my tank most of the day. How do I get him to be more active? < Assuming he is healthy, then I would do a big water change and maybe rearrange the landscaping a little bit. If he is just fat and content from eating, then I would feed smaller crickets so he has to work harder to get the same amount of food. In the wild they probably have to work a lot harder to get the same amount of nutrition.-Chuck> 
Scuba Diving Frog
Hi its me again and in the reply you sent me you didn't say anything about Jeff , "scuba diving", but that's ok because it would be kind of hard to find stuff about that. Anyway thanks for the advice about the tree frogs I'm not sure I'm going to get them now because I would have no place to put them. < It is normal for fire belly toads to dive under water for periods of time. The area he hangs out may be near a heater, the outlet of a filter or where some food can be found.-Chuck> 

Mixing it UP in My Cauldron - Herp Question Hi there! I was wondering if it was ok to mix Australian white tree frogs with Firebelly toads because I might get some once I get the $$. And one more thing: one of my Firebelly toads ( Jeff ) seems to like to go scuba diving occasionally. He goes underwater in the deepest, most secluded part of the tank, looking kind of dead ( which he isn't because he swam to the surface after a while). he has done this three times already. Is this normal and why does he do it? < White tree frogs are very arboreal and are usually found at the upper levels of the terrarium. Fire belly toads are very aquatic and usually don't do too much climbing. If the tree frogs try and eat the toads then there could be problems because the toads are somewhat toxic and I am not sure of the effect on the frogs. To be safe it would probably be better to keep them separate. You fire belly toads usually can swim all over an aquarium but they really need a place to get out of the water.-Chuck>

Frog with cloudy Eye 3/22/05 Hi - <Hi, Pufferpunk here> I have an Asian Bull Frog (Chubby Frog) and his right eye has a cloudy discoloration over it. Do you have any idea what might be causing this? He seems totally healthy otherwise but I'm concerned as to what could be wrong. <Generally, this is caused by poor water quality/dirty tank. Make sure to be meticulous with the cleaning of the tank & changing of his water. You can buy a product called Melafix, in the aquarium fish med isle. You can get a dropper & drop 1 drop in each eye/day, until it clears up. ~PP>

Firebelly Toads 3.28.05 Alright, I'm sorry if my improper punctuation bothers you. <I must have missed the first message, I am sure it was nothing personal, just a lot of emails to edit and post on the website. No worries.><((((º> Anyway, my dad thinks I should get a little fish to live in my Firebelly toad's pond. But I'm worried that the firebellies might eat the fish or poison it with their skin toxins, and the fish food might poison the toads. Is it okay to get such a fish? And if it is, what species would be most appropriate? <I'd leave the fish out of this setup, in my experience firebellies will try to eat just about anything that wiggles. I doubt eating the fish would harm the toad but it would not be very fun for the fish. The fish and fish food will also foul the toads water faster which means more work for you cleaning the pond. Best Regards, Gage >
Bloated Firebelly newt Follow-up
Thanks for the information. Any cures for gut impaction other than hoping nature take its course?  <I would think you could use Epsom salts at a rate of 1 teaspoon per ten gallons and if he is still eating you could use vegetables like peas.>

FAT TOAD - Time to Start Using Capitalization! Hi. I know I'm concerned with Jeff most of the time, but there are a lot of questions I have. Well, as much as I hate to admit it, Jeff is kind of fat. How do I safely slim him down? < The key is to make him work harder for less food. Just like we are told to eat less and exercise. Feed the tank smaller crickets a few times a day instead of dumping in a whole mess all at once. Toss in a couple small crickets before school and a couple when you get home from school. Any that make it through the day will come out a night when Jeff is out and about.-Chuck> <It is at this point that I will admonish you for continually sending in emails without using any capitalization whatsoever.  While we are happy to answer your questions, we are not happy to retype your queries. Marina>

Frog's Not Hopping Hello, I've just been on you're very useful website and I know I'm probably clutching at straws here but I was wondering if you can help...   My Whites Tree Frog 'Bud' has been sick for some time now. He is eating willingly, with a little help from me holding his food. He lost a lot of weight, and it was at the point that I feared he would not make it. Hence the first trip to the vets...    Yet 6 months later he is still here, has gained a lot of weight, and is now as I would describe of 'average weight'. But it does not end here. He seems to be having difficulty controlling his limbs. He struggles to move around the tank freely, and when picked up he goes into a (excuse the description!) 'Starfish' position, legs splayed and toes curled. (If a photo would help I could forward one) He also seems to dry out a little, even though the humidity is high and I spray the tank thoroughly daily.   I have spoken to the vets and they cannot explain it. They assure me that if it was anything contagious/wrong with the habitat/a deficiency, my other frog 'Weiser' would almost definitely have shown symptoms by now. After the first trip to the vets I considered isolating him, but took into account what the vet had said and decided not to. I feel they would both get unduly stressed as they are a breeding pair.   They both live in a large 2ft square, 1/4 water, 3/4 land tank. In the water side they have a large waterfall & pump (to aid humidity). All water used in the tank is treated with 'Exo Terra, Aquatize for amphibians'. In the land side the substrate is large orchid bark chippings, covered in live moss. The tank is always kept clean. I also use pebbles, artificial plants, and corkscrew vines for decoration. The lighting is partly natural and partly artificial, I also have a heat mat at the rear of the tank and the temperature is correct. I treat the live food once a week with 'Nutrabol' vitamin supplement, and vary the diet with crickets & mealworms. (any other information needed I am happy to forward).  I have searched the net, read books, and asked vets; but cannot find anything sounding like the symptoms he displays. I am not overly worried as he does not appear to be suffering, and is happily eating. I would just like him to get back to being his old lively self! If you cant help then not to worry, I just thought I'd try! Many Thanks < Go to Allaboutfrogs.org/info/species/whites.html. There is lots of good info about frog problems. Especially check out the frog doctor. There are a number of things discussed that could be helpful.-Chuck>

Can a tadpole frog live with tropical freshwater fish?  07/02/05 Today, my sons came home with a tadpole frog they found.   I agreed they can keep it and watch it grow, but it needs somewhere safe to live where our cats won't bother it.  Our choices are: (1) he can join a 10-gal freshwater aquarium with a tiger barb, a Plecostomus, and a couple of plants.   Can the tadpole live in the aquarium with the fish? <Mmm, maybe... but I'd just keep this amphibian in a large jar of its own... with a sprig of truly aquatic plant and sponge filter if you can> The temp is around 78 degrees, which I think is OK according to my internet reading.  I'm more worried if the barb will bother the tadpole or vice versa. <Me too> The tadpole is much bigger than the barb. (2) he can join a 20 gal aquarium with two red-ear slider turtles, but they are much bigger than the tadpole, and I would be afraid they would eat him. <I also> Do either of these situations sound like they might work for the tadpole? <Not really... but if you were really short of space, another possibility is to float a plastic jar with holes in it, or a colander in the turtle tank (if it lacks much in the way of nitrogenous waste like ammonia...)> I don't want my sons' learning experience to be that animals eat each other, and I really don't feel like buying more aquariums.  Besides the 2 mentioned, we have another 3 tanks that are full of gerbils.   We have a plastic "planet frog" that worked for a tadpole in the past, until the cats found they could push the darn thing around and they broke the plastic lid. Thanks for your help! <I'd go with a one gallon jar... and change the water out from the tropical tank... every day or two... big enough that the cats shouldn't be able to knock it about. Bob Fenner>
Re: can a tadpole frog live with tropical freshwater fish? 7/4/05
Thanks so much for your reply.  The tadpole is currently in it's own glass bowl with a lid so the cats can't get him & I think the boys have decided they will return him to the lake. <Ah, good> If we keep him longer, I'm wondering about your suggestion to change the water out from the tropical tank every day or two.  Does this mean the tadpole's water should come from the tropical tank?   Thanks! <Yes... this water is far more safe for use than treated tapwater. Bob Fenner>

Rana pipiens-Leopard frog We have an aquarium/Planet frog habitat with 2 tadpoles. One is growing normally but the other seems to have stopped and became pale. It also lies on its side. I thought it was dead but it swam a little. Sometimes it chases its tail. I'm not sure what to do if anything. It has been about 2 weeks since it  looked healthy. The other continues to grow normally. Lauren banks        Lauren >> This is common in many frogs. Tadpoles of some species release growth inhibiting hormones to stop other tadpoles from growing. Try separating the weaker one to see if he will pick up growing again. Good Luck, Oliver

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