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Related Articles: Stocking Pico Reefs, Ultra-Small Gobies for Tiny Systems by Bob Fenner, Amblygobius Gobies, Genus Gobiodon Gobies, Genus Coryphopterus Neon/Cleaner GobiesShrimp/Watchman Gobies, Sifter/Sleeper Gobies/ValencienneaSleeper Gobies/Eleotridae, Mudskippers, Dartfishes (family Microdesmidae, subfamily Ptereleotrinae), Fresh to Brackish Water Gobioids, Gobioids,  and the similar-appearing Blennioids

Pico, Nano, Mini-Reefs; Small Marine Aquariums: Design, Set-Up, Stocking & Maintenance

Subtitle: Successfully Keeping Under 40 Gallon Saltwater Systems

Gobioids: True Gobies, Some Relatives & Fishes Called Gobies, Appropriate for Small Volumes


By Bob Fenner

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            Sorting through the “real” gobies (family Gobiidae), their relations and fishes commonly labeled as gobies for small/er systems should be a breeze; as most are small in size and compatible with other life. However, there are some exceptions, particularly where mixing them with fishes and some invertebrates closely occupying the same niches; particularly in crowded conditions.

            Here we’ll obviously skip the too large and agonistic species/groups, as well as the more brackish and totally freshwater gobies. We will include the not-too distantly related Dartfishes (Family Microdesmidae) as they’re often labeled “dart gobies”.  Similarly let’s schlep the Mandarin, Psychedelic “Gobies” (Family Callionymidae) along here as well. We will skip a myriad of other goby-such groups as being unsuitable for small volumes. Have no fear however! The “real gobies”, including the delightful shrimp symbionts, Clown/Coral, Neon/Cleaner, Sand-Sifting… gobies and more, are considerable of and by themselves.

True/Real Gobies: Family Gobiidae

            Gobiids are found in all aquatic habitats; marine, freshwater, brackish. They comprise the largest family of fishes, with about 212 genera and nearly 2,000 described species, including the world’s smallest fish/invertebrate species. Make no mistake, gobies are an important group worldwide; a dominant element in small-fish bottom fauna on tropical reefs. Laugh if you will at the comical, shy gobies; it is they that will have the last chuckle. Yes, someday (soon) you will plunk down your hard earned cash to buy them.

Most goby species live in, on, or near the bottom and are of small size. One super goby species attains a gargantuan eighteen inches, but almost all his kin are less than four inches in total length maximum. As mentioned, the family Gobiidae contains the world's smallest fishes and vertebrate. Trimmatom nanus of the Indian Ocean females reach a mere 8-10 mm (less than two-fifths of an inch). There are other goby species only slightly larger.

Many of the gobies live in close association with invertebrates such as sponges, shrimps and sea urchins. Regardless of their size, gobies become center pieces of aquariums containing them.

What's A Goby?

The gobies are grouped together on the basis of several hard to discern characters; bones of the head, a family-unique sperm gland... but let me simply state some of the traits that are of use to us as identifiers and keepers of marine life.

Most live in or on the bottom and are aptly adapted for a demersal existence. They are roughly torpedo-cylindrically shaped, and have reduced lateral line systems coupled with enhanced vision. Generally gobies lack swim-bladders and display degrees of fusion of their pelvic fins that are located anteriorly under their pectorals and used as a sort of suction disc to help them stay in place.

In case you're asked, gobies can be readily distinguished from the numerous fellow bottom-dwelling blennies on the basis of dorsal finnage. Most gobies have two distinct top fins; Blennioids have a single long one.

Key Species, Groups of True Gobies, Family Gobiidae:

Genus Amblygobius, the Hover Gobies: Aquarium faves; smaller species only need apply

Amblygobius decussatus (Bleeker 1855), the Orange-Striped Goby. Western Pacific; Philippines, Micronesia. To three and a half inches in length. One in Raja Ampat waters.

Amblygobius hectori (Smith 1957), Hector's Goby. Indo-West Pacific, including the Red Sea, to Micronesia. To two and a half inches long. Aquarium photo.

Amblygobius rainfordi (Whitley 1940), Rainford's Goby to the aquarium interest, Old Glory to science. Indo-West Pacific; Philippines to Micronesia. To two and a half inches. Raja Ampat specimen. 

Genus Bryaninops
: Whip and Coral Gobies; most often found on Black Corals and Gorgonians

Bryaninops amplus Larson 1985, the Large Whip Goby. Indo-Pacific; Madagascar, Seychelles to Hawai'i. To 6 cm. This one in Hawaii. 

Bryaninops loki Larson 1985, the Loki Whip Goby. Tropical Indo-Pacific; Australia, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines. To a measly 30 mm. in length. Found in silty areas on Gorgonians and Sea Whips. N. Sulawesi pix, an adult and a juvenile (transparent) with parasitic copepods dorsally.  

Genus Coryphopterus: 23 nominal species; sand dwellers and all small system useful

Coryphopterus eidolon Bohlke & Robins 1960, the Pallid Goby. Western Atlantic; Florida to the Lower Antilles. Yellow stripe extends from behind eye. To two and a quarter inches in length. One in Grand Turks.

Coryphopterus inframaculatus Randall 1994, the Blotched Goby. To 3 in. Indonesia to GBR, N. to Guam and Taiwan. Raja Ampat photo.

Coryphopterus personatus, (Jordan & Thompson 1905), the Masked Goby. To 4 cm. Western Atlantic; Florida to Lower Antilles. Grand Turks pix. This species is ubiquitous on coral reefs within its range.

Genus Eviota: Small and often beautiful. Thirty five described species, with many more to go. Used widely in the trade/hobby in W. Europe

Eviota guttata Lachner & Katella 1978. 2.5 cm. Western Pacific and Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea. This one with a copepod parasite in Raja Ampat.


Eviota pellucida Larson 1976, Neon Pygmy Goby. Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. To 3 cm. Raja Ampat pic.


Eviota prasites Jordan & Seale 1906, the Prasites Goby. West Pacific; Moluccas to Samoa. To less than an inch in length. This one photographed in Egypt’s Red Sea. 



Eviota sebreei Jordan & Seale 1906, Sebree's Pygmy Goby. Indo-Pacific; Red Sea to Samoa, to the northern GBR, Micronesians. To less than an inch in total length. This one perched on a Porites coral in Pulau Redang, Malaysia. 

Genus Fusigobius: 10 valid species; one found in the trade



Fusigobius signipinnis Hoese & Obika 1988, the Signalfin Goby. Western Pacific; Japan, Australia, Tonga. To 4.9 cm. S. Sulawesi image. 

 Genus Gnatholepis: Seven species of great sand sifters for small systems

Gnatholepis cauerensis Bleeker 1853, the Eyebar Goby. Indo-Pacific; South Africa to Hawai'i. To three inches maximum in overall length. This one in the Maldives in the Indian Ocean. 


Gnatholepis thompsoni Jordan 1904, the Goldspot Goby. Tropical Atlantic; Bermuda to Venezuela, Ascension, St. Helena Islands. This one in the Bahamas. To about three inches in length.

Clown or Coral Gobies; Genus Gobiodon. Thirteen species

I must mention these tiny chubsters; they've got to be close to the best fishes for reef and "mixed" aquariums. Though only attaining a miniscule 2 1/2 inches, Gobiodon are huge on color and spunky personality. Due to their noxious body slime no other fish bothers them, and they're happy as proverbial clams with some Acropora or Pocillopora coral to live and feed on or their skeleton and a little live meaty food. Coral gobies should only be housed with non-aggressive feeders such as smaller Cardinals, Seahorses and Pipefishes.

When kept as a small group they readily form pairs and mate. This genus’ members are hermaphrodites, with females turning into males. The female deposits circular bands around a branch of host coral that are immediately fertilized and subsequently guarded by the male. Perhaps owing to their small size, rearing the young has not proved easy.

Gobiodon citrinus (Ruppell 1838), the Citron or Poison Goby. Indo-Pacific; Red Sea, African coast to Samoa. Found in close association with table top Acropora species. To two and a half inches in maximum length. This one in the Red Sea.

Gobiodon okinawae Sawara, Arai & Abe 1972. To 3.5 cm. in length. Western Pacific; southern Japan to GBR, Micronesia. Live on and amongst Acropora coral stands in the wild in groups of 5-15 individuals. N. Sulawesi image. 

See the books in this series for more

Gobiodon rivulatus (Ruppell 1830), the Rippled Coral Goby. Indo-West Pacific; Red Sea, eastern Africa to the Tuamotus. To two inches in length. Aquarium image. 


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The Neon or Cleaner Gobies, Genera Gobiosoma (29 species) and Elacatinus (7 species):

Ah, the genera Gobiosoma and Elacatinus, mainly of the western Atlantic. These sparkling black, white, and blue or gold jewels should be as common in marine aquariums as Corydoras catfishes in freshwater tanks; no, more so. Many species are available year round as captive produced and reared; highly preferable over wild-collected specimens.

These slivers of happiness are extremely hardy and of great utility; ideal first fish for the new marine hobbyists as they will pick off parasites and dead tissue from your other fishes.

More Commonly Encountered Cleaner Gobies:

Genus Elacatinus

Elacatinus multifasciatum Steindachner 1876,  the Greenbanded Goby. Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Central America to northern South America. Aq. pix.

Elacatinus puncticulatus (Ginsburg 1938), the Red Headed Neon Goby. Eastern Central Pacific; Sea of Cortez to Ecuador. To under two inches in length. A real beauty and tough, small addition to reef tanks. At right, one in Costa Rica.

Genus Gobiosoma:


The Sharknose Goby, Gobiosoma evelynae Bohlke & Robins 1968. Tropical West Atlantic; Bahamas to Venezuela. To about two inches in length. Variable in color, but yellow-V-shaped mark on nose and bluish stripe sandwiched between black. Gobiosoma evelynae; here in the Bahamas.


Gobiosoma genie
Bohlke & Robins 1968, Cleaner Goby. Western Central Atlantic: Bahamas and Grand Cayman Island. To 4.5 cm. Grand Turks image. Bold yellow V marking on head trails into pale band along sides.


Gobiosoma illecebrosum
Bohlke & Robins 1968, the Barsnout Goby. Central Western Atlantic; Yucatan of Mexico to Panama. Identified in the field by a white bar that runs midline between the eyes, blue line on either side of the body that extends to the tail. Cozumel image.



Gobiosoma oceanops (Jordan 1904), THE Neon Goby. Tropical West Atlantic; southern Florida to Belize. To two inches in length. Here’s a pair in Key Largo.



Gobiosoma prochilos Bohlke & Robyns 1968, the Broadstripe Goby. Tropical central West Atlantic. To four cm. Bred in captivity. This one off Cancun, Mexico



Gobiosoma randalli Bohlke & Robins 1968. Yellownose or Randall's Goby. Tropical West Atlantic; Puerto Rico to Venezuela. To under two inches in length. Here is an individual off Bonaire.

Genus Istigobius: Good looking reef sand-dwelling fishes. The genus comprises eleven species.



The Ornate Goby, Istigobius ornatus (Rupell 1830); here in N. Sulawesi. To about five inches in length maximum and found from the Red Sea to Micronesia


Istigobius rigilius
(Herre 1953), the Orange-Spotted Goby. Molucca, Philippine Islands to Australia, over to Fiji and Marshall Islands. To four inches in length. Here in S. Sulawesi

Genus Lythrypnus; pretty, though cool to cold water; NOT for tropical tanks: Eighteen species

Lythrypnus dalli
(Gilbert 1860), The Blue-Banded or Catalina Goby:
This brilliant red and blue beauty is from off the two California's Pacific coasts. It is not tropical, and will only live a short while in water in the upper seventies, eighties. It should not be sold as a warm-water organism. Why do I, should I mention this? It is an embarrassing sham in the trade, and a waste of resources. Below: Lythrypnus gilberti (Heller & Snodgrass 1803), The endemic Galapagos Blue-Banded or Goby and L. zebra (Gilbert 1890); the Zebra (Catalina) Goby

Genus Pleurosicya: Tiny sponge and Cnidarian host gobies… Can be kept in 5-10 gallon systems



Pleurosicya micheli Formanoir 1971, Michel's Host Goby. A transparent species with an internal red striped on top of its vertebral column. To one inch in length. Indo-Pacific. This one in Hawai'i perched on a Porites Coral. 

Pleurosicya mossambica
Smith 1959, the Toothy, Many or Mozambique Host Goby. Indo-West Pacific; Red Sea, East Africa to Marshall Islands. To 3 cm. in length. Lives amongst soft corals, giant clams, sponges and seagrasses. At right: in S. Sulawesi.


Pleurosicya spongicola Larson 1990. Western Pacific; Indonesia. Found associate with, on sponges. N. Sulawesi pix. 

Genus Signigobius: One species/monotypic

Signigobius biocellatus Hoese & Allen 1977, Twinspot, Crab-eye Goby. To 10 cm. W. Pacific.  A delightful pair in S. Leyte, P.I.


Genus Trimma: More than a hundred described and yet to be scientifically named species



Trimma canna Winterbottom 2004. Candycane Pygmy Goby. To one inch in length. Western Pacific: Philippines, Caroline Is., Fiji, Marshall Is., and Palau. Here in an aquarium.


Trimma taylori Lobel 1979, Yellow Cave Goby. Indo-Pacific; Chagos, Hawaii, Guam, Indonesia, Red Sea. Found in caves, often upside down. Feed on harpacticoid copepods principally. To 3.5 cm. Males with longer first dorsal finnage, and yellow spotting on fins. S. Sulawesi pic of a male.


Sifter/Sleeper Gobies, Genus Valenciennea: Fifteen species.

Sand Sifter, aka Sleeper Gobies eagerly accept all kinds of foods and have proven to be quite disease resistant; their only possible downside is their prodigious digging behavior. I specifically have left them out of our consideration here as even the smaller species are too active, need more food than a forty (or less) gallon system can really supply; or put another way, having them calls for more filtration than I think is reasonable in such small volumes. You can/could bury foods… or train your Valenciennea to accept sinking pellets or such; but instead I encourage you to try some of the other genera listed above for this sand-sifting niche if you’re so inclined, and leave this genus for when you have more room.

Shrimp-Goby Symbionts: Some suitable for 20 gal.s… but better in larger; especially with tankmates

Pistol, aka Snapping Shrimps, genus Alpheus, family Alpheidae, really "live-together" with some fishes. Gobies in the genera Amblyeleotris, Cryptocentrus, Ctenogobiops, Istigobius, Stonogobiops and more form mutualistic symbiotic relationships with these crustaceans; the shrimp digging their shared burrow home, the goby keeping a sharp vigil against predators. The shrimps are virtually blind and use their antennae for partner goby communication at all times at the surface.

Partner gobies eat micro-fauna they find near the bottom, the shrimps feed mainly on what they find in their burrowing.

These partner, prawn, shrimp or watchman goby fish/shrimp associations make for fascinating presentations. Successful habitats call for broken rubble and coarse sand of two or more inches depth, or an artificial PVC pipe burrow (See Michael), a single or pair of gobies matched with an appropriate Alpheid. See Fishbase.org re likely matching/naturally symbiont species; though there are many records of “odd-couples” matching up in captivity. Here, due to space, and likely level of interest, we’ll just highlight a smattering of the goby species involved; some of those you’re most likely to find offered singly or paired, with or without their Alpheid symbiont.

Genus Amblyeleotris: twenty three described species. 

Amblyeleotris guttata (Fowler 1938), the Spotted Prawn-Goby. Western Pacific. To nearly four inches total length.  Found in coarse gravel in shallow reefs. One in Wakatobi with its pal .

Amblyeleotris periophthalma (Bleeker 1853), Broad-banded Shrimp Goby. To 3 inches, 8 cm.
Here reposing with its industrious cohabitant in Raja Ampat

Genus Cryptocentrus: Twenty two species.

Cryptocentrus cinctus (Herre 1936), the Yellow Prawn Goby. West Pacific; Singapore to Micronesia. To three inches in length. Aquarium images. A very common offering in the pet-fish interest. Come in yellow and blue varieties.

Genus Ctenogobiops: Six species. 

Ctenogobiops tangaroai  Lubbock & Polunin 1977, the Tangaroa Prawn Goby. A popular shrimp goby species in the aquarium interest. Tropical Pacific Ocean. To two and a half inches in length. Aquarium image. 

Genus Stonogobiops: Five species; more and more common in the pet-fish trade; all gorgeous

Stonogobiops xanthorhinica Hoese & Randall 1982,  Yellow-nose Prawn Goby. To 5.5 cm. in length. Western Pacific; Indonesia to Southern Japan to Micronesia. Fiji image. 

Stonogobiops yasha Yoshina & Shimada 2001. Western Pacific. To 4.7 cm. Aquarium photo. Best kept one to a tank, unless known to be a pair. Members of the same sex are territorial.

--Other "Goby-Like", Goby-Named Fish Groups--

Firefishes, Dartfishes, Family Microdesmidae, Subfamily Ptereleotrinae: Not really "True" Gobies, but called Dart Gobies by some.

These fishes are amongst the most distinctive and desired gobies, with their characteristic body shape, bright colors and flicking dorsal fins. There are two top fins, the first sporting six spines, the second with one spiny ray and four or five soft rays. There are four genera of about thirty described species.

Genus Nemateleotris contains the most popular species; unmistakable with their elongated anterior dorsal fin spines and perpetual body angle orientation.

Nemateleotris decora Randall & Allen 1973, the Elegant Firefish. Indo-Pacific in distribution, Mauritius to Micronesia. To three and  a half inches in length. Sipadan image.

Nemateleotris helfrichi Randall & Allen 1973, Helfrich's Dartfish. Western Pacific to the Tuamotus. To three and a half inches in length.

RMF aquarium pic.

Nemateleotris magnifica Fowler 1938, the Fire Goby. Indo-Pacific, eastern African coast to Hawai'i. To three and a half inches long. The most popular aquarium species. One in a typical pose in the Maldives... ready to dart back into its hole in the substrate, another single shot (almost always found in pairs) and a couple together in S. Sulawesi

Genus Ptereleotris; the species P. zebra and P. evides are offered worldwide. Live in groups, 40 gal. plus

Ptereleotris evides Jordan & Hubbs 1925, the Blackfin Dartfish. Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, eastern African coast to the Society Islands. To nearly six inches in length. Unusual for tending to swim away from divers rather than dart into burrows. One I photographed in N. Sulawesi.

Ptereleotris zebra (Fowler 1938), the Chinese Zebra Goby. Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to Marquesas. To a bit over four inches in length. Found in groups in the wild. Two in captivity

Mandarin "Gobies", Dragonets, Psychedelic "Gobies"

Often called gobies, the Dragonets are actually part of an adjacent Suborder (the Callionymoidei). The eighteen genera and about 130 species are typified by small gill openings, having broad, depressed heads, scaleless bodies and two dorsal fins... Living on the bottom with a characteristic "scooting" type of locomotion, these fishes can live in ten to tens of gallons depending on the species selected.

Some of the Few Dragonets Seen in the Trade:

          Most dragonets are rather bland in coloration, a smattering of brown, black, yellows… but a few are spectacular "paisley" prints. All are comical in their behavior; ready eaters, though given to starvation.

Genus Synchiropus: There are others… some beautifully red and black patterned; others blue…

Synchiropus ocellatus (Pallas 1770), the Ocellated Dragonet, THE Scooter Blenny; though other species as sold as such. To three inches in length. Western Pacific; Japan to Marquesas. Live on sandy lagoon bottoms. Aquarium image.


Synchiropus picturatus (Peters 1877), the Green, Picturesque or Psychedelic Mandarin/Dragonet. To seven cm. Indo-West Pacific; Philippines, Indonesia, northwestern Australia. Aquarium photo. 

Synchiropus splendidus (Herre 1927) the (Splendid, Blue) Mandarinfish. To 6 cm. in length. Western Pacific; Ryukyu to Australia. Aquarium photo. There are some red-based individuals. Spawned, rearing records exist for captivity.

 Goby Selection: General

1)       Because of their diminutive stature and bottom orientation you have to look closely at these animals before purchasing. They really come in two qualities; sterlingly fit, and dismally doomed.

2)      The most common cause of loss of Amblygobius (with jumping out a distant second!) is starvation. Get these fishes in a good "index condition" (round, not sunken in) and feed them continuously. Best with large, established reef systems, a refugium, and plenty of small living items to choose from.

3)      Examine the stock carefully for bloody or white markings; tanks with bloodied or dead individuals should be passed on.

4)      Check their breathing, it should be regular and not labored; for most species kept 60-90 gill beats per minute.

5)      Is the fish looking around, aware of its environment and you? Gobies are heavily predated on; they are never "asleep at the wheel". If the specimens aren't alert, leave them.

Goby Behavior:

Territoriality can be a big problem with some species, individuals. Make and use clear, seal-able containers if you don't have extra tank space to move bullies, bullied.

Predator/prey relations; oh yes, except for the species that have natural bad-tasting slime immunity (a term I just made up), like the coral, clown gobies, this group is like bite-size candy bars; prey for most anything with a big enough mouth will suck them down.

Acclimation; maybe just a general note to place all the "colony" type species individuals all at once to reduce the likelihood and intensity of aggression.

Goby Disease:

Gobioids for the most part are relatively disease resistant, with the exception of common starvation and one general class of disease, environmental. Though they have cycloid or ctenoid scales, they have about the same intolerance of harsh chemical treatments as "naked" fishes. Many more are bumped off from copper, malachite and formalin- containing medicants than from the infectious diseases they're used against.


            So; quite an assemblage of fishes are labeled as gobies; thousands of species; mostly small and easygoing: suitable for the maximum gallonage we’ve set ourselves here; some even keep-able in smaller tanks. Key points in their successfully husbandry are selecting healthy specimens, placing them in established settings (with live foods present); and not placing too-competitive, predatory tank mates with them. Oh, and of course, making sure the top of the system is covered to prevent their jumping out.


Bibliography/Further Reading:

Gobies In General:

Baensch, Hans A. & Helmut Debelius. 1994. Marine Atlas, vol.1. MERGUS, Germany.

Brown, Stanley. 1996. Gobies. V.4, #1 96 The J. of Maquaculture, The Breeder's Registry.

Burgess, Warren E. 1975. Salts from the seven seas; gobies. TFH 2/75.

Burgess, Warren E., Herbert R. Axelrod & Raymond E. Hunziker. 1990. Atlas of Aquarium Fishes, vol. 1, Marine Fishes. T.F.H. Publ., NJ.

Colin, Patrick. 1975. The green band goby (Gobiosoma). Aquarium Digest International 3:3, 75.

Damian, Sorin. 1993. Breeding behavior of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus (Bubyr) caucasius. FAMA 2/93. Cold water example.

Delbeek, Charles & Scott W. Michael. 1993. The substrate sifting Gobies: Fishes that earn their keep. AFM 5/93.

Fenner, Bob. 1999. Gobies. Notes for the new saltwater hobbyist. FAMA 9/99.

Hunziker, Raymond E. 1985. Gobies for freshwater and brackish aquaria. TFH 12/85.

Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. fishes of the World, 3rd ed. John Wiley& Sons, NY. For systematic reviews.

Coral Gobies, Genus Gobiodon

Debelius, Helmut. 1986. Gobies in the marine aquarium, pt. 3: Coral gobies. Today's Aquarium 1/86.

Esterhaus, Hans. 1995. The citron goby, Gobiodon citrinus. TFH 12/95.

Dart- Firefishes, Subfamily Ptereleotrinae

Burgess, Warren E. 1980. The genus Nemateleotris. TFH 6/80.

Carlson, Bruce A. 1982. Nemateleotris magnifica Fowler 1938. FAMA 1/82.

Debelius, Helmut. 1986. Gobies in the marine aquarium, pt 2.: Fire gobies. Today's Aquarium 3/86.

Pyle, Richard L. 1989. Helfrich's Dartfish, Nemateleotris helfrichi Randall & Allen.


Algosaibi, Farouk A. 1983. Spawning mandarin fish, Synchiropus splendidus (Herre). FAMA 5/83.

Bartelme, Terry D. 2001. Caring for a Mandarin. FAMA 6 & 11/01.

Carlson, Bruce A. 1983. The mandarin fish Synchiropus splendidus (Herre). FAMA 2/83.

Cuttriss, Alastair M. 2001. The Mandarin dragonet. FAMA 4/01.

Debelius, Helmut. 1987. Mandarin dragonets in the marine aquarium; spawning at night. Today's Aquarium-Aquarium Heute 1/87.

Delbeek, J. Charles. 1989. The mandarin fish: Synchiropus spendidus (Herre). SeaScope Fall 89.

Kurtz, Jeff. 2000. Synchiropus: Dragonets with style. FAMA 5/00.

Lang, Tom. 1998. Care and feeding of the Mandarinfish (Synchiropus splendidus). Aquarium Frontiers 1/98.

Mayland, Hans J. 1975. The Mandarin. Marine Aquarist 6:3/75.

Michael, Scott W. 2000. The dragonets. Beautiful, but not for everyone. AFM 9/00.

Michael, Scott W. 2001. The very common problem of feeding mandarin dragonets. AFM 11/01.

Sprung, Julian. 1994. "Reef Notes". FAMA 8/94.

Stratton, Richard F. 1998. Secrets of the exotic mandarinfish. TFH 3/98.


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