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FAQs on Discus 2

Related Articles: Plants + Discus = Wow! by Alesia Benedict, Planted Aquariums: Plants and Discus: What They Need To Thrive  By Alesia Benedict, Discus Divas, Glitz, Glam and Lots of Demands by Alesia Benedict, Juraparoids, Neotropical Cichlids, African Cichlids, Dwarf South American Cichlids, Asian Cichlids, Cichlid Fishes in General

Related FAQs: Discus 1, Discus Identification, Discus Selection, Discus Compatibility, Discus Behavior, Discus Systems, Discus Feeding, Discus Disease, Discus Reproduction, Cichlids of the World, Cichlid Systems, Cichlid Identification, Cichlid Behavior, Cichlid Compatibility, Cichlid Selection, Cichlid Feeding, Cichlid DiseaseCichlid Reproduction,

Replace discus ? Selection, comp.       9/6/19
Hi Team,
Trust you guys a doing well.​
​<Thank you; yes; well enough>
Recently my canister started to leak in the middle of the week and I had to make alternate arrangements for my 50 gallon discus tank, until I fix it this weekend.​
​In the process I lost few of my guys, and now I have two big discus who are the leaders and a few 4 smaller ones, out of which one of them seems to be quite timid and likes to hide behind the rock and comes out very rarely and is not very active when it comes to food.​
​Now I have a few questions.​
​Is it a rule that you need to keep discus of the same size for a good bonding.​
<Mmm; well, close to same size is a good idea. IF too different and there are "problems", in small enough volumes (less than hundreds of gallons), the larger one can/may damage the smaller>
In that case do I need to replace my bigger ones for ones of smaller size, so my hiding discus gets normal.​
​<May be; or move all to a larger system>
Odd One Out.​
What is your suggestion in replacing my discus and move on to a set of monster fish as in: Oscars, walking catfish, etc. I understand this is a question of personal preference, but do you think its easier to maintain the monsters and that they would not need filtration like the discus need, and still look good in the tank.​
​<Yes to other fish species being more "poor water tolerant", but they will still require robust filtration, water movement, frequent (weekly) partial water changes. Bob Fenner>
Please advise.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram Natarajan

Female Discus chases all Males.      3/14/19
Hi Mate,
I have a scenario in my tank. One of the Female Discus (who is the Queen of the Tank) keeps chasing the Blue diamond males (Both small and big ones).
He does not seem to disturb the other pair.
In total I have:
Males: 4 (2 small Blue diamond, 1 Big blue diamond and 1 with green and blue patterns))
Females: 4 ( 1 Green and Blue pattern, 1 big with blue dots, 1 big with blue patterns and 1 small yellow).
Sorry for the rough description.
Please suggest what would be the correct ratio and what changes should I be doing to have the right ratio.
<Mmm; more really has to do w/ the amount of space/room for all... such that they can form pairs, engage in tolerable fighting (with enough area to get away; avoid further pummeling). Sex ratios of about 1:1 are fine. IF one or more fish are getting "too beat"... as evidenced by darkening, hanging out at an angle, in corners, the surface; it is best to immediately move the one doing the damage elsewhere.>
Waiting for your response as always.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram Natarajan
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Discus Aggression 2/28/19
Hi Crew,
I recently came to know that that WWM crew works out of time to respond to the high email traffic you guys get and run the site. YOU GUYS ARE DOING A GREAT JOB by providing sensible and practical advise to the fish keeping fraternity.
<Thanks for the kind words.>
I am sure I have dropped in many annoying emails to you guys and I keep checking my mail waiting for your response.��
<Sure thing.>
Here is my question for today.
I have 3 pairs of discus in my tank out of which 2 are bigger in size and the other 4 are smaller. Out of the 4 2 are blue diamond which seem to be more timid and of the weaker section.
<Can happen. All the artificial varieties are inbred, and a rule, the more extreme the variety compared to the wild fish, the more inbreeding has happened. Consequently things like genetic diseases, poor growth rate, inept breeding behaviour, and overall lack of vigour can be commonly seen in such varieties. Not always for sure, and farmed Discus are generally easier to keep than wild-caught specimens. But there's a fine line between breeding fish to favour a particular colour pattern and inbreeding them so much they're demonstrably weaker than the more genetically mixed wild-looking (rather than wild-caught) Discus.>
I observed recently that one of the bigger discus seems to chasing the blue diamonds every time they try to come out to the open. This bigger guy seems to only like to chase the blue diamonds alone. He doesn't seem to disturb the other smaller pair. This has led to the blue diamond to hide and stop eating. I would like to know if adding another pair of smaller discus would reduce the aggression or do I need to add a pair of bigger discus to divert the bully.
<It's a challenge. Yes, usually adding extra specimens reduces bullying. So often people keep Discus in large groups, 8-12 specimens, if they want to keep a school of them. Bear in mind that wild fish only school together outside of breeding, so it's entirely normal for them to form territorial pairs once breeding.>
The count of my discus (3 pairs) is it a good number or are any changes required. My tank should be around 50 gallons
<Here's part of the problem. A pair of Discus will hold a territory with a radius around 30-45 cm around their egg-laying rock or whatever. So you really need to allow a circle maybe 60-90 cm in diameter for each mated pair, and any extra Discus will be chased away if they get into that patch. Realistically, you're not going to be able to have that sort of space in a 50-gallon tank. You'd do rather better keeping a single pair, perhaps alongside suitable dither fish (Silver Hatchetfish, Rummynose Tetras and Cardinals are classic choices) and bottom dwelling catfish (Corydoras sterbai is the definitive catfish for Discus set-ups). I doubt additional Discus will be tolerated for long in a tank this size.>
Waiting for your advise as always.
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Sick discus need help      5/19/18
Hey ! My discus fish is not eating since 3days after the death of his tank mate and today he has clamped its fin.....and is in stress
<Yes, probably is stressed. May well be suffering from whatever killed the other Discus in your tank. Review the conditions in the aquarium. To recap, Discus need a large tank (for a pair, probably over 150 litres/40 US gallons) and certainly need good quality water with the right water chemistry. In other words, 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, and a nitrate level below 20 mg/l. Water chemistry should be relatively soft for farmed Discus: 1-12 degrees dH, pH 6-7.5. Wild-caught Discus are more fussy, and must have very
soft water, more like 1-5 degrees dH, pH 6-6.5. Water temperature should be relatively high, 28-30 degrees C. Discus are omnivorous in the wild, and need a varied diet in captivity. They are prone to Hexamita and Hole-in-the-Head diseases though, both of which are more likely if they are given monotonous, low-vitamin diets lacking fresh greens; cooked peas, for example, are usually eaten by hungry Discus without too much fuss. Cheers, Neale.>

Discus Food     3/5/18
Hi Team,
I have a Discus along with some Angels.
<Do see/read on WWM re both fish's compatibility; not good to mix these two cichlids>

I feed my fish with Tetra Bits (sinking pellets).
<Discus/Symphysodon don't generally eat pellets with any gusto. READ:

My Angels like the sinking pellets and eat them as soon as it is dropped into the tank. My discus is comparatively smaller in size and doesn't seem to eat or like the pellets. The lfs from whom I got, told me that he used to feed live worms to the discus and asked me to continue feeding the same till the Discus grew in size.
<Pretty standard; yes>
I am unable to find time to feed the Discus with live worms every alternate day. I usually feed my fish live worms on weekends.
Please advise what should I be doing to make the discus eat the pellets.
<Reading. Bob Fenner>
Thanks and regards,
Shriram Natarajan

Discus Keeping Inquiry       4/23/15
Dear WWM Crew,
As has been echoed by your plethora of followers, thank you for having the best fish-keeping website on the internet. Having an English Lit background, I'm also appreciative of your stinginess with grammar...
<Indication of respect; but also functional necessity for search tools to work>
although now I'm terribly nervous to write you an email (does fish-keeping have a dash???).
<Heeee! Does>
Despite being a relative novice at the hobby (I have two smallish tanks set up at the moment), I'd love to try my hand at keeping discus. I've heavily researched this topic, and I think I've been through most of your website's content on the species. I'm still a bit nervous, however, having not kept non-hardy divas before.
<Symphysodon are quite tough nowayears... though still need some basic tools, care>
I'm having a bit of a tank size/number of fish dilemma, and I wondered if you may be able to help me with that, and if I could run past my hypothetical set-up with you (run-on sentence??? Ack!).
<No worries>
I live in rural Newfoundland, Canada, and being in such an underpopulated area, have a somewhat limited selection of tanks which can be sent here. I have my eye on the ADA 295 L tank which measures (in cm) W120xD45xH60, and I can even have this sent to the wilderness where I live. The dealer tells me this equates to 86 gallons, although my computer tells me 295 L = 77 US gallons/64 imperial gallons. Am I missing something here? (Maybe I'm too dim for fish-keeping).
<Your calculation is closest; about 78 US gal.s>
Taking your advice regarding number of fish, I'd like to have a group of minimum 6 (I'm thinking of purchasing tank-bred adolescent blue diamonds).
The advice on #fish/gallon seems a bit divided, ranging from 10-30 gallons per fish. I'm also unsure whether this is US or UK gallons. At any rate, do you think 6 individuals would be OK in the tank described above, keeping in mind I'd like this to be their permanent home?
<Yes; you may find it expedient to separate paired couples in time... easier for keeping the peace during reproductive and rearing events>
If the tank is in reality 64 gallons, perhaps this is too tight for 6 adults?
<Mmm; six is a good number to have, start here>
I'd like to have a gravel/river rock bottom, with some silk or soft plastic plants for hiding spots (this sound OK?).
In this area we have very soft tap water, pH of 6.2-7.2, so I think that will work out well. I'm aiming to introduce the fish to a properly cycled tank, keep the temperature at 82 F, with frequent large water changes, as I've read is best for these fish. I
have a quiet, dim part of the house I'm considering for the tank. I thought I'd use an Eheim cylinder filter, as Neale advises.
<A good choice>
I'd like to include a school of glow tetras and another of penguin tetras, if you think that would work well?
<Yes; with size they Symphysodon may consume the Tetras>
Would you advise me on the size approximate size of schools of these fish for the tank described above?
<Several of each... like a dozen or more>
Any other advice you think a newbie should hear in my situation also greatly appreciated.
<Perhaps an easygoing smaller/mid-size Suckermouth catfish... like of the genus Scobinancistrus, Ancistrus...>
Many thanks for your generous advice from an eager, possibly overly anxious, potential discus-keeper.
Kind Regards,
<Thank you for sharing. Exciting. Bob Fenner; not quite awake; hence the lack of articles>

Alesia Benedict; seeking her, writings... info. on planted discus systems    7/22/12
Please forward this message to Ms. Benedict, thanks!
<Unfortunately we don't have Ms. Benedict's email addy>
Hi Alesia,
<BobF at your service>
I want to set up a planted Discus tank.  I have been reading a lot of articles online and when I read one of your articles I determined you are the one that makes the most sense.  I want to be prepared to succeed.
I have had many aquariums and have kept Discus successfully but never a planted Discus tank.   Two years ago I had to sell 11 Discus I had for two years in a bare bottom tank because I went to Iraq for six months.
I plan to set up a 90 gallon tank with a few varieties of green plants and a dozen of 3 to 4 inch Discus from Discus Hans.
I would appreciate your guidance, please provide reading material, preferably written by you.
Thank you for your time and consideration.
<Best for you to seek out what she and others have in print. A brief guide to finding such literature here:
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

BGK/Discus... rdg.   2/27/12
Unfortunately I had to euthanize my Oscar the other day.  The poor guy was getting worse every day and I couldn't stand to see him like that anymore. 
So today I had the exciting task of selecting the next generation of fish for my 55. I decided that ultimately I would like to have a Black Ghost Knife and Discus tank.  What are your recommendations for this system in regards to size of the tank and quantity of discus.
<Already posted, archived on the WWM site. Search, read there>
 I currently also have a Plec in there who is about 2 years old.
<Which species? May not be appropriate for use with these others>
  I got the BGK yesterday and, being the only other fish  the tank, has been happily swimming over every inch of the tank.  I've never seen one so quick to explore.  The ghost knife is very small (3") and I am wondering if I should grow him out a bit before adding the discus.  I don't mind getting rid of the Plec if it comes down to it because of temperament or space but I do hope he works well in this system, however, keeping him does mean I would have to forgo live plants which I would very much like to include in this system.  I currently have a Marineland canister filter rated for 100 gallons and  multiple  powerheads to create a current for the bgk, also NO2, NO3, ammonia are 0,
<No nitrate? How rendered thus?>
 pH is 7 temp is 76-77
<Too low for most Symphysodon>
 and I brought home wet frozen bloodworms and brine shrimp. Does this sound like a workable tank?
<Not yet>
 Should I grow out BGK?  How long would you recommend keeping these fish in the 55 as juveniles (I plan on upgrading to at least a 90 w/in a year)? 
How many discus would you recommend for best results? Thank you for all your help.
<Please learn to/use the search tool (on every page) and indices... your answers and much more you'll want and need to know are already posted. Bob Fenner> 

2011 National Discus Show (Discus Club Singapore) 12/2/11
 More pics to follow. This one the CAT 1 winner
Thanks Per


Grand Champion

Re: Need information on discus (was Puntius demasoni requirements)   4/25/11
WWWM crew
thanks for the reply regarding the demasoni barbs. I would appreciate if you could forward me the information link regarding discus fish. I would like to know all the details about the discus fish.
Thanks in advance.
<Do start here and follow the links, Amit: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/discusfish.htm
Cheers, Neale.>
discus problem    4/26/11

WWM Crew
I have a problem with my youngest discus. He is approx 1.5 inch. I have observed that he has turned black and mostly hiding and not accepting the food as he used to do, he will just nibble a pellet . His gills have become red .His fins and tail are also stuck together, I mean they are not erect like they used to be.
<Very bad signs/behaviors>
I am really worried bout my discus. could you suggest me the treatment for the problem
thanks in advance\
Amit Ghosalkar
<... Need to know re the system: water quality, temperature, tankmates, maintenance history... There's little time for us to go back and forth.
Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/discusdisf3.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Re discus problem... didn't read    4/27/11

WWM Crew
<Amit... you didn't read where I referred you to yesterday>
I have a 25 gallon tank. I have 3young discuss and 2 Danios, <Not compatible... chemically, temperature wise...>
2 black neon tetra. I am using a corner filter. I do 20 percent water change after every 3 days. I feed Tetrabits to my fish.
<Not suitable for Symphysodon>
I am based in India so the ambient water temperature during summer is 30 degrees.
I have recently observed that my fishes rub their body against the corner filter and some rocks which I have kept. I use a bare bottom tank. There are no signs of white spots on their bodies. They are eating properly.
I have added 2 tablespoons of rock salt to the tank water.
I wanted to know whether I can use rock salt for my discus tank and whether there is any other treatment to get rid of the problem
thanks in advance
Amit Ghosalkar
<Don't write: READ. BobF>

Discus questions... ID, fdg., beh.... gen.  2/20/09 Hi crew, sorry to bother you again? However, i have 3 discuses, that i got 1 week ago, in a 40 gallon tank and 1 of them (the orange discus) only eats bloodworms. I try feeding flakes and brine shrimp but she/he showed no interest. The other two eats everything. How do i teach the orange discus to eat different types of foods? The dominant discus does bully both of them, but i don't know if it is temporarily because i just got them. Does the bullying effect what they eat, because when i feed bloodworms, the orange one goes crazy. They all seem pretty healthy. Here are some pics of them. And do you know what type they are? thanks http://s724.photobucket.com/albums/ww244/fish111111/?action=view&current=DSC02493.jpg  http://s724.photobucket.com/albums/ww244/fish111111/?action=view&current=DSC02486.jpg  http://s724.photobucket.com/albums/ww244/fish111111/?action=view&current=DSC02490.jpg the dominant discus is the red and blue one. Thanks for all your help. <Hello Chris. I'm not expert on the types of Discus, and so far as I can tell these are standard Symphysodon hybrids of the type widely sold today. So I can't help you on that topic. As for diet, Discus tend to be finicky, and the golden rule is to feed as many different things as possible. Live daphnia, bloodworms, mosquito larvae, and small earthworms are appreciated by all specimens. I'd avoid freeze-dried foods as much as possible, but good quality flake foods are certainly taken by some Discus. By all means try different brands: many of my fish will eat one brand but ignore another! Hikari foods tend to be the best and most widely accepted. Now, as for social behaviour, Discus are best kept either in matched pairs of groups of 6+. Your trio WILL have problems with bullying, as you're observing. Like Angelfish, Discus are schooling fish when young, but territorial pair-forming fish as adults, so unless they're in a big group, pairs will pick on singletons. So either get rid of one, or buy three more. If you keep six, you'll need a bigger tank. Your move. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: discus questions   2/20/09 Hi Neale, thanks for the reply. Is it possible to keep four discus, will that help at all? <Not really Discus, Angelfish and Festivums all fall into this "either a pair or six" category Of course if you kept four females, they'd be fine, but you can't sex Symphysodon so unless you're able to split mature (i.e., spawning) pairs, getting six females isn't practical.> What is the maximum number of discus i can put in a 40 gallon (adults). <A matched pair.> My discuses don't pair up to bully one of them. <No, perhaps not, but the bully could easily be a dominant male and the bullied fish either another male (or, less probably) an unresponsive female.> There is only one dominant discus that picks on both of them. <Quite.> Will this be permanent or is he just establishing the pecking order? <Impossible to say. The best you can say is that the overwhelming experience of Discus keepers is that 3, 4 or 5 adults don't tend to get along. A single male and three females probably would, but there's no way to guarantee you'd get that ratio. Two males would bicker all the time, and one would end up being bullied. Eventually, it would have to be removed.> How long does it take to establish this in general. <May not do so.> They are also extremely scared whenever i walk by them. <Quite normal. This is why Discus are kept in groups in display tanks. When kept in groups of 6+, they are much more secure and likely to swim about normally. The addition of calm dither fish, such as Silver Hatchetfish, can help, but this assumes your aquarium has sufficient space for all.> I tried to hand feed them to show i am a source of food, but i don't believe that helped much. Last, what is the nutritional value of bloodworms, are they considered healthy or treats? <Healthy.> Can it be used as a staple diet? <A fair staple diet, but do augment with pellets, daphnia, etc., once or twice a week.> I will continue to try to add variety into their diets, but since they aren't eating anything but bloodworms, should i lay off them or continue, as i don't want them to starve. <Variety is central. Experiment, switch between brands, raid the kitchen for small bits of seafood and white fish.> Thanks so much Neale, i appreciate your time. ~Chris <Happy to help, Neale.> re: discus questions thanks for your help, i will upgrade to a 60 gallon soon <Probably very wise. Get six juveniles for now, and once they get about 8 cm/3 inches in length, they'll be ready for a bigger tank. Much written about these very special fish; would highly recommend spending a little time browsing WWM and your local bookstore, library, or online book retailer. Cheers, Neale.>
Question... Discus, Planted Sys. mat.s on WWM   6/10/08 I just sent this email to one of your columnists - Alesia Benedict: I recently ran across your columns on line at Conscientious Aquarist. Love your style and your common sense approach. I'm working on a planted discus tank -- discus are doing well, plants are more of a problem. I'm definitely interested in what someone with your success has to say. So far I've found 4 of your columns: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_2/cav2i2/discus/discus.htm  http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/cav1i2/plants_discus/plants_discus.htm  http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/cav1i4/plants_and_discus2/plants_and_discus2.htm  http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_2/cav2i1/Planted_tank_substrates/Aquarium_Substrates.htm I find this website a bid difficult to navigate. <How might you improve it?> I found these by doing Google searches. <We use their tool on every page...> The columns are not dated and there is no search function for the site. <Mmm... the incept. date might be found by right-clicking... but I do agree that a stated date would be of use. The search function can be found at the bottom of all pages including homes... for the root and seven sub-webs> Have you written any more and if so could you direct me to them? <Yes... please use the indices from the WWM homepage: http://wetwebmedia.com/index.html or the Google... at the bottom> Thank you, Larry Hartford However, the email address given for her -- aquaticblondegal@aol.com -- is no longer valid. Can you tell me if there are any other of her articles on line? Thanks, Larry Hartford <Read on my friend. Bob Fenner>

Please!!! Symphysodon, NNS   5/25/07 This is my first time write to you. I have 4 discus (1'x1.5' tank) and 4 flower horns(3'x1.5' tank). Their tanks are very dirty and how to clean my tanks. I put their tanks with air pump and heater. I change all tank 20% water and then add a little salt. <Mmm, the Discus do NOT like salt> It is good or not. I want to know what kind of filter is good for my tanks (discus and flower horn). I want to test my water but i don't know, so what kind of test is require?  Please explain me the usage (advantage) of undergravel filter, sponge filter and internal filter. If i add filter, air pump is need or not? I don't know how to keep my fish and this is my first time bought fish. Please give me other advises of my fish (discus and flower horn). I will waiting from your reply. Thanks ! <Ahh, all of this and so much more is posted... Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwsubwebindex.htm The blue print are links... the search tool is at the bottom... Read my friend. Bob Fenner>

Quick IDs, Af. cichlids   3/18/07 Hi,     Do you mind ID-ing a cichlid for me? I sort of  inherited it (it's a long story) and want to be sure I am caring for it properly  and I wanted to see about breeding it (why I want to know what it is) Here is  the 1st one: (javascript:void(0);) Sorry that it is blurry- new camera phone :D <Looks like a female Melanochromis auratus to me: http://fishbase.sinica.edu.tw/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=2343&genusname=Melanochromis&speciesname=auratus> And the other one that I inherited, which is isolated by itself by egg  crate: <Maybe a Maylandia zebra male... http://fishbase.sinica.edu.tw/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=8345&genusname=Maylandia&speciesname=zebra> Thanks, I appreciate your help! Anthony P. S. I wouldn't have this awesome discus if it weren't for your excellent advice! She lives with another female discus of the same size in a 125 gallon tank, and I wish to add 2-3 more in a few months and get them breeding  again! (I had a major die out- from 8 discus to 2)   <A very nice specimen. Bob Fenner>
Bleher's New Discus Tome!   9/22/06 Dear Mr. Fenner, <Heiko? Of Aqua-Geo...?> my name is Heiko Bleher, and I do not know if you have heard of my name, but possibly. In any event, I have been collecting wild discus (and other aquarium fishes) since I was 8 years old (with my mother, Amanda Bleher), this was 1953... <Yes, know a few anecdotes re your "Bleher-Mobile", your extensive adventures... you and I have chatted a couple of times... casually, at the Interzoo shows over the years. Hello to you> The reason I am writing to you, is about my new book: BLEHER´S DISCUS which I think you should also have in your library. <Oh!?> I wanted to let you know, that this volume 1, on wild discus, just came off the press. It is an outstanding Monograph of the genus Symphysodon, as never done before. A work that has more than 670 pages, over 3000 photos, maps and paintings, 380 different wild discus with its precise location, and over 380 - in part new - Amazon fishes. <Great!> It contains 250 Discus-habitats throughout Amazonia with its parametres and detailed biotope explanation. There are 80plus pages only on discus nutrition in nature, with each component - the result of hundreds of stomachs and guts researched immediately after collecting. The book includes the entire Amazon-history of discoveries, its explorers and their scope, the Indian tribes of past and present (their status today, cultures of past and today's), the status of almost every Amazon city and village today. This book is a must for every Discus enthusiast, every fish-lover and every nature and (or) Amazon (fish) lover.  Sting as well as Leonardo de Caprio just got their copy signed. <Heeee!> Have also a look at the attached review, which was just published a few days ago in the UK (Tropical Fish magazine). This monograph includes not only the history of discus taxonomy to the last detail, but also a new, easy to understand taxonomy. It is a result of my over 300 Amazon field trips and research work during the last 50 years. I am sure it will be the reference book for Discus for today's generations and for those to come. It should be of great interest to your website-information. Please do not hesitate to contact me for any question you may have. Below I also copy in a few of the websites talking about my new book. And, I wanted to tell you: volume 2, which I am hoping to finish end of this year, will have everything about tank breed varieties including interview with 300plus breeders from 4 continents. Heiko Bleher www.aquapress-bleher.it - www.aquageo.com For additional information, please have a look at the following websites: http://forum.discusnews.com/discus-sion/viewtopic.php?t=6551 http://mondodiscus.com/mdiscus/content/view/63/181/ http://www.discus-south.com/bleher_discus.htm http://www.american.cichlids.ru/privat/blehers_discus.php http://www.akvazin.com/diskusije/default.cfm?Nit=48&Tema=3444&Page=1 http://www.aquageo.com/BooksETC/DiscusMonograph.html http://article.discusnews.com/review/Heikobleherandmanfredgobel.shtml . http://www.zoothun.ch <Thank you for sending this along Heiko. Will post on our site, accumulate with other Discus keepers. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Re: reference your website - Discus, Heiko Bleher  12/28/07 Dear all, please notice that Heiko's new website is at: www.aquapress-bleher.com  <Just saw this yesterday... while trying to refer a friend to Aqua-Geo... is this/your zine going to resume its annual release?> Thank you for passing on the message, Aquapress Publishers Italy <Be chatting, Bob Fenner>

Discus Stocking - 05/07/2006 <<Hi, Karen. Tom with you.>> I have a 47G column. It is planted, and doing well. I want to put a few 2.5 inch Discus in it. How many may I safely put in?  The dimensions are 31" tall, 20" wide and 18" deep front to back. There are no other fish, save 1 Otocinclus.  I would do a small school of cardinal tetra, but I know I am restricted due to the lack of surface area. <<Karen, I wouldn't go with more than three of these fish since they won't remain this size. You're already aware of the restricted surface area with this style of aquarium and are almost certainly aware of the need Discus have for exceptional water conditions. They're going to need frequent water changes and strict attention to vacuuming the substrate in your tank. These are wonderful fish but it seems like any parasite within a city block of these guys will find them.>> Thanks for the expert opinion, for free, YAY! <<Well, I can't vouch for the "expert-ness" of my opinion but, it is absolutely free! :)>> Karen <<Best of luck. Tom>>

Discus Book Recommendation  - 04/27/06 I will order it, and thank you very much for the time you and everyone involved at WWM  so generously give. I raise my net to you in a salute! I  shall make a donation in your honor! Would you possibly have a recommendation for a book on Discus, other than  Mr. Wattley's?  Would you order his?  Is that a fair question? Yours truly, Karen < I love this question! Recently I went out and bought all the new and old discus books I could find. I am kind of an aquarium history buff too so I was not too far from my element. An excellent to the point book about discus is the "Back To Nature Guide to Discus " by Dick Au. Unfortunately it is out of print and Dick has all the remaining copies. Jack Wattley's book "Discus For The Perfectionist" has lots of good information. It is a series of questions and responses from famous discus aquarists from all over the world. It is interesting to note that Jack does not respond to any of the questions. For the money the best book is called "Exotic Discus of the World". It is a composition written by numerous authors about the very fine details and tricks on getting ,breeding and raising discus.  It can be obtained through Oliver Lucanus at his website at Belowwater.com. I use it often as a reference to WWM questions on discus.-Chuck>

Discus book, NNS (Non-Native Speaker) ?   3/3/06 dear bob just a quick line to say thank you for all the work you do for us fish keepers am new to this game i.e. discus keeping Am i right in thinking that you have done a book on the subject ? if so where can i get a copy from thanking you a gain des <Mmm, no freshwater books in print. Bits and pieces archived on WWM, including re Discus. Bob Fenner>

Discus Question   2/10/06 Good Afternoon, <Morning here/now> I am starting up a 65 gallon planted discus tank and was wondering if I can have other fish in with them (specifically angels, an elephant nose, cardinal tetras and maybe dwarf gouramis). <The cardinals would be fine (if large enough, the discus small enough), the other fish species are not recommended for various reasons>   Also, could you please tell me how many fish I can house in a 65 gallon aquarium. <Could start with five discus of smallish size (less than three inches in diameter), likely having to remove all but two, three in time> Another question is with regards to sand/gravel.  I have been reading up on silica sand, black beauty and other sandblasting sand.  Could you please tell me which is the best to use in my tank (currently running bare bottomed). <Mmm, none of these would I choose. Look to Fluorite, lateritic material... for function...> What medication (if any) should I always have on hand.  Thanking you in advance for any advise you can offer. Lori <None. Like military hardware, lack of knowledge/intelligence re same, you're too likely to use it. Bob Fenner>

Starting With Discus  12/10/05 Yes, fist of all I just want to say thanks for all of your hard work on putting this page together. It has been a great source of reference for many years.  Ok, on with the question. I just bought a 75 gallon tank with the hopes of raising discus, but I don't know if I have the right set up. I am using a stealth heater two Filstar Rena canister filters xp2 and xp3. I am using medium and small gravel somewhere around 110 pounds in all. And a few fake plants and driftwood. Is this ok please let me know. Current fish in tank, 2 baby green Severums, 2 Bala Sharks, 2 catfish Pictus and 1 Black Ghost knife 10 in. < There are two kinds of discus, wild and tank raised. Wild discus require clean, warm, soft, acidic water. Tank raised fish are much less demanding. Overall you need to keep the pH around 7, and the nitrates as low as possible. Give them good food and they like to be crowded. In the wild they are found in big schools so get a group to make them feel more comfortable.-Chuck>

Discus Hey, I have several discus and one of them is showing a sort of pimple along the lateral line right before the tail. The fish seems to be eating fine and swims along without a problem but the pimple is there with a white top on it. Should I move the fish to a temp tank? What would you recommend for treatment?  DK < I would do a 30% water change, clean the filter and vacuum the gravel. Watch the pimple carefully because it may be the first signs of hole in the head disease. If it gets worse I would isolate the fish and treat with Metronidazole. The key with discus is clean water with lots of water changes.-Chuck>

Fish poisoned with algicide/clarifying agent Hi there. I used a product called Accu-clear in my tank, which was going green with an algae bloom. It had 2 of my breeding discus in it. Both discus instantly got sick and one to the point where it was lying on the bottom of the tank and gasping for air. Can you help me and give me some information on what I can do to help this fish? <Change the water IMMEDIATELY... as much as you have good water (about the same chemistry, temperature) on hand. Increase aeration... Bob Fenner>

Peaceful Top Dwellers Hi, <Hello Greg> I've kept fish for most of my adult life, but never had a small aquarium until I moved to an apartment. I now have just a 10 gallon tank. I will be moving back into a house I'm building by fall and will go back to a large tank.  The tank has 3 high-fin rams 3 small discus one Pleco and one cat. The rams stay at the bottom and the discus in the middle. Are there any small (or at least slow growing) fish that are compatible and would inhabit the top third of the tank? I figure I've got room for two or possibly three more fish if they're not too large. Thanks, Greg Plate <Well that is a lot for a ten gallon, as the discus demand very high water quality to stay healthy. I would not add anything else to this tank and am sure that by the fall you may be severely overcrowded size wise, if you are not already. I would keep a very close eye on the water quality and do rigorous water changes weekly to help, but the waste produced will overload the tank soon, if it hasn't already. Justin (Jager)><<You need a larger tank, hyaku! RMF>>

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