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/Fishwatcher's Guide to the Aquarium Fishes of the World, v. 2

Australia's Wonders, Above and Below Water



Research on Things to do in Australia      1/13/18
Dear Editor,
My name is Janet and I’m a writer at Your RV Lifestyle. I was doing research on things to do in Australia and just finished reading your wonderful blog post: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/mudskipfaqs.htm
In that article, I noticed that you cited a solid post that I’ve read in the past: https://australianmuseum.net.au/fish-and-fishes I just finished writing a guide that is even more detailed, updated and comprehensive on the 100 Best Things to do in Australia. It is over 10,000 words and packed with practical tips and advice. You can find it here:
If you like the guide we’d be humbled if you cited us in your article. Of course, we will also share your article with our newsletter subscribers and followers across our social platforms.
Either way, keep up the great work.
<Will look over and post the link. Thank you for your efforts. Bob Fenner>

Fish map, Australian fish distributions    3/3/13
Neat! Thanks... wish we had for all life on zee planet. B

WetWebMedia Crew, Heron Isl.   7/22/10
Sue Garrett July 21 Eyes zapped, huh! Which WWM account does that fall under?! LOL! It might be fun, though, at some point to consider having/planning some sort of annual crew get-together -- separate from a conference or dive -- though maybe taking advantage of having it at the same time to save on everyone's costs. Nothing 'formal' or that would have to be funded by WWM. Just a way/opportunity for the crew to meet/meet up with each other whether they're diving or not. One thing nice about a making it a "destination" like Orlando (or even CA where you are) is that there are so many other things to do/reasons to go there which could provide additional incentives for people to take time off to travel given the crew is from all over. Might even be interesting to do some sort of knock-off of the Today Show's annual 'Where in the world is Matt Lauer' segment, and instead call it, 'Where in the world is the WWM crew right now?!', even create some publicity around it to stir up additional interest in the WWM website/magazine. A thought for the future perhaps '¦

What did you think about Heron Island when you were there? How did it compare to other places you've been? Did you hear those strange mutton birds every night? I'd go back there in a heart beat. Hope I have the chance to again some day.

Radial keratotomy... can't think of a better investment, way to spend our money... at the time! Do agree w/ the annual get tog. notion. Either trade shows or hobby conferences, and like you state, some place that is fun otherwise (petfish, diving, what have you).
Heron Island was a very good time, though noisy at night from the ding dang birds! Oh, I see you mention them as well. The diving is mixed, but if one looks about there are many macro opportunities, and the dives that are further out, away are spectacular. B

Daphnia (sourcing, AUS.) 12/02/08 To the Wet Web Media crew. The thing I would like to say is I'm very impressed by the information provided on your website. I would also like to apologize as I know I'm in the wrong place but I'm going to ask anyway. I have had the internet since October 12th and its now 2nd December and every night I search in vain for someone who can supply me with a live daphnia culture. Magna , Pulex , Moina any type will do! I live near Townsville Qld. I will be more than happy to pay and pick-up or wait for delivery. I would take any days off work. I'm getting frustrated (I guess you get frustrated about dumb Qs like mine but I don't know and can't seem to find a supplier in Australia). I would consider any price as my alternative is flying to a creek in NSW I know. Again sorry to bother you. ANY info would be appreciated! Thanks Leigh <Hell Leigh. I'm not really familiar with the fishkeeping industry in Australia, and would encourage you to get in touch with, for example, the excellent 'Australian Aquarium' magazine if you're after information on suppliers and retailers. You could also consult the members of ANGFA, one of the better Australian fish clubs. Although interested in native fish faunas, many of its members are expert fishkeepers, and I've been lucky enough to work with several of them over the years. In any case, culturing daphnia shouldn't be difficult; here in England at least most any ditch or pond sooner or later seems to develop a thriving population. Bags of live daphnia sold in pet stores are common here, and I can't think why you could just add these to a barrel of water seeded with some decaying vegetation and left somewhere sunny for algae to grow. Frozen daphnia may be an option for your fish, though I have to admit none of mine ever seem to eat them! Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Daphnia (sourcing, AUS.) 12/02/08 thanks for the reply. <No problems.> I live in a major banana growing area here and there is twice daily aerial spraying of insecticides to control mites. the waters here are crystal clear and nearly lifeless. we also have huge numbers of cane toads (a very hardy introduced poisonous pest) it, and the occasional Gambusia (mosquito fish) are the only creatures I've found. no dragonfly larvae, few mosquitoes, but vast swarms of saltwater sandflies. <Sounds pretty grim! Almost an object lesson in the impact of intense single-crop agriculture on the local environment.> thanks again for trying. I guess I'm going to have to travel to NSW (3-4 days hitch) Ill try the organizations you have mentioned. wish me luck!(I'm not giving up yet!) <Good luck! Neale.>

Where is Bob? Not a Waldo puzzle, but wishing he was in the "Land Down Under"    9/19/08 Just wondering if Bob is in Australia for this great new find of all these new species... seems like he should be fronting the expedition. http://news.yahoo.com/nphotos/100s-new-species-discovered-Australia/ss/events/sc/091808ausreefspecies#photoViewer=/080918/ids_photos_wl/r3318256877.jpg thanks, Alan <Man! I do wish so... Thank you for sending this story/link along Alan. BobF, in sunny S. Cal... but out to Raja An/mpat next month...>

Some pics. NRA Book series  07/07/08 Bob, Crew, <Mick> Being "stranded" on a tropical island just off the great barrier reef in Australia for work reasons, I took a stroll through some of the intertidal zones - here's a few pictures you may (or may not) find interesting. "Cnid1" - seems to be a relative of the Zoanthids I keep in one of my marine systems, but these were found in a rock pool well out of the sea at low tide, temperature in the small pool was well over 30?c (maybe closer to 35) <Look to be some sort of Actinarian to me> The sea cucumbers (if that's indeed what they are) were moving along the tide washed beach almost imperceptibly slowly. <Are Cukes/Holothuroids> whilst I'm stuck here am studying Bob/Anthony's book "Reef Invertebrates" and Anthony's "Book of Coral Propagation" - question for Bob/Anthony, when do you expect further books (Reef Invertebrates seems to be part of a series)? <Am still hopeful that JasonC and I will do the Cnidarian volume, two fish books... Antoine... still going two hundred percent on other projects> kind regards, have a great day. MickT
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

GENERAL HELLO - CHARLIE VERON... Book notice Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2008  6/25/08 Dear Bob, <Hey Marty!> Just a short note to say Hello to both you and Diana and that all is going well with you guys. Assume you are getting ready to again start buying real-estate - looks like that part of the cycle is coming round! <Uh, Mmm, no... time for me to move out of this rats nest more likely. The economy is still in free fall... There's no way to invest and beat recession (devaluation, inflation) currently> Meanwhile - any interesting dive trips as of recent? <Mmm, yes... Red Sea last month, Borneo the one before... next month and the one after HI, in Sept. Curacao, October Raja Ampat...> Aside from our January N.C. trip where bad weather curtailed the majority of our planned diving & dredging (though we all still had a good time) - an April jaunt to Cebu where I got in a good day of scuba - has been it so far. I did manage to collect two species of Cypraea that were new for me - so that's always a bonus (like imaging a new fish). <Great!> I won't go on as I've got to get out of here shortly - but just wanted to check and make sure you know about Charlie Veron's new work (which I'm sure you do). Anyway - just in case you don't - A Reef in Time - The Great Barrier Reef From Beginning to End (pub. 2008) is a must read. <Thanks much for this notice. Had not heard/seen> Keep in touch - Regards, Marty <Will do. Hello to Angela. BobF> Marty Beals Tideline

Great RC Thread... Dive shots from the Great Barrier Reef  6/12/08 Dear Crew, <Hi Andy, Mich with you tonight.> I don't know whether any/all of you scan Reef Central, <Oh yes, on occasion.> but there is an incredible thread posted by a guy who lives off of Wheeler Reef/Great Barrier Reef--probably 300 pictures he has taken while diving. <Wow 21 pages! Some very nice photos.> It is definitely worth the 2 hours it takes to go through the thread! <And 2 hours it will take! But wow some beautiful pictures and I'm only half way through. Thanks for sharing!> http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?s=&threadid=1409040 Andy <Cheers, Mich>  

Help needed, Australian Biotope 5/27/08 Hi there <Hello> Just need your help before I start buying fish. All my liverock and livestock is/will be sourced from a small family business, on the North west coast of Australia (close to Ningaloo Reef) as I am attempting to create an aquarium representing this area. <Cool!> Stats: I have a 300L (120 x 45 x60cm) aquarium with a 100L refuge tank/sump, this is stocked with 75kg life rock. The Berlin system is used a Jebo 180 Hang on Protein Skimmer, (venturi action) can apparently handle aquariums up to 700L, may need another, bigger, better one? <Not familiar with this model, does use a bit older technology but may still work.> Mechanical filtration is also used (filter wool changed weekly) Water movement achieved with wavemaker and powerheads. The tank has been running for 3 months, coralline algae is already growing. Stocked with a few pieces of coral (soft) 3 weeks ago, they appear to be doing well. <Good> Water parameters: Ca 450ppm, Ammonia, Phosphates & Nitrates/Nitrites 0, pH 8.3 I have the following fish in mind. I find it really difficult to find comprehensive information on some of them. I know I'm listing too many, but I just can't cut anymore from the list. A small shoal of Black Axil Chromis (Chromis atripectoralis) <Chances of seeing schooling behavior is rare in captivity, more often than not they just spend their time picking off the weakest ones of their group.> Coral Beauty (Centropyge bispinosus) A pair of Clarke's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) Margined Coralfish (Chelmon marginalis) Cleaner Wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) <Skip it, do horribly in captivity. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/labroide.htm > Brown Coral blenny (Atrosalarius fuscus) Stripy (Microcanthus strigatus) Is the fish reef safe? <Most likely.> Regal Tang (Paracanthurus hepatus) Not sure if the tank is big enough for a tang. <I would skip it, tank is too small and already very well stocked.> I need your help to cut the list. Any alternative suggestions will be greatly appreciated. Thank you so much for your time (sorry for the long e-mail) Regards Heyn <An interesting project, you might want to type up an article on it someday. Good luck with your new tank.> <Chris>

Help needed, Australian Biotope 5/28/08 Hi Chris <Hello again.> Thank you so much for the prompt reply. I will cut the Regal tang and the Cleaner wrasse from the list. Will let you know how things go and if the Stripy behave him/herself. Regards Heyn <Please do.> <Chris>

Australia Collecting License and fence/barrier nets   1/17/06 Hi Bob am looking to buy a fish collecting licenses in Australia what do you think and were can you bye fence nets etc Hank <Mmm, licenses in the "Land Down Under" are closely numbered and regulated. Likely you would have to become a citizen, and either buy into an existing one, or add your name to a list, lottery to win one if/when same became available. Fence nets can be made (I used to do this... don't!), or bought from outfits that make them by machine... Look to the aquaculture industry, magazines... I used to get mine from Memphis Net & Twine. Bob Fenner> Greetings again from South Pacific 7/7/05 Hi Bob, Nice to know that vast stretch of water has not deterred you in visiting this side of the Pacific. Heron is still on the to-do list as with Lady Elliot and many others. <Very worthwhile> If you come this way again don't hesitate to get in touch; the reefs here are not as exotic as your probably aware; but has many interesting critters all the same. I've been traveling to the Solomon Islands this year with another 3 to go.  I'd be interested if you had any recommendations. Regards Ross <Thank you for this. Nothing like knowing folks locally who have "been there, done that". Bob F>

 Australia nets slippery passenger There was something decidedly fishy about one female passenger arriving at Melbourne International Airport. Customs officers found 51 live tropical fish hidden under her skirt. While examining the 43-year-old woman's bags on Friday, officials reportedly heard "flipping noises from the vicinity of her waist". "An examination revealed 15 plastic water-filled bags holding fish," the Australian Customs Service said in a statement. The fish were allegedly concealed inside a purpose-built apron. Experts have yet to establish the exact species of the fish, but if the woman had successfully brought them into Australia, they could have posed potentially serious quarantine, environmental and health risks, customs officials said. The woman could face up to 10 years in jail and an $80,000 fine if convicted of smuggling wildlife. Story from BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4613985.stm Published: 2005/06/06 12:14:43 GMT

   The fish were concealed in a special apron

Great Barrier Reef Dive Business dive boat brokers <Neat concept. Will keep on file. Bob Fenner; Ph:;+61 7 55345972 Fax:;+61 7 55250575 Address:;Box 63/955 Gold Coast Highway Palm Beach, Queensland, 4221 Australia.               Email:                <mailto:enquires@diveboatbrokers.com> enquires@diveboatbrokers.com Web Site:          < http://www.diveboatbrokers.com/> www.diveboatbrokers.com Dive Boat Brokers provides operators in the dive industry with a professional service to source second hand and new dive vessels to match operational needs. We also represent business owners looking to buy or sell their operations. Through our 8000+ contacts in the industry and our focus on the world dive fleet, we provide dive vessels to meet your needs. With over 30 years experience in the finance, commercial, design and project management aspects of the Marine Industry we can confidently and comprehensively cover all your needs in buying or selling liveaboard and day operational dive boats. Our company web site is www.diveboatbrokers.com < http://www.diveboatbrokers.com/>   so please take the time to visit, as it provides guidance in support of your enquiries. Dive Boat Brokers is pleased offer for immediate sale the attached day dive vessel. If you have further interest in this vessel please contact us. If you would prefer not to receive any further emails from us please let us know. Best Regards Dive Boat Brokers

How do I get live sand in Australia? Dear WWMCrew, << Blundell here. >> How do I come across live sand, as in Australia we don't have this in the shops. Would it be as simple as going to the beach with my bucket. << First of all let me say I have no idea what the laws and regulations are in Australia.  If it is legal to do so, then yes I would just walk out into a bout waste deep water and scoop up a bucket of sand.  That is it. >> If so what do I need to do before using, if not how do I make some. << You can make some by using some other sand, and seeding it with ocean water (live water) and a small amount (few handfuls) of live sand from another aquarium. >> Thank You Chris <<  Blundell  >>

Metal halide in Australia 9/21/04 Hi,  How much would a good metal halide bulb cost AU as cheap as possible??  Thanks <I really have no idea.  In the US, the range from about $60 up to about $100 USD.  "industrial grade" lamps can be purchased as cheaply as $15 USD.  Simply figuring the exchange may not account for different shipping rates, tariffs, etc.  Do look for one of the Aussie marine aquarium message boards for more help.  Best Regards.  AdamC.>

Flying fish in the Land Down Under Hi there Mr. Fenner While on the internet looking for information on flying fish in the Great Barrier Reef off Australia, I came across your email address on a site. I wondering if you could recommend any sites with information as we are having a lot of trouble locating any with much information at all on flying fish. It is for my grandsons assignment due this week. We have been searching for weeks, but cannot hit on much info. I have looked under Exocoetoidei, flying fish and Atheriniforms. At this stage we are looking for the life cycle and reproductive system with pics if possible & the internal structure of the flying fish. We have also tried the encyclopedia etc. Hoping to hear from you soon, Joan Christie <Flying fishes are important commercial fisheries organisms in a few places in the world, so much of their natural history has been studied. I would start with fishbase.org in your online search for information, and once you have the scientific name/s of the species you're interested in, go back and plug this/these into Google, other search engines for more... and if this doesn't get you enough of what you want, utilize the services of a reference librarian at a large college library. Bob Fenner>

Re: freshwater Jawfish??? hello bob, thanks for your quick response. I'll try to go in that direction you pointed out. I will be happy if I find something native. I'll let you know. Silvia <Hotay, real good... there are surprising (at least for me!) many interesting, odd-ball fishes in "the land down under"... You may have to dig a bit, perhaps even go collecting, but well worth the effort. Bob Fenner>

FW fishes down under hi bob, <Silvia> I know that we have a lot of interesting species out here. but I just started to learn by scratching the surface. I started with a guide about the local wildlife and joined the ANGFA( Australian new guinea fish association) 2 months ago because you don't find many native fish in the shops around. last month I went on a field trip with them to an area half an hour away from my place and I was amazed about what we found. I mean it makes a real difference to see a picture of a fish in your creek in a book and than actually find it. it was really exciting! <Does sound like it!> last year I found a fish magazine in our local library. I borrowed the whole year's subscription and read it during my kids Easter holidays. they haven't been very happy because they had to prepare dinner by themselves.
<Hee hee! Good practice for them and holiday for you> but that bugged me. it took a while and I found a different magazine at a newsagent which I now subscribed. often there are stories or questions about fish that are not available here in Australia but nonetheless it is interesting to learn. and if I find something I really like I start asking questions and keep looking around. often one way led to another and you find things you never expected. Silvia <Glad to find you enjoying locals so much. Folks are wont to consider what is "just" around them it seems. Bob Fenner>

Aussie livestock locals hi bob, <Silvia> you're right with the locals. you hardly find them here in aquarium shops but probably overseas. sometimes I read in an article in an American magazine that someone keeps an Australian rainbow. I then wonder what species it would be. I am with the Australian new guinea fish association (ANGFA) and we take great care to recognise every species. and we even separate the different strains and try to keep track of them. <Yes, very important... for breeding, identification... many are quite different> when you are into it is so interesting. depending on from which creek you select the colouration is very different. we have people in the group who can tell by the colouration from which creek/ area the fish come. I find that amazing. <Indeed> people often don't appreciate the environment they live in. it is a shame. we had visitors from overseas over the xmas period and they were stunned. just what we have in our backyard! they only find it in the supermarket in the exotic area and the wildlife they only see in the zoo, just if. here there are so close you nearly can touch them. sometimes you can. <Well put> there is so much beauty in the little things. people often don't see it and don't take care of the environment. sometimes things are destroyed before we even got to know them. <Amen> because the natives are quite hardy they make good beginners fish from my point of view. I don't know why so many people start with goldfish in a little bowl. I like them only in a big pond outside. and the locals are really colourful too. but I was always a fancier of the "wild type" fish. Silvia <Keep on "beating that drum" Silvia. Bob Fenner>

Great Barrier Reef Corals mostly dead by 2050 Have you seen this article? I guess our hobby is actually a good thing. If this is true I guess taking coral out <No. Thanks for sending it along> of the ocean and bringing to a more stable environment is a good thing. Maybe that is the only chance for survival? <Umm, no... as the planet goes, so do we. Bob Fenner> SYDNEY (AFP) - The brightly-coloured corals that make Australia's Great Barrier Reef one of the world's natural wonders will be largely dead by 2050 because of rising sea temperatures, according to a report released Saturday.    Instead of the rich environment depicted in the recent movie Finding Nemo, the coral reef will be bleached out and replaced by ordinary seaweed, costing the tourism industry billion of dollars, the report into the impact of global warming says. Authors Hans and Ove Hoegh-Guldberg -- the head of Queensland University's marine studies centre and his economist father -- spent two years examining the effects of rising sea temperature on the reef for Queensland tourism authorities and the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF). Their 350-page report found no prospect of avoiding the "chilling long-term eventualities" of coral bleaching because greenhouse gases were already warming the seas as part of a process it said would take decades to stop. "Coral cover will decrease to less than five percent on most reefs by the middle of the century under even the most favourable assumptions," the report said. "This is the only plausible conclusion if sea temperatures continue to rise." Warmer sea waters make corals suffer thermal stress, eventually making them bleach and die. The report said this could occur if temperatures increased by as little as one degree centigrade, well below the two to six degrees water temperatures around the reef are expected to rise by over the next century. "There is no evidence that corals can adapt fast enough to match even the lower projected temperature rise," it found. Organisms reliant on coral would become rare or even face extinction, the report said. It said the bleaching would cost the economy up to eight billion dollars (6.24 billion US) and 12,000 jobs by 2020 under the worst-case scenario. Even under the best case scenario, about 6,000 jobs would be lost and tourists would be forced to visit "Great Barrier Reef theme parks" offshore to view the remaining coral. The reef covers more than 345,000 square kilometers (133,000 square miles) off Australia's northeast coast, making it the world's largest coral reef. Consisting of 2,900 interlinked reefs, 900 islands and 1,500 fish species, scientists consider it the world's largest living organism. Yet the delicate habitat faces numerous environmental threats, including chemical run off from farms, over-fishing, bleaching and the parasitic Crown-of-Thorns starfish, which attacks coral. The government announced plans in December to reduce farm run off and ban fishing in about a third of the reef in a bid to protect Australia's number one tourist draw card. But the report's authors said the government needed to do more, recommending Canberra ratify the Kyoto protocol on reducing greenhouse gases and take the lead in emission reduction. The WWF said urgent measures must be put in place to minimize reef damage and reduce greenhouse gases. "The argument for instant action is undeniable," WWF said in a statement. "Major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions must occur now, not in five or ten years time. This is likely to deliver major benefits to our societies both in the near-term and at times beyond 2050."

Great Barrier Reef Questions   5/5/03 Why do the Great Barrier Reef is referred to as the world's largest living organisms?<Well... in short.  Everything on the reef is dependent.  The marine fish require the corals to live.  The corals attract small fish which in turn attract larger fish.> Describe 3 major threats to the health of the Great Barrier Reef?<Global Warming, overfishing, pollution.> What do you think might be the wide-ranging effects on other living organisms if White Syndrome cannot be eradicated and the Great Barrier Reef is destroyed?<My gosh.. a LOT would happen.  Mass deaths of marine animals would be the biggest result.  Try a google search for more info on the reef.  Hope this helps!  Phil>

Book: Sea Urchins of Australia and the Indo-Pacific It's finally available! Sea urchins of Australia and the Indo-Pacific Ashley Miskelly December 2002 180p. soft cover full colour throughout ISBN 0 9577455 6 7 The first full colour book ever published on Sea Urchins of Australia and the Indo-Pacific, this book describes and illustrates 85 of a known 220 species  that occur throughout Australia and its offshore territories. Most of the species likely to be found from low tide to about 20m deep are included. Discover the variety of sea urchins that inhabit Australia and the Indo-Pacific as each sea urchin is described in a format that is not over-scientific nor too simple. Beachcombers, naturalists, divers, professional and amateur marine enthusiasts will all find this book useful. Each species is described in detail and illustrated with a number of colour photographs, showing, in most cases, the live urchin, and four different views of the test If you have previously ordered a copy, you do not need to do so again regards Patty **************************************************************************** ********** Worldwide postage A$10 per order! Bookshop: http://www.booksofnature.com **************************************************************************** **************** This is a once-only mailing to people dealing with the study of sea urchins. I am sorry to have disturbed you if you do not appreciate this information Dr. Patty Jansen Bookshop: http://www.booksofnature.com Publishing and info site: http://www.capricornica.com Books of Nature P.O. Box 345 Lindfield NSW 2070 Australia phone/fax: 02 9415 8098 international: +61 2 9415 8098 E-mail: capric@capricornica.com or books@booksofnature.com <Thank you for this notice. Will post on our root web. Bob Fenner, WetWebMedia.com>

Re: 600,000L display tank in Australia <Now that's a tank! And worthwhile visiting... even if you might slip into the water yourself... Bob F> Cheers, Pete! > All is well over here in Australia. Excellent to hear :) Our new tank is still going up slowly. > Thanks very much for your previous thoughts on our project. A pleasure, my friend. > Having not been on the net long I've been familiarizing myself with some marine-based sites and have been most impressed with coralrealm and WetWebMedia. Are there any other sites you consider essential viewing? Wow... so many great places to visit. Photography, ID, etc I like fishbase.org for fundamental taxonomy/ID... and even some of the big message boards like reefcentral.com can offer a nice pulse on the cutting edge techniques by aquarists in the hobby (a lot of amateurs there as well... but some really good stuff too). The e-zine Advanced Aquarist (http://www.advancedaquarist.com/) at reefs.org is pretty good. And if anyone in your company can read German, Daniel Knop's articles and work have been quite good (fascinating recent article on Entacmaea quadricolor imposed propagation in captivity). > For a very large tank such as ours, what would be the best quarantine procedure for fish we have just caught? Do follow zoological protocol: 4 weeks bare-bottomed, dim lit display. Sponge filtration (easily maintained/sterilized), non-porous artifacts (PVC pipe fittings) for hiding security and sterility (non-absorptive to meds if necessary). Medication is optional but recommended. I'd suggest freshwater dips coming in and/or going out. Formalin for all for first several days to one week. Malachite green in concert with Formalin for those that can/will tolerate it (large scaled fishes yes... but never scaleless, Elasmobranchs or small scaled species). I do not care for copper at all... there are very few things that it is truly effective against. More often it is inconvenient and ineffective. Anything if can kill... formalin can kill as well or better (especially with malachite). Still... it is an industry standard for controlling "Ich". If you choose to use it... please dose and test for concentrations twice daily... critical to maintain therapeutic levels. My best advice for controlling parasites in QT is a daily water changes siphoned from the bottom every day for the first 8 consecutive days. It has been proven to "cure" Ich without any meds by breaking the larval (Tomite) cycle. I learned this from Blasiola and Gratzek (fish pathology at U. Georgia/Athens) Do individuals need to be held in separate tanks, or could we put through say 20 green Chromis in one tank? For most fishes it would be best to keep one per tank. However in this case (with so many tiny fishes of the same species) I could live with the group QT if you are strict with the 4 week QT. I cannot emphasize strongly enough how critical the full 4 week QT is. While most diseases will be expressed within the first 2 weeks... some can be dormant for nearly one month. Be strict my friend. > Is a freshwater dip followed by four weeks observation and bottom-siphoning the best treatment? Right on, my brother! Would you recommend combining methylene blue with the dip for newly captured fish? It is a good idea for most fishes... but some small scaled (Chromis) and scaleless species are quite sensitive to it. Yes... a little M. blue is good. > Similarly with corals and other invertebrates, can we hold more than one specimen per quarantine tank? Definitely in this case... with inverts infectious diseases are expressed quickly as a rule. Qt with inverts is really for screening pests and predators (bait for hitchhikers in the tank by suspending corals on racks or tiers and leave meaty foods on the glass bottom to lure predatory crabs, mantis, etc from the rocks. Many great tips and tricks here for screening corals of problem worms, crabs, shrimp, etc. We have some 4600L  fiberglass aquaculture tanks with the floor sloping to a centre drain that we could use for this purpose. Excellent... just try to do small batches to reduce the impact if an infectious disease should manifest. > I'm happy to ask these questions via a site such as WetWebMedia if you > prefer, so that others may also benefit from your wisdom. Actually... that would be great, my friend! Many aquarists around the world would love to hear of your facility and learn from our exchanges. Always feel welcome to e-mail me privately just the same... but please to submit husbandry queries to WetWebMedia.com And I thank you for your consideration :) I will forward this to Bob just the same so that he can post it. > Regards, Pete McKenzie
Best regards, Anthony

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