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FAQs about the Fathead, Sunburst Anthias

Related Articles: The Sunburst or Fathead Anthias, Fancy Basses

Related FAQs: Anthiines

 A captive Fathead Anthias.

Temporary housing, 20 gal./ Serranocirrhitus      11/29/12
Hello crew. I haven't contacted you guys and gals in a long time as everything had been going great in my 20 gallon for over 3 years. Just my ocellaris clown and bicolor blenny. Both very nice healthy. My question involves my 20 gallon being used as temporary housing for a Sunburst or Fathead Anthias about 1.5" long.
<Do see my brief article on WWM re this species, Serranocirrhitus latus... needs a darkened area to feel at ease>
I will be removing the clown as I'm donating him to my nephew who is sick with cancer and loves Nemo. Anyways, i have a 75 gallon set up and will start the cycling process on Saturday. Will these confines be fine for about a month with this fish?
<If the habitat mentioned can be provided, very likely so>
 And will the 75 be ok for this fish in the future along with a flame Angel? I haven't bought the fish but my lfs doesn't hold fish for customers and i was wanting to buy it soon as they don't get them much. Thanks in advance. You guys really are the greatest. My 3 year old tank is proof.
Looking forward to your response.
<Cheers! Bob Fenner>

Fathead and Waitei compatability    04/18/10
Hello WetWeb Crew,
I've a question about Fathead Anthias compatability. In my 180 gal (6 ft long) reef tank, I have single 1" Fathead, a 3" Holacanthus bermudensis, a 3" Paracanthurus hepatus and 6 other small fish (Mandarin, 2 Firefish gobies, Bluedot Jawfish,
<Do read here re this species please: http://wetwebmedia.com/BluSptJawF.htm
2 Percula). Would a group of 5 Waitei Anthias be compatible with the single Fathead and other current fish?
<The Serranocirrhitus won't cause the Waitei any harm or concern, the Atlantic angel might if too boisterous... This Anthiine is not easily kept though...>
From research I've done it appears that the Waitei would not be a problem, but I'm not sure if Fathead would harass them when grown larger?
<I strongly doubt that it will/would. Bob Fenner>

Re: Fathead and Waitei compatability 4/18/2010
Dear Bob and WetWeb Crew,
<Welcome Wendy>
thank you so much for your thoughts on Waitei group. As they are not easily kept I will forgo the attempt at keeping these, and perhaps add 2 more Fathead Anthias...?
<Mmm, Fatheads/Sunburst Anthias are not "that" outgoing that I'd recommend them much for a larger system... If you're looking for something of this subfamily that are rather hardier, outgoing, relatively/at all available, I suggest Pseudanthias squamipinnis... others that are listed on the linked files above where you were last referred>
Regarding the Bluespot, I believe all's well (4" sand bed, fine and reef grade mix with much live rock and rubble). I have read thru much info on your site with regard to him, but wondering if there's anything in particular you meant which seems not right in my tank for a Bluespot Jawfish?
<Sorry re... I have a pending article re this/Rosenblatt's Jaw... need what you state, but also cool/er water... a good cover over the top of the tank!>
I am watching the interaction between he and other animals, especially the angel which I've had from a 3/4" specimen,
<Ah good>
and so far all
seems peaceful, with a nice burrow constructed , and eating great just as in the qt tank.
Best wishes,
Wendy Dyke
<And you, BobF>

Re: 75 gal reef and Fathead Anthias -- 05/03/09
Bob? My english

looks pretty okay to me man.
<Mmm, there are ten spelling and grammatical errors on the original>
I am in AP english literature and was in AP english
<.... "The world's smartest termite... poses no more threat to me than the world's smartest man">
composition and writing last year and i
<... this personal pronoun is capitalized>
think im
pretty decently
educated (not to sound snobby). I have read this a few times and it really looks like my use of the english
language is fine...
Also did you tell me to ditch a phosban reactor?
<See WWM re... unnecessary and deleterious>
I have a standard 75 gallon reef with 125 lbs of live rock and a 5" dsb.
The corals are many zoas, mushrooms, acans and a frogspawn. There is a 20 gallon sump with a coralife
<... Company product names are proper nouns... capitalized>
 125 super skimmer and phosban reactor?
that had been set up since I started the tank but i
am fixing right now.
There is also around 10 lbs of lr plus chaeto macro algae with a 96w pc. I had a copperband that i tried to keep by itself to see if i could successfully keep it after my 2nd attempt with the species but he died from
a parasitic infeciton around 4 months after I got him. The tank is now empty. I have read through your site about fat head anthias. It said on your site that 100 gallons was the minimum with lots of live rock for a
trio of fathead anthias. I don't
have a 100, but i have 125 lbs of lr and a 265 watt pc with 2 actinic 2 10k.
There are plenty of caves and they would be the only fish in the tank.
Since they are so small, is it possible to keep a group such as a male with many females or at least a male female pair?
<A trio likely will work... Try using your spelling and grammar checkers...
Likely enlightening, at least educational. BobF>

Re: 75 gal reef and Fathead Anthias, "spelling" as a paradigm... poss.  - 05/03/09
Touché Bob I didn't think you would hound me over capitalization, but I guess you win this one...
<Am not given to finite games Zach... but infinite... My "goal" is not to win or avoid losing, but to "keep the game in play". Be chatting, B>

Stocking'¦Flasher Wrasses & Fathead Anthias -- 04/09/09
Hello All,
<<Hiya Tricia>>
I have been reviewing the posted emails, but I'm finding a little conflicting information regarding appropriate tank size for a flasher wrasse harem and a fathead anthias.
<<Mmm, yes'¦much can be put to personal opinion/experience. I have kept both fishes, and in the same tank, so I'm happy to proffer mine>>
There are some posts that say neither should be housed in a tank smaller than 100 gallons.
<<Bigger IS better'¦but much also depends on the total stocking densities and other species present>>
However there are other posts that indicate that 55 gallons would work for 3 flasher wrasses (1 male/2 female) and 37 gallons is enough for the fathead.
<<Again, it depends on whether other fishes will be introduced'¦ But most hobbyists can't ignore the impulse to add more fishes'¦So, a 75g should probably be considered 'minimum'>>
I would like to keep the following in a 46 gallon (3ft long, 21 inches tall and 16 inches wide):
1 Firefish (Nemateleotris sp.)
1 fathead anthias (Serranocirrhitus latus)
3 flasher wrasses (Paracheilinus sp.)
2 cleaner shrimp
A few assorted mushrooms
Live rock & macro algae
Would this stocking level and this introduction order work?
<<The bio-level is not out of bounds here, it is the species selection that is cause for concern I think. The Flasher Wrasses will need to establish a territory with a bit of 'room''¦preferably a rock outcrop that extends toward the surface but with enough room overhead for the male to display or 'flash.' The Fathead Anthias will need a cave or overhang to allow it to get away from the light. And the Firefish will also require a 'bolt-hole' to feel secure and allow it to feed properly. I just don't think a 3ft tank is adequate here/for this species selection. Otherwise, as for the order of introduction, I would add the Anthias last to preclude any problems re it and the sometimes twitchy Flasher Wrasses>>
Also, am I correct to assume that I am maxing out my bioload, or could I add another fish-- say a clown goby (Gobiodon sp.) or a Meiacanthus blenny?
<<If you go forward with this plan, I would certainly be hesitant to add any other fishes>>
Thank you very much for your time-
<<Happy to share'¦ EricR>>

Adding a Sunburst Anthias to 60 gallon 02/15/2008 Hi crew! <<G'morning. Andrew here>> Just wanted to run this by you guys and see what you think. I have a 60 gallon that is currently stocked with a bi-color angel (about 3 in.), a royal Gramma, a chalk Basslet, and a six-line wrasse. I also have a colt coral and several mushrooms. I was considering adding a sunburst anthias. Would this be ok, or do you think I'm at my stocking limit? Would the anthias be behaviorally compatible? <<The (fathead) sunburst anthias, Serranocirrhitus latus, would require a tank at least double your current size>> Thanks, Jason <<Thanks for the question. A Nixon>>

Sunburst Anthias...A Pair In A 72g? - 10/09/07 Hello, <<Hiya Stormy>> Boy thanks for you guys! I know that this is not an exact science, and that we're dealing with "live" stock here that oftentimes makes up their own rules. <<Indeed...and likely more so in the unnatural confines of the aquarium>> Yet, I've a 72g bow and would love to purchase a pair of sunburst anthias, an inch and a half, and a two incher. <<Very cool fishes...I had a small bunch of eight in a 375g tank...once...>> They shipped together and have been on hold at the LFS for a week now and getting along well together, eating and playing. <<Mmm...but for how long I wonder. The Bartlett's Anthias (Pseudanthias bartlettorum) is another small, beautiful, but much less demanding Anthiine species...likely a better choice here>> I was considering letting the pair make the 72g bow their home for maybe 3 or 4 weeks prior to introducing anything else (of course this means I somehow need to pull my percula (2inch) out of there. What do you say - I understand that sunburst get maybe 4 inch max in the aquarium, can I house the both in a 72g with approx 75lbs of live rock, a refugium, and soft corals adding a few peaceful and smaller fish later? Thanks so much in advance, stormy sea a rising <<Size-wise these fish would be fine in your tank...I'm not so sure they will cohabitate for long though. My observations of others and my own experience with this particular species of beautiful Anthiine is that they don't well tolerate conspecifics in captive systems. I've yet to see a successful "long-term" grouping of these fishes in other's tanks, and my own experience as eluded to involved placing eight of these little gems in a 375g reef tank...where one-by-one they turned on each other until only one remained. Realizing this is all purely anecdotal...I suggest you query other sources on their experiences with these fish and use your own good judgment to make a decision re their suitability for your tank. Regards, EricR>>

Re: Sunburst Anthias...A Pair In A 72g? - 10/11/07 Hello Eric, <<Hi Stormy>> Thanks for your reply. <<Quite welcome>> Boy, it seems the more I research, the less I know! <<Ah, but you're changing that with every minute>> I'm starting to feel like Socrates must have felt, esp. since there is a lot of contradicting information available. <<Indeed...opinions abound (as they do here, too!). Always best to research multiple sources and then use your own good judgment to make a decision>> I've read that the Anthias species all share the trait of being hermaphroditic and that the Sunbursts specifically begin life as females and will change sex based on the requirement of their "harem. <<Mmm yes, are protogynous hermaphrodites...you are correct>> These two that I'm wanting to get are very very small, one just a bit bigger than the other. I don't see any real difference in color (apparently a female is to be a lighter pink with a steeper head?) <<Actually, the females are "less" steep headed, more pink than orange...and smaller than males>> This whole changing gender thing is baffling anyway. <<Ah, but what a wonderful way to ensure "survival of the species">> For example, my LFS is selling a "mated pair" of [false] Percs for $100+. <<Ridiculous...a very easy fish to "pair up" in my opinion>> How do "they" know that it's a mated pair? <<Perhaps they have seen them spawn>> How does one really tell? <<Is quite common to find/create mated pairs among Clownfishes>> Apparently one cannot just get two very tiny fishes that have the propensity to change gender, and expect/hope them to do so? <<Not a guarantee for sure...and varies among species...but "is" a very good way to create a pairing in this case>> Baffling. <<Mmm...Fascinating>> Thanks again, you guys do good work. <<Thank you for the kind words>> So is this your full time job (smile)? <<Ha! Seems so when Bob's away/out of "NET" reach...and may become so if my boss discovers how much time I'm spending re>> Take care, enjoy the day, Stormy seas a rising <<Ah well...is almost "cocktail" time. Cheers mate! Eric Russell>>

Candy Basslet and Sunburst Anthias compatibility   5/22/07 Hi WWM Crew, <Hello there> I just added a very healthy Sunburst Anthias to my 55 gallon reef tank. He ate on his first day in the tank and stays front and left of center a lot of the time. <Interesting... this species, particularly when new, generally hides amongst rocks and caves> My Candy Basslet, who was there about 3 months before him, <May well not be compatible in this small volume> likes to have the run of the full tank, and when he enters the space that the Sunburst Anthias has claimed  (the Anthias was added to the tank on Friday, and today is only Monday), the Sunburst Anthias chases him away-- nothing terribly aggressive, <Mmm, yes it is> but the Anthias seems to have taken the upper hand in these confrontations. Of course, the slight 'aggression' or assertion only occurs because the Candy Basslet keeps invading the Anthias' space. So far the Anthias rarely ventures beyond his rather small territory. <I suspect the unnaturally outgoing behavior of the Fathead Anthiine is resultant from the negative interaction of the Basslet... It would 'swim out of there' if it could...> Is this likely to escalate, or are these types of fish more likely to get accustomed to each other and tolerate/ignore each other? <A toss-up, but more likely that the Sunburst will perish directly, indirectly here> They are evenly matched as far as size goes, both about 2" including their tails ( it is a very stout Candy Basslet). They are the largest fish in the tank, tied with a Green Mandarin.  The other fish are a Blue Gudgeon Dartfish, almost 3", a Helfrichi Firefish, about 1.75", a Yashia Goby, about 1.25",  a Catalina Goby <Misplaced here... this is a coldwater animal> and a Blue Neon Goby, each also almost 1.25".   I would love to keep both the Sunburst Anthias and the Candy Basslet, but because the Candy Basslet cost ten times as much, economics dictate that he is my first concern. Is this small amount of assertion/aggression  (combined with possible reduction of territory) likely to stress the Basslet out if it continues, and do you think it will a) escalate b) go away c) remain as is? <Too likely a) till the loss of the Fancy Bass> As always, thanks for your expert advice, Art (Sorry I sent this three times, I forgot to fill in a subject) <Mmm, shouldn't matter... but we do get/toss a couple of hundred "junk" mails per day... Our webmail server we leave almost filter-free to allow in all sorts of "foreign" writers/writing. I would remove the Sunburst Anthias myself. Bob Fenner>

Sunburst Anthias  - 10/22/06 Greetings, <Hey there, MacL here with you tonight> Recently purchased a pair of Sunburst Anthias, beautiful fish they are. <Amazing fish and very nice. But in my experience they do much better in trios I can't seem to locate one of them.  I know they are reclusive fish, but disturbing the tank and relocating some rocks didn't seem to bring more than one out of hiding. <In my experience sunburst Anthias are not reclusive. My only experience are those brought in from the Hawaiian <<Mmm, this species not found in HI. RMF>> or Marshall Islands, not sure which sorry. But they are always out and swimming around and care be very aggressive eaters.> I'm worried that my emerald crab, who has grown quite large (maybe close to 2" wingspan) has consumed him, as I can't find any trace of a carcass.  My question(s) is (are): how likely is it that the emerald crab got my Anthias, and if he did would he of consumed the entire carcass in one day, or would I likely see remnants of the dead animal? should I remove the emerald crab? <I have had horrible bad experiences with emerald crabs so I am probably not the best person to ask this question. I won't have another one period. Mine went nuts and killed lots of fish and I'm not the only person this has happened to.  When they get that size they have the potential to kill other fish, especially if you have some missing. They would drag the carcass under the rocks only to be found potentially when you take the tank down.> It's kind of worrying, I have lost several fish (mostly Chromis) like this (completely disappeared, and didn't jump).  Could I be dealing with another hidden hitchhiker, perhaps a mantis (without seeing him in a year)?  I used to blame it on my LTA, but he has since been relocated.   <Its possible that you have a hidden hitchhiker but I would think with a mantis you would have heard the tapping.>          One more un-related question.  A group of button polyps in my tank that were thriving and spreading have recently closed up for an extended period of time (several days now), I'm fearing they have died/are dying.  The strange thing is the other polyps in the tank (different species) are not behaving in such a way, and other corals/invertebrates/fish are not exhibiting any signs of distress.  Any ideas? <Something or someone could have disturbed them.  You might consider taking a turkey baster and blowing them gently off. Sometimes they get a build up of, for lack of a better word, junk on them and if you blow them off it can help them to reopen.> Thanks guys, Chris Stevens Anthias and Reef Setup Hi Crew: <howdy> This one is particularly for Anthony if he's not too busy with the book!!   <keeping busy with all kinds of things :) > Anthony, I have a very broad question for you (but hopefully you have some suggestions).  After reading your BOCP and the collaboration with Bob, I have decided to set up a standard 110 (24" height) as a reef that will feature a small group (1 male, 2-3 females??) of Serranocirrhitus latus as the (semi?)-mobile centerpiece.   <outstanding fish... one of my faves, the Sunburst Anthias> I will shoot for closer to 20x turnover and have a 40BR sump and 60 gallons of total refugium space.  I'm planning a 5-6" DSB in the display and approx. 140 lbs. LR.  The lighting that I am thinking about so far consists of 2 x 250W 10K metal halides and 2 x 65W PC actinic.  Please feel free to comment on any of this if anything seems amiss... <all good except for the lighting. Incompatible with many of the shy fishes you are likely to keep with the Anthias... also truly more light than you need unless this will be a hardcore SPS and clam tank. Do consider a bank of T5 fluorescents or simply 2 - 175-watt halides (double-ended bulbs if possible).> but now to my question.  I think that I want to keep a type-specific display as you recommend, but am torn as there are so many specimens available from time to time in my area.  With your experience, what species would you suggest to build a really amazing display over the next couple of years?   <many possibilities here... how about some Atlantic blue Chromis, a shoal of scissortail gobies... larger cardinalfish species (some magnificent blue or orange-lines species), etc> With the planned turnover rate, lighting, etc. would you go with SPS, LPS, softies?   <lower light and you can still keep the most demanding SPS and clams if you like... just do so in the top 16" of the surface. And try to focus on just one group of animals... no high light SPS with lower light LPS. If yo go with softies and/or LPS... you can still have clams... seek Tridacna squamosa, T. derasa or Hippopus species> I doubt that you remember, but my fianc? also demands clams once we have the appropriate lighting scheme, etc. (you made a nice comment in the new book that I bought for her), so they will probably be placed in the tank over time.  Anyway, sorry to ramble, but I thought you might be able to set me on track for something that would be remarkable if built slowly and carefully.  Let me know what you think.  Thanks and take care.  Greg <no worries...

Montipora digitata 3/3/03 Dear Bob and crew, Guess what!, I've finally found the Anthias that would stay alive in my system! <wow, that's...er, great. Hmmm... if ten die for every one that survives import, and five died before you ... er, never mind. Glad to hear that there's a spark of life in the Onion field> I picked up a 2 inch fathead Anthias and its striving well in my tank, eating heartily and swimming around the tank in open view most of the time. <indeed an excellent species and gorgeous.> I'd like to add an argi angel to my tank but would be afraid that it may pester the Anthias even though it seems to be able to hold its hold in my tank chasing off the royal Gramma and the 2 inch Kole tang....any comments...the argi is not necessary....it was just an after thought to help with some micro algae. <no dwarf angel can eat anywhere near the algae as your wonderful Kole tang, and the C. argi is one of the riskiest coral nibblers among the dwarf angels. I'd pass> On to my real question. I picked up an okay looking brown Montipora digitata specimen which has about 5 sticks going across from left to right. It had a little bit of receding to it when I first got it and I was hoping it would come to a stop. I placed it really high up in my tank, approx 1 inch away from the surface of the water where it could get max lighting. However, it is directly placed next to an individual disc mushroom that is of a pretty good size....I know there is chemical warfare going on here <not a matter of could... it is severe. Corallimorphs are top ten on any list for potency. They don't have to touch... even 6" away is not enough by some measures (6-10" is standard distance for most corals in place to allow for growth and minimize even shed compounds)> but could that be the primary reason this coral has continue to recede..... <almost certainly... Montipora is one of the weakest corals and the 'shroom is one of the worst. Other reasons here too perhaps> little by little from the base upwards, it has started to bleach. Surprisingly, its the sticks that are farthest from the mushroom that are receding.....2 of them.....the rest of the three sticks on the left hand side are doing quite well....polyping out all the time and even starting to grow pinkish purple tips. Should I break off those two sticks on the right hand side to avoid contaminating the left 3 sticks or should I move this specimen of Montipora? or both? <indeed... both please> Any advise would be appreciated! <the best advise I can give you is not mix unnatural groups of coral... especially in a smaller tank. Pick one group (shrooms, SPS, or LPS, etc) and stick with it> To refresh your memory, this is a 40 gallon tank, 16in deep...0 nitrite, 0 ammonia, 0-10 nitrate, Tank is actually rather poorly lit due to only 4 watts per gallon of power compacts 50/50 bulbs which is why I placed the Monti so high up. <understood and agreed> Is it from insufficient lighting? <yes> Should I just stay away from SPS altogether due to the lighting issue? <certainly... this is even modest light for hardy Montipora> I just thought I should try it out because I have researched and the digitata seems to be the hardiest of the SPS and I actually don't mind it being brown in color. <agreed> I fell in love with the SPS after a recent Christmas trip to Thailand and snorkeling in the Similan Islands.... have you ever been? <nope... but Bob likely has> Its magnificent! Hope to hear from you soon. Sincerely, jimmy <kindly, Anthony>

Anthias Question Bob, Found WetWebMedia last night, great site. My question to you is this. I want to add some or a fish to my 37gallon reef tank. Parts of the tank I have had for 6 years now. Besides SPS, LPS, a clam, softies and various small critters, the only other inhabitants are a tomato clown and a peppermint shrimp. I would love to have Anthias, but I know that my tank is too small for several, but would a Serranocirrhitus Latus do fine in my tank, or is there another that is small that can be kept as a single?  <A very good choice here... is/stays small, accepts most foods readily... Just do keep an eye on the Clownfish when introducing your Fathead Anthias... as clowns can be quite territorial> If not what would you suggest as a new tank mate or mates? <Perhaps a tank bred Pseudochromid?: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pseudoch.htm> Thanks, Doug <Be chatting. Bob Fenner>

Help for the big tank guy Hello again Bob, I have written you in the past about my large systems, 800 gallon angelfish, 500 gallon reef. Now that my house has finally finished all of the cleanup and we're fully settled my tanks finally are too. <Must be a relief!> I sold the contents of my 800 gallon angelfish, most of which funded my 400 gallon office show tank filled with Fathead Anthias, about 22 and Green Chromis about 30 or so, really a spectacular tank especially on a reef setting. <Neat... and all the Sunburst/Fatheads get along?> The Boston Aquarium was generous enough to accept my 16 inch emperor. In return I was hooked up with a deal from a neighboring fish farmer with a 1 1/2 foot horn shark. I put him in the 800 in a cold water setting with very little rock work except for a large cave at one end, mostly large beds of kelp-like grasses to provide a san Francisco bay type setting. The shark seems to be thriving and what I thought would be the biggest eye sore is non existent, him laying on the bottom like in the those undersized nurse shark tanks. Obviously being a Horn Shark he still does this but he is a very active swimmer. He eats well and enjoys the occasional urchin which gets very interesting.  <Hmm, yes... I have a pic of a Heterodontus francisci swimming about in Scott Michael's new Shark and Ray book... am quite familiar with this species> What kind of things should I mix into his diet to ensure a long life?  <Most anything will do... the name "hetero" and "don't" point up the fact that these small temperate and tropical sharks can/do eat hard-bodied organisms... like the urchins you mentioned, clams, crustaceans... as well as fish...> He thrives in the cold water but how cold is too cold?  <Below 50 F. or so. But I would keep mine at nearer 70 F. so you don't go broke chilling water, and your shark will move about more at this elevated temperature.> Its been a pleasure to do this project the right way, the fish has lots of swimming room and it really looks great. The 500 is taking on full life, it turns the corner of my living room into the hall and is longer then wider, more so than usual. I have added a lot of water flow on the branched off section that's in the hall (about 100 gallons of room there) to accommodate my final additions, 3 Jewel Tangs, (Acanthurus Guttatus), thanks to the Marine Center. <Wow, have rarely seen this species kept... just not offered in the trade... congratulations> Its kinda like a surge zone with only the hardiest of my corals. Its a pretty cool effect. The Semilarvatus B'flys are growing nicely, all three are now about 6 inches. The Sohal has also maxed out at about 9 inches now. Most of the little fish have been removed except for the occasional cleaner wrasse, I think i still have two, and a group of Catalina Gobies that have really done better than expected in their own little territory near the far glass against a rock wall. What other requirements do the Jewel tangs have? <About the same as the Naso lituratus... lots of room, rock, greenery to eat, water movement> They seem to be healthy after a month of quarantine (i was extra cautious be it i never used e-fish purchasing before. They only feed really well on Nori right now though. What else do they eat? <Mostly green, brown, red algae, but will eventually take most all foods> The Majestic Angel was also removed after he suddenly went violent on my corals. Any reason for this? <Just happens at times> Thanks for all the help, you've contributed a good deal to helping my tanks get to the way they are at this point, nice and steady. Kev <Outstanding. Glad to have helped. Bob Fenner>

Re: Help for the big tank guy Actually there was a bit of squabbling and a few pretty violent attacks between the Fatheads in the first month or so, in which I lost 4 of them. <Figured as much... Have only seen Serranocirrhitus latus in small groups (2,3 individuals) or singly in the wild> My guess is the weaker males were rooted out, as it is nearly impossible for me to tell male from female. The Horn Shark tank is at 55F right now but I might take up your advice and inch it up a little at a time to eventually get it to about 65F. The Jewel Tangs were a good find and I would recommend them to anyone. Of all tangs I've kept they are nearly the most active second only to the Shoal's that have passed on through smaller tanks I had and were successfully removed to other tanks. The species may look dull but upon actually owning one I find the color to be quite exceptional. <Gorgeous fish in the wild... Hawai'i, the Cook Islands especially.> Since the reply I have transported some of the warmer water seaweeds to the surge zone and they have in fact started feeding on them. I don't have a problem since my contacts at the aquarium can me a steady supply of the grasses for next to nothing, I'm sure they're delighted to have my business with their new Christmas Island Emperor, I was sad to see him go but the expenses were taking their toll. With the exception of the chiller the shark tank has been a cheap and truly interesting experience over the last month. Thanks again! <Be chatting. Bob Fenner>

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