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FAQs on Marine Parasitic Disease 11

Related Articles: Marine Parasitic Disease, Marine Ich: Fighting The War On Two Fronts, Crustacean Parasitic Disease, Quarantine, Quarantine of Marine Fishes,

Related FAQs: Parasitic Disease 1, Parasitic Disease 2, Parasitic Disease 3, Parasitic Disease 4, Parasitic Disease 5, Parasitic Disease 6, Parasitic Disease 7, Parasitic Disease 8, Parasitic Disease 9, Parasitic Disease 10, & FAQs on: Parasite-infested Systems: Parasitic Marine Tanks, Parasitic Marine Tanks 2, Parasitic Reef Tanks, Parasitic Reef Tanks 2, & FAQs on: Preventing Parasite Problems, Diagnosing Parasitic Diseases, References on Parasitic Diseases, Index Materia Medici for Parasitic Diseases (medicines), Treating Marine Parasitic Diseases, Using Hyposalinity to Treat Marine Parasitic Diseases, Hyposalinity Treatments 2, Fallow Tanks, & Best Crypt FAQs, Cryptocaryoniasis, Marine Ich, Marine Velvet Disease Biological Cleaners, Treating Parasitic Disease, Using Hyposalinity to Treat Parasitic Disease, Parasitic Worms, Crustacean Parasitic Disease, Isopods,

Macro Algae Quarantine   3/3/20
If you had to throw an overall number out what would say if the overall risk of putting red ogo macro algae in a tank without quarantine and some type of parasite (ick or velvet) getting into the tank.
<Where is the Ogo/Gracilaria from? A few co.s culture this, some in vast quantities, and there is close to zero chance of parasitic, disease introduction from them. From another hobbyist's tank? Maybe some chance... I'd isolate the latter for a couple weeks>
Would washing the algae in a separate bucket of water prior essentially eliminate the risk?
<Washing? Not really useful. Bob Fenner>
Re: Macro Algae Quarantine   3/3/20

Its coming from live Aquaria which I am assuming it would be coming from Quality Marine.
<Likely so; and highly likely cultured and sold by two outfits in Hawaii. I WOULD trust immediate use of this red macrophyte therefore>
I have a scribbled rabbitfish wont graze on Nori even attached to the rock. Its everything and grazes on the ogo. I just cant grow it fast enough to keep up. With how much it eats. It can take down a pound in a little over a week.
<This genus of algae can be tumble cultured to about double its biomass every week... DO consider (look... search and read) re if you'd rather save money on buying it shipped. Bob Fenner>
Re: Macro Algae Quarantine, feeding Nori    3/3/20

Thanks. Will definitely do some reading on better cultivation on the macro. Any tips on how to get the fish to eat Nori other than hopefully time?
<No... some fishes (and humans) just don't find Nori palatable... the above water kind even treated w/ flavourings. BobF>

Possible Brooklynellosis      3/2/20
Hello, several months ago I purchased a yellow tang, after 3 weeks of uneventful quarantine I moved it to DT. Which hosted 1 Large Bannerfish, 1 Juv Emperor Angel and 2 perc. Clowns, all that I¹ve had for about a year and doing great. The DT also has corals. Within a day in DT the Tang had some white mucus that went away in a day.
<Mmm; this could be "nothing"; stress, mucus production...>
Several days later one clown disappeared ­ dead in live rock somewhere. I didn¹t notice any problems on it.
In a couple days my Bannerfish and Angel started getting white spots, and slime all over and looked real bad. I moved them both to QT and they were dead the next day. - they ate just fine the day before.
Since this the yellow tang has been thriving.
I got a new Angel and after 3 weeks QT and doing well moved it to DT.
Within a week it stopped eating, looked bad, I moved it back to QT and it died the next day.
And just the other day my surviving clown has disappeared.
Based on what I¹ve read and how fast the fish died I suspect Brook in my DT.
What puzzles me is the Yellow Tang which I suspect was the source is thriving and shows no problems.
<... sometimes hosts have acquired immunity... like vaccine effect>
My question is can a fish host this disease and not be affected by it.
<A resounding yes; this can occur>
I'm pretty sure I need to remove him and let tank fallow for 6-8 weeks but I want to be sure before I do this. If I do , do I need to treat him with formalin in DT?
<IF you are reconciled to that treatment protocol. My usual statements here re the use of simple, inexpensive microscope and related tools. Skin slime sampling might easily show the causative organism here. For what you have invested money, time... likely emotionally here; I'd do a bit of reading, set on a path of acquiring, using a 'scope (or having a shop, friend help you), and proceed from a position of knowledge. Bob Fenner>
Thank you

Led lighting/disease       1/21/20
Hey bob,
All of my fish have been thru copper, as well as two rounds of prazi pro.
There are about 30 altogether in my 180, from small wrasses and gobies you tangs.
I can’t help but notice when certain fish swim to my not powerful LED light up top (current marine, fish only type light) that these certain fish appear to have a white glitter in them. It’s only when they are under the light , at certain depths and angles.
The fish that show it are a masked swallowtail angel, an asfur angel and a blue ring angel.
Too numerous to count ( I feel it’s not ich) but almost like a paint overspray. Description resembles velvet, but nothing is dead and I’ve noticed this the past 4 days or so.
Again, 3 out of the 25 fish show it, no ones not eating, no lethargy, no swimming until power heads etc.
Could this just be the way the light is radiating off of them? Have you noticed this under leds?
<Could be a few things that are non-pathogenic. IF it were me, mine, considering all that is invested money and importance-wise; I'd be studying re sampling, looking under a scope re. B>
Thanks, bob

So called Mystery Disease?       11/17/20
Good day great folks,
The pic says a thousand words?
<Maybe more. Crypt evidently. DO READ on WWM ASAP; and ACT NOW! I'd be lowering spg to about 1.010 to buy you/these angels time... NOW (assuming other life present can tolerate low salinity). Bob Fenner>
So called Mystery Disease?    /Wil        11/17/20

Good day great folks,
<Good day Evelyn>
The pic says a thousand words?
<Does look like Cryptocaryon Irritans, you need to isolate these angels and treat them with copper and hyposalinity; sorry but I'm not sure if you are still on time, they look pretty bad. Wil.>

Re: So called Mystery Disease?       11/17/20
Crypt? Really?
<Uhh, the only way to tell is sampling... ciliate, two dissimilar nuclei... I hope you're done reading...>
And that’s what I thought but the shape is very irregular.
I read something on your site, about an Emperor—cumulative stress ‘syndrome’.
They are eating and swimming and generally seem fine. This is post Cupramine treatment, after being clean for 1 month in a new, clean tank. There was an incident a couple of days ago where all equipment stopped as it became unplugged, in the morning when I saw them they were in respiratory distress. And now this, almost all of a sudden.
<Mate, your animals are soon to be dead. B>
I thought you would like the pic for reference. They are triangular in shape and on the frenchi, in patches.
Thank you, Evelyn
Re: So called Mystery Disease?    /Wil        11/17/20

Good day Wil,
They are isolated. Look closely, their shape is very irregular, clustered on the frenchi. I have read posts about a ‘mystery’ disease and was hoping anyone there would be able to share some of their knowledge and experience.
<Haven't heard of that>
I know it looks like crypt but is it really? Their behavior suggests otherwise.
<To be 100% sure, only by taking a tissue sample and observe it under a microscope.>
They have just come out of quarantine and placed in a clean observation tank.
I will certainly keep you posted in my findings. I read something about ‘cumulative’ stress. Any thoughts/ experience on that?
<Well, stress is (as in humans) the trigger for almost any disease, that´s why we always advice keeping top water quality and a stress free environment... Prevention is better than cure.>
Many thanks,
<Glad to help. Wil.>

Re: So called Mystery Disease?      1/18/20
"His breathing, swimming, eating seems normal and he isn't scratching against any surfaces. I thought maybe Lymphocystis, or fungus, but wanted your opinion.
<Mmm, the best/most likely "explanation" or root cause here is cumulative stress...> "
<<The above is an excerpt from another person and your response. His Situation was similar to mine. Anyway. I will keep you posted on their progress. Many thanks for the reply.>>
<<Ahh, thank you for this clarification. Am almost sure this is the pathogen mentioned. AND would do as I've suggested; a precipitous drop in salinity (to favor the host, disfavor the Protozoan), and TREAT per what else you have stock wise. AS gone over and over on WWM. DO please write back if a/your path you're choosing isn't clear. Bob Fenner>>
Re: So called Mystery Disease? /Wil      1/18/20

His breathing, swimming, eating seems normal and he isn't scratching against any surfaces.
<Sometimes they seem unaffected, but not indefinitely. I would treat them ASAP, just as Bob suggested.>
thought maybe Lymphocystis, or fungus, but wanted your opinion.
<Lymphocystis "diameter" is bigger and does look like a cauliflower. Wil.>  

Re: What looks like the crypt but is not?      12/5/19
Good day Nobel folk. An update...
Now, we learned and understood that eliminating crypt from a main tank was something 99.99% impossible,
<Can be very difficult; yes>
because we did not have enough QT tanks established to house all of our fish we decided to go ahead anyway while at least we set up several tanks around the house-a pleasure many of you I’m sure have had. After 45 days and 150 ml of Cupramine, a ‘clear’ window appeared. We maintained the levels for 30 post last spot. And on this bleak and cloudy morning we find ourselves back at square one, at least with 4 cycled QT tanks on hand.
So, it cannot be done. This is the third attempt in our history that we have attempted to treat Crypt in the display—to no avail. We tested Cupramine levels twice a day for 50 days. The dose required was 70ml, with absorption, the total dose was 150ml.....
Now for the dismantling...... bleaching.....obsessing over anything white or tang flying in the stream of the powerhead.
<Best to carefully (to avoid stains on carpet, clothes...) chlorine bleach (as gone over on WWM) all in place, including filters, media...>
And, the unavailability of Cupramine in Canada.
<? Wonder why. Bob Fenner>
Re: What looks like the crypt but is not?      12/5/19

Yes, Cupramine, PraziPro, Kanaplex, Metroplex, all API treatments like general cure—-EVERYTHING—-
I can understand the anti- microbials, for the prevention of the creation of ‘super bugs’. People do not dispose of them properly....But Cupramine?
<I know naught. Perhaps friend, fish pathologist and Canadian Myron Roth has insight here. Myron?
Bob Fenner>
Re: What looks like the crypt but is not?      12/5/19

.....It gets interesting
<Ah yes; the plot thickens as they say. B>

Ever seen this?      7/21/19
Good morning.
<Morning John>
I am sending you some attached pics of my box fish. This morning I noticed this white scale like cluster above his tail. I’ve never seen anything like it.. they almost look like large grains of sand. They look like they are just kind of glued on and I can see them flapping when he swims near a power head. Any thoughts?
<They look like flukes of some sort, I'd try a 5 minutes fresh water dip/bath and see if they pop off.>
As always, thank you.
<Welcome. Wil.>

Gramma with internal parasites          4/10/19
<Oh! It did download... in a few min.s!>
Howdy, hope you can help me figure out what to try to help save my Royal Gramma. I suspect an internal parasite, seemingly Protozoans. Attaching a microscope shot of the ubiquitous pear-shaped creatures that show up in a stool sample. There are also some smaller paramecium-looking organisms.
<I see the former>
The fish is in QT. I’ve been feeding Mysis and flake food mixed with Seachem Focus and API General Cure for about three days, with no improvement. I also treated the water with General Cure since the fish is not eating well (but is eating *some*), although understand that’s not the best route of administration.
The fish is hanging in. Deteriorating surprisingly slowly, but on its side and very lethargic.
Thanks for any help you can give!
<This does look "Hexamita" like to me. Most folks administer Metronidazole; best via foods/feeding as you mention. DO search, read on WWM re both the causative agent and medication. Bob Fenner>

Re: Gramma with internal parasites      4/14/19
Got it. Thanks for the help on ID and will follow up after research. Also, smaller files.
<Thank you. Please do keep us informed. BobF>
Re: Gramma with internal parasites      4/14/19

Bob, hope you are enjoying Mexico! I read up on WWM’s resources on internal Hexamita, particularly in marine fish, as well as on metronidazole and other treatments for that malady. (Incidentally, it was your urging of others on WWM that led me to break out my 8yo daughter’s microscope to look at fish poo—good family time, honestly).
So I have distilled this, and would appreciate your thoughts on it and whether anything further can be done.
- Metronidazole in food, since the fish eats a little bit. I’ve discontinued putting it in the water for that reason.
- Epsom salt. Added 1 tsp/gallon. Will scrutinize any resultant productions by the fish under the microscope (see family time above).
<Real good>
- Pristine water. I am using a 1 gal container for the QT. Am assuming the small size is ok since the gramma is lethargic. Put a PVC tee fitting in to give it a place to hang out. I replace it every day with water from my DT, so it’s what the fish has always been used to. Aerate and temp control.
<Sounds/reads very good>
- Watching it. A lot. Maybe staring at the fish will cause the Hexamita to die. I don’t know.
<Mmm; not staring...>
Also Bob
<Thank you Bob/Bob>

Yellow Eyed tang... Adventures in SW Fish Disease, Learning        2/17/19
This fish was gorgeous when I bought it along with a Powder Brown Tang.
<This last species is often very touchy... susceptible to disease, loss>
Both were drip acclimated over time to my 125 that has A Fox face about 4'' long, and three fish about 2.5" Mocha clown, Huma, niger and 8 line wrasse.
I run two canisters FX6 and middle line Forza with UV. Use an Orbit light system on a timer, water PH, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonia, Phosphates look good, Salinity is 1.026 temp stays about 72. My Brown died after some white spots.
<Umm; your system is infested; still; likely w/ Cryptocaryon; possibly other pathogen/s>

I had A Mocha clown that got white spots and died.
<... "got">

My Yellow eye has white spots, splotches and large lips. It swims fine and appears to eat but it is looking thin. The other fish are clear of any issue.
I am at a loss.

Please respond using XXXX
<Where to start... Did you quarantine this livestock, do any sort of preventative, dip/bath... protocol to exclude pathogens?
Mmm; how to "ramp up" your understanding quickly, easily?
Please start by reading here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/mardisease.htm
Then on to this: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ichartmar.htm
Next, ScottF's pc: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ichart2mar.htm
Do write back after, and make known if you are not at a loss.
Bob Fenner>

Marine protozoa; trtmt.       11/10/18
Lots of questions for you!
I have a 55gal QT with a mappa puffer, queen angelfish, and harlequin Tuskfish at the moment, and unfortunately am struggling with some sort of protozoa. The symptoms are very different between them: the puffer seems to be behaving totally fine (eating, swimming about, being social), but is covered in white specs and has cloudy eyes - assuming ich. The angelfish and Tuskfish look fine, but are not behaving well (breathing 115 breaths per minute, lethargic, and won't eat) - marine velvet?.
<Perhaps either, even both>
I'm treating with copper sulfate (0.2 mg/L), but haven't noticed much of a change in 4 days!
Yikes. Considering something more aggressive.
<Yes I would... For one I would definitely (NOW) drop the specific gravity... to about 1.010... yes, drastically. AND do this ASAP. Not only will the lowered density help the fish breath more easily (they may be dead in a short while otherwise), the sudden decrease will impugn the parasite/s....>
Kordon's Rapid-Cure ingredients are listed as: Triethylene Glycol, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-29, and Malachite Green. There's quite a bit of info online about Malachite Green, but I can't find any on the other two ingredients.
1. What does Triethylene Glycol do? Is it toxic to the fish? Will it kill the bio-filter? Will it kill both marine ich and velvet, and if so, at what part of their life cycles?
<Mostly is a carrier/binder... won't kill the parasites and should not impede nitrification>
2. What does Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-29 do? Is it toxic to the fish?
Will it kill the bio-filter? Will it kill both marine ich and velvet, and if so, at what part of their life cycles?
<Got me... PVP itself is used in quite a few all in one "dechloraminator" products... makes the fishes a bit more slimy. Don't know what the designation K-29 refers to... NOT an IUPAC descriptor; likely some snazzy commercial modifier. I WOULD write, contact Kordon-Novalek (or the Net; you may have to pay) re their MSDS with your concerns>
3. Malachite green: Believe it is toxic to the fish and will kill bio filter alone with all protozoa? What part of the protozoa life cycle does it kill?
<Can be useful in arresting protozoa; and yes, will subtend nitrification; and in strong doses, some conditions more/less toxify fishes>
4. Can this be combined with Methylene blue (to help oxygen transfer in the fish)? What about formalin? Copper sulfate?
<Methylene Blue is the safest... AGAIN, take out about half the seawater and replace it w/ dechloraminated new/freshwater. Formalin is a biocide... useful in some applications; better for dips/baths for hobbyists than direct application. CuSO4 is a fave for several applications. You can read
what I have archived on WWM re.>
My local fish store sold me a bottle of "Copper Sulfate".
1. Is Copper Sulfate (CU 2 I think) chelated?
<Might be; should state on the container... if just CuSO4, not chelated>
2. Is it correct that ammonia reducers convert CU 2 to Cu 1 which is very toxic?
<Mmm; not so much, or often an issue>
If so, will "API Stress Coat", "API Tap Water Conditioner", or "Instant Ocean Marine conditioner" do the same thing with the copper (since they're advertised to neutralizing chlorine and heavy metals)?
<They will do degrees precipitate out copper; more/faster non-chelates>
3. Can this be combined with Methylene blue? what about formalin?
<The former should be fine; I would skip formalin use: TOO dangerous, toxic>
I have four total ammonia testing abilities:
1. API Ammonia Test Kit (drops into 5mL water)
2. Seachem Ammonia Alert color wheel (always in the aquarium)
3. Seachem multi test ammonia free and total (drops and powder mixed in a little tray)
4. Tetra easy test strips (swirl strip in water).
1. How do you test ammonia if you're treating with something that dyes the water (like malachite green or Methylene blue)?
<Can usually see through the dye; there are other test moda, including strips... titration, send away (too slow) electronic methods>
2. Which ammonia test kits work when treating with Formalin? Copper?
<These don't interfere w/ colorimetric assays>
3. Will the dying protozoa add to the ammonia buildup?
<Not appreciably, no. HOWEVER (man that's big), the increased stress on the fish WILL be greatly contributing>
I use seachem marine buffer and in all the water I mix just to make sure the pH is where I want it. Is there a drawback to this other than cost of buying the product?
<Not as far as I'm aware, no>
Will it interact with any of the medications listed above?
<Will if added directly to the tank. BETTER by far to pre-mix synthetic, additives and store new water and use a few days later>
Thanks for the help. There's a lot of info out there, but it's a bit overwhelming.
<I do understand. IF it were me/mine I'd drop spg, READ re the use of quinine/s and use them instead of the med.s you list. AND do all this soon, as in ASAPractical. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Marine protozoa

Thank you so much for the detail and quick response. My fish appreciate it too! :-)
<The initial reaction from the salt/solids dilution will amaze you; and please them Val. Cheers, BobF>

Marine Velvet Dormancy      10/16/18
Hello Bob and Team!
<Hello Anik, Wil this morning>
Hope you are doing well. Like any reefer, I’m constantly reading about preventing any disasters.
<Like any good/responsible reefer!>
The topic of my paranoia this week is Marine Velvet. Some facts about my setup: my display tank is 100G mixed reef; shows no signs of marine Velvet and never has. There’s been a sign of ich once, which made itself visible on bullied fish but that cleared up on its own and everything has been clear since. Btw I QT everything, and medicate every new fish with PraziPro and Cupramine and observe after.
<Quarantine is fine but there´s no need to medicate if fish are not sick, treating healthy fish just makes any pathogen more resistant to medications and this could be a problem in the future if fish happens to get sick.>
Typically I QT for 3-4 months.
<4-5 weeks is more than enough>
The one time I didn’t was when I added a mandarin to my DT, no QT :(.
Current roster, two ocellaris clowns, male Anthias, melanurus wrasse, yellow Coris, yellow flanked fairy wrasse, flame angle and tiny blonde Naso.
<I hope you are aware that the Naso tang will need a bigger tank (a few to several hundred gallons) to have a long, healthy life.>
Anyways, questions; is it possible to have marine Velvet present in a tank but kept at bay from infestation by keeping water parameters in check and general conditions clean/healthy/happy to hold the velvet in check?
<Actually that is how it works; velvet as well as other diseases are always present in the system water but with good maintenance and feeding practices, you can keep them away of your livestock indefinitely.>
What I am getting at is can a fish have velvet for months and not be symptomatic until something triggers it?
<As I mentioned, disease is always present but only attacks your fish if its immune system is compromised.>
Depending on your answer, I may go against your advice from a few months ago regarding Ick in the DT (referring to that one fish mentioned above); I may just move all my fish to QT and treat them and run the tank fallow out of straight paranoia.
<I don´t see the need of treating your fish without been absolutely sure they are sick, you are going to add unnecessary stress. I wouldn´t move them to QT>
I have two wrasses and a flame hawk in QT right now and would like to plan my next steps to add them to DT...but would like to avoid disaster.
<If you have quarantined/observed them for at least 4 weeks, you may transfer them to the DT.>
Thanks Team! Anik
<You´re very welcome. Wil>

Are you able to tell me what this is?      9/6/18
I quarantine my fish and have had pretty good luck in keeping my fish healthy and happy. Unfortunately, last Feb I had something show up in the tank. It started with my male trigger, then moved onto my female trigger and the other big fish in my tank (a few tangs and a Foxface). It didn't seem to affect my smaller fish (dwarf angels, baby tangs, clownfish etc.)
I pulled everything out and into a quarantine system, where they have remained since. I did lose a few of my bigger fish, but luckily that's where the losses ended. I decided to keep my main display fallow until mid November in hopes that whatever this is, it will have a cycle that is host-reliant.
I've never seen any evidence of Ich or velvet. The exit wounds were rather large, and ultimately the fish that died had secondary bacterial infections which may have been the cause of their demise.
I have attached a video of what it looked like in hopes that you can shed light on it so I know how best to ensure that it doesn't come back and kill anymore livestock.
<I see the white growths on your Trigger. These look like monogenetic Trematodes. Do you have a low power scope that hooks up to a USB port? I'd like to see a sample closer. Alternatively this could be some sort of Microsporidean infestation. The worms are easy to treat (see WWM), the Protozoans, not>
Thanks in advance for your assistance.
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Marine Velvet vs. Freshwater Velvet       9/29/17
Hello, after all these years of being in this hobby and servicing aquariums, I can’t believe that I need to write for advise from you great folks.
I quarantine all marine livestock for four weeks using CopperSafe at 2.0 because I service 20 marine aquariums for folks and business and I move many fish through my quarantine tanks.
<Good to have, use a strict S.O.P. here>
I had two jobs that became low on fish and against all my rules of quarantining livestock, I jumped the gun and took fish out after only two weeks in my tanks. Well as Murphy’s Law prevails within a couple weeks fish in these two jobs started dropping like flies.
After witnessing the fish struggle and die I’m fairly sure they have velvet, I do not see the tell tale signs of “ICK” on their bodies but do see the velvet type of film on their bodies before passing away.
<Both can be/come so virulent and undetected/undetectable... REALLY need to sample body slime, perhaps a clipped gill section, and look at under a 'scope>
I’m always ready to learn more and dove into the net to reread on this subject I found that this parasite also thrives with photosynthesis!!
<Yes, Amyloodinium is a Dinoflagellate, a single celled algal species>
To my surprise both jobs are brightly lit with out side light near by!!
My only thought on getting away from these parasites now that the fish are almost all dead is to bomb the job with a heavy dose of copper and let the tank sit for a few weeks.
<Mmm; having been in the aquarium service business myself a few decades, I encourage you to liquid chlorine bleach "nuke" this system.... per the procedure outlined on WWM, rinse, fill, rinse... re-fill and start again; just to be sure>
Another thought is to take these jobs to freshwater “African Cichlids” to be able to have colorful fish for these jobs in a matter of days.
<Ahh yes; another possibility>
But my question to you folks is, will this marine form of Velvet be able to live in freshwater if I don’t manage to kill all the marine velvet and switch the tank to freshwater?
<I think you should be safe here; the freshwater should kill the marine velvet>
Thank You for any help in this matter.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Tank Transfer/ Medication Combination    6/5/16
Dear WWM Rockstars:
1) Thanks in Advance:
As always, I'll regale you with the tale of how I was desperate to get into the reef aquarium hobby as a way to deal with my disabilities from serving in Iraq. Through your site and through the many emails we've exchanged, your team has been awesome at helping not only me, but the good people who care about growing coral and fish health. So, thanks for your service to us hobbyists and scientists alike! It is very much valued by the silent hobbyists everywhere.
As to my matter - its fairly simple but instead of posting on one of those forums I'd like to get some practical advice from you. I know the importance of QT from your advice - I also know that it is pretty impossible to tell what parasite you may have on your fish unless you skin scrape. I've got a parasite issue, want to try the tank transfer method and wondering if you had any advice on concurrent meds along with the tank transfer to target external parasites.
<Unfortunately; all sorts; first and other hand>
2) Background Information:
So I looked at my fish the other day and they appear to have white spots on the fins - larger than I know Ich to be but not cottony (word?) like velvet. I only see a speck or two of white stuff on the fish themselves and I've got good flow and light grained sand so its possible that speck is just sand on the slime coat? I don't see specks everywhere or on other fish. Again, I don't have the expertise or equipment for a skin scraping. So its a slight possibility I've got Ich - maybe some flat
The following fish are in the tank right now
(5) Pajama Cardinals
(1) Bi color blenny
(2) True Percs - bonded
(1) Purple Tang
(2) Kole Eyed Tang
(2) blue lined goby - cleaner goby.
The gobys and blenny are pretty small - about 2".
<These really don't "like" metal, dye exposure... neither the Tang>
Everyone is eating fine - like pigs. I give them a garlic infused fish food - New Life Spectrum TheraA - sometimes I soak in Selcon and I feed the tangs garlic infused Nori.
3) Question:
What methods would you employ here to clear the fish up? Given that we don't know what exactly it is, would the tank transfer method be applicable here?
<You can try. I'd be reading re pathogenic disease (ID) period .... on WWM; CP is the route I'd go if I had no further clue here. Bob Fenner>
Thanks Rockstars, you are appreciated greatly.
Re: Tank Transfer/ Medication Combination       6/6/16

Thanks Bob - you are a legend in your own time/mind - I'll let you choose :). You're a legend in mine anyway.
<I'd bet dollars to donuts that you know MUCH more re cars, sports... mainstream fields>
So what I gathered is 15mg/l of CP outta do the trick. The fish are in a 25 gal/~95L QT system - so this would be (95*15=1421/1000) 1.42 grams of CP is what I'm getting - that seem correct to you?
Originally before putting them in my tank I did a QT of these fish with copper because I saw a white looking stick-like thing (anchor worm possibly
<Mmm; no; more likely (monogenetic) Trematodes>
but couldn't find any photos that matched the disposition on the fish) protruding fro the base of a Pajama Cardinal's pelvic fin - it was about 1-2 inches long.
<Oh! Perhaps a parasitic copepod then>
So I've listened to your sage advice already and come up bust. Marines don't like to loose a battle, so taking these little bug terrorists of my tank is a top priority. Are there some general strike options that would get 95% of all common bugs?
<Yes... am hesitant to mention directly; as I don't think/sense that such an approach is warranted. That is, that doing a blitzkrieg treatment for bacterial, protozoan, other -zoitics is better than not in the majority of cases (more losses from mis-handling, exposure than "saved" new livestock):
BUT a pH adjusted freshwater bath (w/ or w/o adjuncts as gone over on WWM)
followed by isolation, treatment w/ an Anthelminthic like Prazi-, and combo. antimicrobial, anti-protozoal like Metronidazole.... as some Standard Operating Procedure... IF DONE CORRECTLY.... would likely save a good deal of easily lost livestock enroute through chains of custody. NOW, let me put this in perspective: IF most wild livestock were corrected well, handled the same, held and shipped properly, THIS/THESE processes would prevent MUCH MORE loss than any prophylactic treatment routine. Would you read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwdis3setsfactors.htm
Should I drop in a little PraziPro and do some freshwater methalyene blue dips as well?
<Ahh; you're way ahead of me. Yes; these would likely help>
You mentioned sailing past Iwo Jima - are you currently aboard a ship? -
<No, my dad was a lifer in the NAV... I was a draftee many years ago, was married w/ a gal who was a Major in the AF.... spent more than half my life in "the militaries" of the US. The loss of life on this one island, the posing for the flag raising pic... offend me. Apologies if this rankles>
if so thanks again for getting back to me so quickly. If you have time, drop by Iwo Jima and have a snort of whiskey for me and the fallen. Bob, If you're ever in Los Angeles, I'd like to buy you dinner or a drink for all the help you've given me and the thousands I know who access your pages daily.
<I thank you for your kind words and offer Josh. BobF>
Thanks again Mr. Fenner.

Parasites?      2/12/16
I wonder if you can help with an issue with my regal please.
<Ah yes>

He is currently in a quarantine tank with a hello, foxface and PJ Cardinal after something wiped out the majority of my fish in the main tank. I originally thought velvet due to the speed they started to die after I added corals on live rock, which is where I assumed the parasite came in on.
<Could be>
They have been in quarantine for 13 days. Tomorrow, I was due to transfer them to my 200l reef, whilst the main tank is fallow.
<?! I would NOT do this. The Paracanthurus has some parasite... I would treat ALL fishes ASAPractical where they are
All fish looked fine, but yesterday the regal started flashing against everything. Today it looks like this. Other fish look fine.
Nitrite 0.2
<Toxic... needs to be zip... See, as in READ on WWM re NO2
Nitrate 20
Copper 0.5mg/L tested 3x daily to maintain therapeutic levels throughout the two weeks.
<A good clue... the embedded spots on this Regal Tang may not be susceptible to Cu exposure>
SG: 1.025

Temp 26.5.
Thanks, Kirsty.
<Not much time (for your fishes)... I would def. do the drastic DROP in specific gravity for here, right NOW. Down to 1.012, even 1.010... in the hopes of saving your fishes. I would proceed to READ re the use of
Chloroquine (di) Phosphate (CP) on WWM and go ahead and treat with this AND an anthelminthic (likely Praziquantel), directly in the water. You need to act NOW
. Bob Fenner>

Re: Parasites?      2/12/16
Thanks very much.
I shall start to reduce the SG now, and am picking up Chloroquine in the morning (it's 11pm here in the UK).
I have not heard of Praziquantel, so shall have a look online and see if it's something I can source over here.
<Yes; in the UK you may need the help of a veterinarian (or perhaps an M.D.?) to gather both these compounds. The lowered spg will hopefully buy you time>
Many thanks.
<As many welcomes. BobF>

Cryptocaryon or Amyloodinium?     10/12/15
Thank you all for your help and support in this very rewarding, albeit frustrating at times, hobby.
Here is my situation:
I've had all of my fish for over a year in a 100 gallon reef tank, so a parasite must have gotten in via a rock, coral, or invert, or my fish have been asymptomatic.
<Some parasite species, groups are very likely always present; put another way, it is extremely difficult to have SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) systems for some parasites; e.g. Cryptocaryon>
In May, I moved the tank to our new house. Everything went fine, but I did lose my cleaner shrimp a week later. Then, I had a tank leak a couple of months ago and had to move everything to temporary quarters for about a week. Finally, I moved everything back into the new tank a little over a month ago.
Well, I noticed the flame angel had white spots (like it was sprinkled with salt) a couple of weeks after the move to the new tank. The was at the end of August. Then my royal gramma was covered in spots and hid constantly. I lost these two a couple of weeks later. After that, I have had about one fish death every couple of weeks. Some had labored breathing and flashing on the rocks before they died. I lost 4 fish.
Last week I decided to remove the remaining fish to a quarantine tank and allow the tank to go fallow. Both of my ocellaris clownfish looked like they had been lightly sprinkled with powdered sugar around their head region, and the yellow tang frantically visited the remaining cleaner shrimp, and scratched on rocks. The two wrasses and clown gobies seem to be unaffected.
<A good clue>

I am currently performing tank transfer method (TTM) on my remaining fish.
I have read that this can eliminate C. irritans if administered correctly.
<Mmmm; more like forestall the ill-effects of hyper-infestation while host fishes hopefully develop sufficient immunity>
The first morning after the move, I lost one clownfish. I did the second tank transfer last night, and this morning I lost my yellow tang. He was breathing very fast after the transfer last night, and this morning he was on his side before he died. I took some photos of him that I can upload later. What is strange is that he looked like he was covered in powdered sugar. I placed him into freshwater to see if anything came off and some tiny white flecks are floating in the water. He is very red around his mouth and his tail area, almost like a bacterial infection was beginning.
<These last are secondary... to the Protozoan (primary)>
So what should I do now?
<Read? I'd be treating with a Quinine cpd. (CP)>

I plan on finishing the TTM and keeping them in quarantine for the full 72 days (while the DT is fallow). Could this be Brooklynella or Velvet?
<Not the last (symptomatically); and far more likely Cryptocaryon than Brook>
I don't think it is because everything didn't die quickly. Can crypto get so bad on a fish that they look cloudy?
<Oh yes>
The slime coat is intact and not coming off in sheets. There is no velvety sheen. I took skin, fins, and gill biopsies and took some photos. I've attached them. I also did some video and can clearly see the parasites rotating in the flesh. Let me know if you would like for me to send you the video.
<Please place somewhere on a Net server (e.g. YouTube) and just send along the link>
Someone else mentioned it might be velvet, but how did it get into the tank?
<Not Velvet likely; as this would have killed all fishes summarily; and presented different symptomology. See WWM re Amyloodinium>
What to do now? Should I treat the survivors with formalin and/or copper?
<You could run a bath with the former enroute to moving the fishes.... again, take your time and READ on WWM (and don't confuse yourself); or Ed Noga's work, or... NOT the hobbyist bb's>
This is very frustrating and will never happen again. EVERYTHING will be quarantined for at least two months before it is added to the display.
Thanks for your help,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner> 

Re: Cryptocaryon or Amyloodinium?       10/13/15
Dr. Fenner,
<Just Bob is fine Heather. I don't have a doctorate>
Thank you so much for the prompt reply. The remaining five survivors are doing well with the tank transfer method, and I will put them in their quarantine tank next week. All of the spots are gone, and all five are eating. I have the ocellaris, yellow clown goby, green clown goby, solon fairy wrasse, and a melanurus wrasse left. I'm very glad to confirm that it is most likely C. irritans, and I will try to upload the video to YouTube or another source and send you the link. Some other videos of
crypto on YouTube look the same as mine.
<Ahh; good>
So Chloroquine phosphate looks to be the drug of choice. This would also take care of velvet, just in case I have a carrier. Where should I find a good supply?
<See here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/QuinSourceF.htm
and make it known if you have suggestions re improving WWM use.... the search tool is on every page, the indices....>
My vet's office? I've heard of some online sources selling inferior quality packets. Should I also dose with Prazi since these fish were not quarantined originally?
<Possibly; if you consider it of worth at this time>
I guess it couldn't hurt. They all came from Live Aquaria, and I've never had this much trouble with their stock before.
<A very good supplier; the "A" player at this/their level>
I'm still betting the crypto cysts hitched a ride on some rock or coral.
And 72 days fallow would be sufficient in your opinion?
<See WWM re.... after a couple weeks, the further value in such operations dwindles to very little. Better to use dips/baths...>
Should I continue to skim during this time?
<If this doesn't remove medications, is worth the trade in improved water quality>
I am feeding the inverts daily.
I am honored to converse with you, and I own a couple of your books that I re-read frequently!
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Halofolliculina corallasia      7/27/15
Pretty sure I've got this little bugger in one of my coral frag tanks (Halofolliculina corallasia). It has been taking out corals like crazy.
Checked it out under a microscope after dipping the corals (thinking it was black bugs) to discover it didn't look like a crustacean at all but rather a tube or poop. After reading this article I'm pretty confident in my diagnosis, however can't find any information about what to do. As of right now we are just disposing of dead corals using disposable gloves so that we don't spread it around. Any thoughts?
<For browsers, the quick wiki:
I'd be treating either the system or the moved/enroute corals with a quinine compound to kill this Heterotrich. My first choice is Chloroquine (di)phosphate. See WWM re dosages, protocols. Bob Fenner>
Re: Halofolliculina corallasia     7/28/15

Thanks for the reply Bob. Searched for the dosages and protocols and didn't find much re: corals other than CP is harmful and that corals should be removed when treating fish. Also searched the web at large for using CP on corals and didn't find much there either. I do have CP at my disposal in good quantity and would love to start saving some corals. Perhaps you can provide more guidance...
I'm presuming this is a dip scenario
<I'd stick with the same maximum as per system treatment 20 mg/l>
Duration of dip?
<Half an hour... with spg reduced a thousandth or two... Some folks might add a good deal of iodide-ate and perhaps several mg/l of a hexose sugar>
Repeated dips required?
<Possibly; but not usually>
Will I be able to tell if the protozoa are dead after dip by looking at them under the scope (They always appear dead to me)?
<You should... try adding a drop of household strength H202 to the cover slip edge. Should move them if alive>
I've read multiple sources say it spreads through direct contact. Should I be concerned about it traveling around on egg crate?
<Yes; anything wet is suspicious>
Are you aware of any natural predators, maybe a shrimp of some sort?
<I am not>
<Bob Fenner>
Re: Halofolliculina corallasia (Holotrich parasite of Scler)        9/10/15

Just thought I'd follow up for other readers to confirm that this dip was successful.
<Ahh! And thank you for your report/follow-up>
So far we are at about 6 weeks with no recurrence after a single dip done for the most part as you suggested. 20mg/l in slightly reduced alkalinity <salinity? really spg> with the addition of Lugol's solution. I skipped the sugar as I didn't have any on hand and couldn't find any at the grocery store). We ended up doing a longer length dip, after looking at the critter under the microscope after half an hour (with a touch of alcohol also as you suggested) they were quite wiggly. So we ended up doing closer to an hour, however, after looking at them again under the microscope they were still quite wiggly so I think it was actually just too much activity from the alcohol making them look alive. I'm still not sure on that one.
There was one we had under the scope whose tube appeared to poop when we added the drop of alcohol, not sure if that was one of the buggers dying or some other microscope foible. Anyway, appreciate the solution,
<Again, appreciated. Bob Fenner>
Re: Halofolliculina corallasia        9/10/15

Haha. Yes... spg. Not alkalinity.
<Ahh. B>

Disease... iatrogenic      10/21/14
<... 11.3 megs of pix... for one breaking down Damsel. We demand that queriors limit what they send us for the reasons stated on how you found to write us>
I have a 220 gallon aquarium that was setup in June. We have been slowly adding fish to it. I had 4 yellow-tailed damsels, 3 blue damsels, two orange Ocellaris clowns, one chocolate Ocellaris clown, one coral beauty, one
flame Hawkfish, one blond Naso tang and three Heniochus. I added two new fish last Friday, a saddle backed butterfly and a long-nosed butterfly.
<No mention of dip/bath, or quarantine. You're detailing the beginning of expensive lessons>
Both looked healthy at the time of acquisition. On Saturday all of the fish in the tank were eating and healthy. On Sunday night I noticed one Heniochus and the long-nosed butterfly were swimming in place and not eating. Last night I came home from work and most of the fish were covered with white spots and in obvious distress. Today, the Naso tang, yellow long-nosed butterfly, saddle backed butterfly, one Heniochus and one yellow-tailed damsel are dead.
<... soon the rest>

One Heniochus is near death and one orange Ocellaris clown is in great distress. I am attaching pictures of one of the surviving damsels. Can you identify the problem and advise a course of action? Thank you.
<Not with great confidence from mere photos. Need sampling and microscopic examination. Where to refer you to read? Maybe here:
and as much of the linked files in the header as it takes for you to be satisfied that you understand your options (now). Going forward: prophylactic measures... Bob Fenner>

Re: Disease. Quinine use      10/22/14
I am sorry about sending too many pictures. Thank you for the information.
I will read it and greatly appreciate your prompt reply.
Best regards,
<Ah, welcome. BobF>
Re: Disease      10/22/14

I have spent some time reading your recommended links and it looks like a treatment with Quinine is in order. Is there a particular Quinine product that I should be looking for? Thank you again in advance.
<Ah yes. Chloroquine phosphate. B>
Re: Disease. Using WWM      10/22/14

Thank you. I am having difficulty finding Chloroquine phosphate. Do they sell it at pet shops? Is there a particular brand name with this ingredient?
Many thanks again.
Re: Disease      10/22/14

Thank you.
<Welcome. BobF>

How long for a disease to show up?   3/10/14
Hi crew,
 I have a question as to how long does it take for a disease such as brook of velvet to show up on a fish.
<How long from when? What? Oh, I think I understand from your writing below... These and many other pathogenic diseases can be non-clinically resident indefinitely>

 The reason I ask is I purchased a Cherub Angel and a Tailspot Blenny in January. They had both been in the LFS for 3 months and 3 weeks, respectively. I did freshwater dips on both of them when I brought them home. They were both clean (no flukes). I then commenced the tank transfer method in the event of ich. I did 4 transfers every 3 days which equated to
16 days. On the 16th day I moved them into a permanent QT that I've had set up and is fully cycled. They stayed in that QT for 30 days. I moved them into the main last night and today the Cherub sort of looks like he has a sheen to him. His fins are also torn up but I think that is from fighting with the royal gramma. So my question is Is it possible for velvet or brook
to lie dormant during the 6 weeks of quarantine or is this just me being extremely paranoid?  Thank you!
<Is possible either the fish/es are/were carriers, or more likely, that the system itself is infested. Bob Fenner>

Re: Ich or Velvet?    11/18/13
Thanks for all your help.
I have all fish in QT… and Kole tang died, one Chromis died… and it now looks as if the ocellaris are on their way out.
I have been treating with Cupramine for 5 days now (and testing copper levels).  Began to see an improvement, however this morning the clowns don’t look so good.
I have attached a pic of the female clown. 
Could you help me in identifying the diseases/parasite?
<See WWM re... do you have a microscope?>
I though it was crypto, but now I think velvet.  Shouldn’t Cupramine have helped?
<.... IF velvet all would likely be dead. Looks symptomatically like Cryptocaryon in this pic. Cupramine at proper levels should have helped. See WWM re this as well. Too much to re-re-re-state, esp. from an airport terminal.
Bob Fenner>
Thanks again,
Matt K

Cephalopholis fdg. SW issues from FW comets?      9/4/13
I have an 11-year-old Miniatus Grouper that I occasionally feed live freshwater feeder fish
<A poor idea... Thiaminase, fatty issues... and more>

to.  90% of the time I feed frozen silversides, krill, etc.  I was recently told by another saltwater hobbyist that my grouper could get internal parasites from feeding him/her the freshwater feeder fish.  I know external parasites wouldn't be an issue, but what about internal parasites?
<Good question (among other reasons; I don't know). The worm issues I'm familiar with tend to be fresh or marine specific...>
 And what treatment could I provide to eliminate them if this really is a risk?
<Likely the usual mixed in antiprotozoal (Metronidazole) and anthelminthic (my choice would be Praziquantel) would "do it">
I have decided to not feed live feeders anymore.
<Ah, good>
 Thanks for any information/advice.
<Thank you for your query. Bob Fenner>

Desperate; crypt... crowded sys. 10/31/11
First thank you and the crew for all the hard work on your website. Your website is a blessing, and I look at it constantly. Unfortunately I happen to be in a bind. I have a harem of scribbled angelfish. One male and two females. They seem to have all gotten sick. It looks like some of my other angels have gotten sick as well. The tank is a 120 gallon mixed reef tank.
<Mmm, too small... esp. given your stocking list below>
Occupants of the tank are as follows. Neon Wrasse, Grey head Wrasse, Yellow Coris Wrasse, Majestic Angel, Regal Angel, 1/2 an inch flame angel, Flameback angel, 2 firefish, Rabbitfish, mandarin, 10 chromis, and a mystery wrasse. The tank has a 35 gallon sump, NO3 reactor, Phosban reactor. Parameters ph 8.2, CA 370, Alk 11.3, Ammonia 0, No3 5ppm. I had a spike in NO3 last week that had it between 15ppm-20ppm. I have concluded that I have monogenetic Trematodes.
<Mmm, in addition to the Crypt?>

Some of the reasons for this are the constant shaking back and forth by the angels. At times the scribbled angels widely open their mouth, and gills. They are constantly with my cleaner shrimps. When I freshwater dip I do see white flatworms on the bottom of the bucket I don't see hundreds, but I do see some. Since this is in my display tank I have been forced to dose Prazipro. I removed Purigen, shutoff the skimmer, and added a filter sock to help with waste.
I praziproed on Tuesday morning 1oz. On Wednesday I also was able to take out the two larger scribbled angels (the male and large female), and gave them a 12 minute freshwater dip mixed with Methylene blue followed by a 50 minute formalin bath.
<W/ aeration hopefully>
On Saturday night I did a 30% water change, swapped filter socks, followed by adding .5 oz Prazipro. On Sunday I added another .5oz Prazipro. Also not sure if this is a factor, but will mention it. I noticed that my temp was down to 73.6 this morning. Upon inspection my heater was not working. I swapped heaters, and raised the temp back to 77. Temperature should not be an issue at this point. Attached are the current photos of the angels who are the sickest. The largest female's eyes are fully white. She is still attempting to eat, but its is kind of tough when you are blind. It also looks like she is getting a secondary infection of Ich.
<I do agree>
Here are my questions. Do I wait, and follow through with the Prazipro?
<I would continue this treatment AND add a quinine compound NOW!>
If so how long. I am thinking of a 30% water change on Wednesday, and then redosing. Do I take out the sickest female, and put her in my QT tank, and use some other treatment options?
<ALL the fishes need to be treated immediately... IF I'd seen your note last night I would have responded right then>
If so what would they be? I don't want to rush, or be impatient. At the same time I want to be responsible owner of these fish. Please Help!
<Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/quinmedfaqs.htm
ORDER the quinine... Treat ASAP. Bob Fenner>

Re: Desperate, Crypt plus... 10/31/11
Thank you for your quick response. I read the post quickly, and will read very thoroughly tonight. In response to the formalin bath I did use aeration during the 50 minute bath. I also added an air stone to the tank Saturday night since the skimmer was off.
<Ahh, thank you. As you likely understood, my comment/s are/were directed to all who might read our correspondence>
Here is what is going on today. Fish look better. I think Prazipro levels are at the correct dose because my GSP has finally not opened up. (I had this in my notes after the first dose when I used this medication a while ago that it did not like it same goes for my green stylo.) (This time after my first treatment GSP did not close, and my green stylo which did not like the last go around was still fine. They both currently look like crap which leads me to believe I am at a therapeutic dose for the fish) (All other Sps are fine except or two that RTNed. :( ) Crypt seems to have receded on the large female, but eyes are still white, and the white is a little stringy.
Despite that her eyes do look a little clearer. She was feistier than usual today attempting to get food. She did ingest seaweed as this is in the same spot everyday.
What I gathered from using quinine is that it is not reef safe, or invert friendly.
Currently these fish are being treated in my display tank which is a mixed reef. The pictures are of the sickest fish. The other angels are not displaying any degree of crypt. They are just showing signs of flukes.
<Well... you could go the route of hoping (dare I say praying) for some sort of immunity here...>
To clarify I therefore should take out the scribbled angels and get the QT tank to the same level of Prazipro?
I should then add the quinine compound. I understand that this will not eliminate the crypto problem because it will always be in my display tank, but could allow the angels to regain strength in quarantine, and beef their immune system up.
I would want to create an equilibrium until I am ready to treat the whole tank for crypto ie it is there, but if treated well, and water parameters are correct they should be fine. At the same time I don't want the infection to kill the one scribbled angel. With that being my rationale would moving her to the QT tank make the most sense?
What about temperature in the QT tank? Is 75 degrees okay for this?
Should I freshwater dip with Methylene blue before adding to the QT tank?
<Yes I would... w/ Formalin added>
I have a 40 gallon QT. Can I put the two smaller scribbled's in one, and get a second QT tank for the male?
The eyes are white for the large female, and the male. The smaller female is okay, and is still eating. The larger female's eyes are white and the white substance is somewhat stringy on her eye?
<Their own mucus, produced in quantity>
Is this from flukes, or yet another secondary infection in addition to flukes, and crypto? If it is should I treat with a wide spectrum antibiotic in addition to quinine, and Prazipro?
<I would not; no; Not likely to be helpful here>
In addition all three scribbled angels have rapid breathing (not surprising). The other fish do not except for the Regal, and the Majestic? Dwarf angels can't really tell. They look fine as they are baby dwarfs.
<I REALLY want to emphasize the direness of your situation. ALL these fishes could (easily) die from debilitation/weakness related to the parasitic situation here. I would be reading, observing, acting w/ knowledge VERY carefully here>
Thanks, and sorry for all the questions. It is my science background coming out.
<No worries at all Nick. Ask away. Cheers, BobF>
Re: Desperate 10/31/11
A couple of more questions. I will be following this advice when I get home today due to the dire nature of this situation. To clarify is it better to do a freshwater dip with Methylene blue, then off to a 50 minute formalin bath, or put the formalin in with the freshwater dip?
<Mix all together>
If so would a twelve minute dip suffice, or should it be longer?
<Twelve minutes will get you about all you can...>
How much formalin goes into a freshwater dip?
<Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/mardisindex.htm
the first tray items on dips/baths and formalin use>
Some people from my local club are suggesting potassium permanganate as treatment option. What are your thoughts?
<KMnO3 is WAAAAY too dangerous for most hobbyists' use. Too strong an oxidizer... Please learn to/use the search tool on WWM (on every page)... as you don't want to wait on me/our responding>
Where does one acquire quinine compound?
<... also posted: http://wetwebmedia.com/QuinSourceF.htm
Most LFS do not seem to carry.
What about copper?
I know angels are very sensitive, but could it work or is the risk not worth it?
<IF this is all that is available w/in reasonable time... see WWM re its use on/w/ Pomacanthids. B>
Re: Desperate 10/31/11

Hopefully final question before the treatment begins. I can not acquire quinine sulfate today. I can order some, but it will not arrive until Friday assuming that I can't get it faster from another source. Could I use Malachite Green instead.
<Not really...>
I know it is not as benign, but I feel my choices are limited. I know I will have to monitor Ammonia, and Nitrites.
Would you take this path of using Malachite Green in the absence of quinine, or would you use something else?
<I'd either cross my fingers and hope for the best or use a chelated copper solution in the meanwhile. B>
I will read up on this treatment in the mean time.
Thanks again for everything!!!!
Re: Desperate 11/1/11

After researching I found the safest dose of Cupramine for angels to be at .35 mg/l.
<Mmm, this is the maximum free copper (cupric ion) exposure for scaled fishes...>
Would this give a level of 1.5ppm?
<? With what product, test kit? Cupramine?>
I will test regardless not sure if you knew. Should I get the QT tank right up to the therapeutic dose, or titrate over a couple of days to get the angels used to it (follow the bottles instructions).
Re: Desperate 11/1/11

I found a post that helps. So mg/l is analogous with ppm.
<They are equivalents>
So the goal is not .35, but .15 mg/l?
<This is the low side of exposure, effective dose. B>
Re: Desperate
Sad to say, but none of the fish made it.
<Arrghhhh! I did TRY to convey the "direness" of your situation... the state of infestation of the Angels whose pix you sent along, the over-crowded condition in the system>
Maybe I was to aggressive, and should have waited with the copper treatment, and gone the other route of crossing my fingers. I want to recap with you because you have been so helpful for taking your time to help me out. Hopefully I will learn from this, and other people can learn from this to avoid loss from there end.
So I did a freshwater dip in three gallons of RO/DI water, formalin, and Methylene blue. I buffered the water, and matched the temperature to the tank, and put in an air stone. I added formalin (37%) at 2.7ml per gallon totaling to 8.1 ml of formalin for the bath. I also added Methylene blue per the bottles recommendation (believe it was for a total of 40 drops, maybe 60 don't recall of the top of my head). I freshwater dipped the fish individually for 15 minutes, and then placed in a bucket with my tanks water.
<Again, w/ aeration... just to note for others>
I did not notice much stress. I did see a ton of flukes at the bottom of this dip. This was the first time I saw so many flukes after a dip. I was also shocked because the main tank has Prazipro in it, and it has been a week of treatment thus far.
<Again... Am NOT a fan of treating for most of anything in main/display systems... For obvious reasons>
I would have thought that a lot of flukes would have been eliminated already. Does the size mean that they might have need a higher concentration of Prazipro in the water?
In the one quarantine tank of 40 gallons I added Seachem's Cupramine. The directions said to achieve a level of .5 mg/l add 16 drops per gallon then 48 hours follow the same procedure.
<WITH testing of concentration>
According to the bottle this For freshwater add half as much to achieve a level of .25 mg/l. I also buffered <?> the tank with Prazipro two teaspoons which is the recommended dose for 40 gallons. I added 45 drops of Cupramine which would have given me a level .175 mg/l. Figuring this would be good since angels are sensitive ( 45/x=64/.25). I acclimated them to the quarantine tank, and placed them into the tank. When I placed them in after an hour I did see the little one fighting to jump put, but after a couple of minutes she calmed down.
The large male I quarantined at a friends house, and added even less Cupramine, and no Prazipro. The level of Cupramine was 1.25. I was going to add more in 48 hours to get the angel to the correct dose since they are sensitive to copper. He was acclimated to my friends tank QT tank over an hour. SO he went into the QT tank at about 12:30am. My friend who is an aspiring lawyer checked him out again at 3:30am after he finished school work, and he seemed fine, and not stressed. Any ideas besides the obvious of Cupramine. Were these guys to<o> far gone.
<Likely; yes>
What stumps me is that the little one was sick, but not that sick.
<Can't tell just from looking>
to have all three not make it at the end of the night is wild. The common link was the Cupramine, and the dip. Any ideas.
Besides acquiring quinine sulfate are there any other recommendations you would make?
<Not at this juncture, no. Bob Fenner>
Re: Desperate
Thanks for the information. I know you told me the direness of the situation hence why I followed your recommendations (as much as I could minus the quinine sulfate). I drove two hours to a pet store that told me they had the quinine sulfate only to be disappointed that it was Kordon's Ich attack that contained *naphthoquinones* (don't think that was what you meant).
<Is not>
Trust me I am heart broken as I rarely lose fish, and take it very personally. Especially when it is fish that are as beautiful and rare as those three. Despite the tragic loss there are still other fish in the tank that will need help.
<Yes; all>
I am concerned for the Majestic, and Regal.
They are not showing symptoms yet, but I have to assume they are infected, or maybe I shouldn't assume. Would you proactively quarantine them?
<Not quarantine, BUT treatment; yes>
In regards to the Scribbleds would it have been better to have done the dip, and then allowed them time in QT without any Cupramine?
<No way to tell>
Then have titrated the Cupramine a couple of days later? In theory minimize the stress, or space it out? I guess at that point it was a crap shoot no matter what I did due to circumstances.
<More this, yes>
If it was eye flukes, the LFS said that these flukes are more protected from medications, and freshwater dips because they are inside the eyes.
<? Not inside>
Is there some evidence of this, or just a myth? In general are parasites protected more from their environment in larger fish?
<Mmm; a qualified yes. BobF>

Possible parasitic infection in marine fish 12/9/10
I am having a couple problems with my system, and thought I should ask the experts before I lose anymore fish. Here are the tank specs:
150 gallon RR with a 6" sand bed and around 200 lbs. live rock 40 gallon sump with protein skimmer
20 gallon macro algae refugium with Chaeto and Caulerpa with a 3 " sand bed and 20 lbs. live rock rubble
2500 GPH Reeflo Pump
16 39 watt T5 lights (8 actinic & 8 white)
1 Coral Beauty Angelfish
1 Yellow Coris Wrasse
1 Green Mandarin Dragonet
1 Blue Spot Jawfish
1 Royal Gramma Basslet
1 Ocellaris Clown
6 Blue Green Chromis
1 Scopas Tang
1 Cleaner Shrimp
4 Peppermint Shrimp
Several Cerith and Nerite Snails
3 Extra Large Turbo Snails
Several Blue Leg Hermit Crabs
1 Emerald Crab
2 Bubble Tip Anemones
1 Green Finger Leather Coral
Pulsing Xenia (taking over)
Several different Zoanthids
1 Torch Coral
I do a 25% water change every other week. The salinity is kept at 1.023,
<I'd raise this a few thousandths. See WWM for rationale>
pH at 8.3, and the temperature is between 76 and 78 degrees. Ammonia 0, Nitrate 5ppm, Nitrite 0, Phosphate 2ppm,
<Whoa! Really? I suspect you're missing a/the decimal point here>
and calcium 460 ppm.
<Mmm, alkalinity and Mg conc.?>
The system has been running for 6 + years with no problems or deaths.
Until now. In 7 days, I have lost 3 Ocellaris Clowns, and 2 Chromis.
They look and act normal, eat well, then suddenly are swimming upside down and die a couple hours later.
The one thing out of the ordinary is that several of the fish have long white feces. They are fed a mixture of frozen Super Brine, Mysis Shrimp, Reef Plankton, and Bloodworms.
<I'd scratch the Bloodworms (implicated in troubles...), and Artemia (of poor/consistent food value), add Cyclops>
I only feed what they consume in a couple minutes every other day.
Copepods are occasionally added for the Mandarin. I have spoken to my LFS about the symptoms, and was told that it is a parasite that cannot be treated and all of my fish will probably die because there are no effective treatment options.
<?! What?>
Does this sound correct? Is there something I can at least try?
The other problem is a sudden algae bloom.
<Mmm, well... if your HPO4 is what you state...>
This started about 4 weeks ago. The sand and rock is covered in brown algae and the glass is dusted with green algae. The only recent changes are the Deep Sand Bed and the addition of the Jawfish and the Scopas Tang.
Could the algae bloom be related to the fish deaths?
<Possibly... but more likely the opposite, or co-related... As in whatever has brought about the loss of the Damsels (Clowns are Pomacentrids as well), is very likely positively correlated with the algal bloom>
Thank you for all your help!
<Mmm, how to help/assist you proceed/ing from here... You need to read, and soon: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/mardisindex.htm
but I would not "treat" the system as such yet... Perhaps supplementation through the foods... HUFAs, Vitamins, AAs... as in products like Selcon, Vitality... added/soaked a few minutes before offering... Until there are actual signs... of infestation, infection, I would not move the fishes elsewhere for chemical treatment. Bob Fenner>

Parasite 11/30/10
Hello Crew!
Need some help yet again! I've noticed a small outbreak in my show tank and I'm not 100% sure what to do. A while back I bought a Bi-color angelfish who had some parasite problems.
<Mmm, of what nature?>
Not having a Quarantine tank ready, I went ahead and added it to my main tank.
For around two weeks everything was fine, but afterwards the fish started getting a cloudy eye and being very sluggish. Also noticed my Hippo tang having a few problems along with my Royal Gramma. I gave all 3 fish a Formalin 3 dip
<... and placed these fishes back in the infested system?>
and the Gramma and Tang cleared right up. Unfortunately I lost my Bi-color. My question is on my Hippo I've noticed no signs of any parasite but he is rubbing against rocks and the sand bed.
<Some such behavior is "natural". Not to worry>
Should I do any kind dip or purchase a cleaner shrimp to try to help her?
<The cleaner would be my choice here for now>
Any information would be greatly Appreciated.
Thank you for your time,
<Uhh, read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/parasittksfaqs.htm
and the linked files above... till you have a "sufficient" appreciation for your situation. Bob Fenner>

Re: Parasites and Fish Mysteriously Dying 9/3/10
Thanks Chris. So your suggestion is to take out the Mandarin but OK to leave hermits, shrimps and snails to break the parasite cycle?
<That is what I would do. Do keep a close eye on the mandarin to make sure it has something to eat.>

Re: Now an angel... Quinine, SW parasitic dis. (?) of what sort... Confusing oneself w/ opinions from differing sources 3/7/2010
So I wanted to tell the rest of the story.
<Please do>
After you said I needed to raise salinity and use quinine (and this was after about 3.5 days of treatment with prozipro and lowering salinity to 1.011) I added carbon, turned on the UV and slowly started raising the salinity. I called National Fish Pharmacy to ask if I could use the Cryptopro in lower salinity as I did not want to raise it quickly. In talking with Brian he convinced me that I needed to treat again for flukes -- that it was not ich. This was based on the data that the fish was hiding, not eating well, and breathing hard.
<? These can be/are symptoms of Cryptocaryoniasis... and can be symptomatic of trematode infestations>
So I treated again for flukes instead of ich and I very slowly raised the salinity according to your instructions. It went from 1.011 to 1.015 in about a week. Well the ich returned and the fish was looking terrible. I have treated a fish for flukes before and the fish usually looks better very quickly and this was after another 4.5 days on prozipro.
<Prazi-Pro... as in the product containing Praziquantel... for worms...>
But he was looking terrible so I started the process to get the prozipro out again but it takes 48 hours and the fish died before the 48 hours was up.
Now I still had the goby and he was showing symptoms so after the 48 hours of small water changes and carbon, (Brian said not to use UV as it sucks oxygen out of the water
<... No... generates higher DO... even Ozone/O3... nonsense>
and he also said to leave the salinity alone so I did) I treated with quinine. Last night was the 7th night of treating with the quinine and the goby is dying this morning.
Originally I did not write to you for advice on how to treat ich. I wrote -- with all of the details because I was worried it was something else. I gave the fish a freshwater dip at one point to check and see if it was velvet but there was no cloudiness in the water and there was no evidence of velvet when they died. As I mentioned several times I was confused because nothing seemed to be effective. The only symptoms I could see were hiding, not eating, redness in the gills, a strange texture on the gills (not fluke shapes) and difficulty breathing.
<... need a scope...>
Brian still insists that it was flukes and that I did not treat it long enough or early enough. And that the ich was a secondary infection. If this is so then I should have stayed with the hypo and prozipro. I don't know what I have learned from this except that I want to buy quarantined fish from now on.
<Thank you for this input Sherri... Other than prophylactic measures like dips/baths and quarantine, it may be worth your while to invest in an inexpensive microscope (see my input re on WWM) and a stock reference work on fish disease ID and treatment (see re Ed Noga...). Bob Fenner>

Help! Parasitized system choices 10/11/09
3 months ago I had a whitespot outbreak in my reef tank.
<No fun>
Took all the fish out and put them in quarantine tank but lost most. Lost a kole tang, a magnificent powder brown, a maroon clown pair and a royal gramma. The only fish to survive were the comet grouper and the neon damsel (no surprise there).
We left the display tank empty of fish for 5 weeks.
In the meantime we purchase a pair of ocellaris clowns and a very small lipstick tang. They stayed in quarantine for 4 weeks before being put in the display tank.
Purchased a purple tang that was in the coral display tank at my LFS for 6 weeks. We watched this fish for the whole six weeks in the LFS, no sign of any problems so he went directly into the display tank.
Then I acquired an achilles tang ( I had been after one for over a year)
put him in the quarantine tank. He was in there for 3 weeks with no sign of white spot but he developed a cloudy eye. I had planned to keep him in quarantine for another week but was advised by the LFS to put him in the display tank as the cloudy eye was because the quarantine tank was too small and the achilles was probably stressed.
<Oh oh...>
Put him in the display tank. A week later he developed white spot!
The white spot is getting worse.
He is the only fish with white spot. All the others are fine.
The achilles is still eating well and seems active.
But as you can imagine I am stressed out! I absolutely love this fish and don't want to lose him.
What should I do?
<Is a choice you'll have to make... to treat or not... and if to treat whether to move all or not... and then, what to treat with. IF I were to treat these fishes at this juncture, I'd use a Quinine cpd. in situ. Read here re: http://wetwebmedia.com/quinmedfaqs.htm>
Water is good. 0 nitrate, 0 nitrite, 0 nitrate, ph 8.0, 0 phosphate. 500l tank.
<Or IF I were to shoot for some sort of parasitized system balance, I'd be reading here: http://wetwebmedia.com/parasittkfaq2.htm
and the linked files above till I understood the ramifications of this choice. Bob Fenner>

Trying to save my clown (trigger): SW Velvet. Disease identification and treatment. 7/31/2009
<Hi Don.>
You have a wonderful website with a great deal of great information.
<Thank you.>
I have a 165-gallon tank that has been up for 3 months. We have 1 clown trigger (4 inches), 1 nigger trigger (3 inches), 1 yellow tang (5 inches), 1 blue hippo tang (4 inches), 1 raccoon butterfly (4 inches), 1 yellow head goby, and 1 dragon goby (both 3 inches).
The water measurements are ph 8.2, ammonia 0.00, nitrates .20, nitrites 0.00, and hydrometer reads 1.022. The temperature of the tank ranges from 78.9 to 80.9. The tank has live rock and sand. We also have a 65 gallon tank that had been up for a year.
<Don, Thank you for providing these details. Also, while everybody gets along now and everyone 'fits' in this tank, you are likely to have some behavioral problems down the road.>
Yesterday my powder brown tang looked like it had swam through a snow storm. It started swim in small circles and refused to eat dinner.
Within about an hour he was dead.
<That is fast - too fast for Crypt. How long did you have this fish, how long was it quarantined, and how was it behaving recently?>
This is the first fish that we have ever had that has died. I had just did a 35 gallon water change the day before and moved the direction of one of my powerheads more at the rocks. I buy saltwater from my LFS same place I have been using the last year.
<Not likely a contributing factor.>
This morning it took a long time for our clown to come out of his cave.
When he did we noticed some real light white spots on him similar to those on the powder brown.
<Spots or bumps?>
He ate excellent this morning and we kept the lights off after the feeding.
At the dinner feeding the spots are still there and he ate excellent again. He appears to be swimming fine.
All of the other fish in the tank appear fine and there are no signs of white spots on any of them. They all are eating well and swimming as normal.
Could this be ich or what?
<Based on what you are telling me, it is possible, that or Amyloodinium.>
<Read here for descriptions and pictures that can help you identify the disease and treatment options:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/clndisood.htm (Deals with clownfish, but good pictures.>
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ichart2mar.htm >
I am at a loss, since it is now on my clown. Everything I have says tangs are walking ich carriers but very little on clowns. Any help and advice would be great.
<Do read above the linked articles above and see if you can determine the disease..>
Thank you,

Marine Ick... and more, reading 6/21/09
I have a potters angel which I have been treating for marine ick with Formalin 3. I feel bad because I stopped the treatment too early and now the spots have returned. The angel is still in my qt tank and I'm now going to do a second round of treatment but I'm wondering how he will handle another 6 weeks of formalin? Is there a better medicine?
<... quite a few... read on WWM re...>
Second question. I also have 2 false clowns that were exposed to the angel for about a week when he had spots originally in my 65 gallon reef tank. They have never shown any visible signs of white spots and they eat and act well. So they have stayed in the main tank for the last month while the angel has been in my 10 gallon qt tank and they still don't show white spots. Should I treat them along with the angel in my 10 gallon qt tank even though they have never shown a white spot since I purchased them 4 months ago? I'm just concerned that 3 fish in a 10 gallon qt tank is too much? Will they always be suspect as carriers no matter how much time goes by without spots?
However there's a twist now. I just noticed that one of the clowns pooped out a long stringy white thing?
<Please learn to/use the search tool on WWM re... this, these are all gone over and over>
Could this be a symptom of Ick or some other parasite?
<... Yes>
I read on one of your FAQs that this type of poop doesn't necessarily indicate a "pathogen" however I'm unsure what exactly is meant by pathogen?
<A biological contagion... causative organism of disease>
Is a parasite a pathogen or does that only refer to germs and/or bacteria?
<Encompasses all such agents>
Will formalin 3 treat stringy white poop problem as well?
<No... not w/o killing the host first... see WWM re Formalin as well>
I'm sorry for all the questions but I'm kind of new to this and really need some help because I'm feeling like I'm letting my fish down.
<... the search tool... listed on the home page... each of all the other thousands of pages... Bob Fenner>

QT disaster, please HELP, SW parasitic disease... reading 6/6/09
I pulled
>/// are we starting en media res? Where's the prev. corr.?<
all 4 of my fish out of my 180-gallon reef and started treating with Quinine Sulfate for Crypt, as recommended from one www adviser. I used the recommended dosage on the bottle. My powder brown which looked most affected before the QT started looking much better but then one morning had blotchiness all over him and was dead a few hours later.
<Mmm, I might have (FW pH adjusted) dipped/bathed the most afflicted fishes enroute... to "knock off" the bulk of parasites here>
The same day my clownfish was laying on its side and my hippo tang is breathing heavily. I said that's it and did two 25% partial water changes within 8-hours and I also through the carbon media back into the bio-wheel filter.
<... on the quarantine/treatment tank? This will remove the medication>
Now looking at my remaining clownfish and hippo tang, I see what looks to be powder on the fish,
<Whitish? Of what apparent size?...>
especially the hippo tang. I can't tell if this is Marine Velvet or not because the entire tank/ glass walls have powder on them from the Quinine Sulfate. I just fed the tang and it ate everything but it is breathing
very hard and I am watching it right now struggle to stay upright. I am thinking about putting it back into the main tank which has been fallow for only a week. Please help, what would you do?
<A bit more reading. Bob Fenner>

Re: QT disaster, please HELP, more reading 6/6/09
In regards to the message, below. I decided to do a freshwater dip with Methylene blue for 4-minutes.
<Oh! Should have been done when the fishes were moved in the first place>
Then I put the tang back in the fallow main tank since it is very stressed in a small tank and my QT has .25 ammonia ( I have been using Amquel+ to take care of that)
<Won't do so ongoing... need a biological filter... More reading>
The freshwater dip did nothing at all to remove any of the powder looking stuff all over its body. Does this mean that it may not be Marine Velvet, because it did not remove any of the powder which I thought were parasites?
<Not necessarily, no. Both parasites can be "so embedded" that the mucus spots/dots (which is what we see, not the actual parasites) look permanent>
Now I have my 2x clowns in the QT still and my tang in the DT by itself.
<?! Why in the display tank?>
If/when the tang dies I think I would feel better if it died in my reef tank, its home. I just don't know what to do anymore.
<Read. BobF>

Re: QT disaster, please HELP 6/6/09
Thanks Bob, I did read your white paper on Marine Velvet, but it doesn't really say that there is anything that will eradicate marine velvet from fish, for sure.
<Mmm, I do want to state/admit... that as far as I'm aware and concerned there actually ISN'T anything that will eliminate Amyloodinium from fish for sure...!>
With crypt we know that copper works well but it seems to be hit or miss with velvet. My hippo tang is dead now so I am left with a fallow display tank and still have those two clownfish in QT with a slight white dust on them. I feel VERY bad about my tangs, especially the Hippo I had for 2-years. I am really questioning myself about the decision I made to take all the fish out and throw them in QT.
<Good to question, bad/sad to have lost your fishes>
The Hippo didn't even look bad (powder brown did)
<"Looks can be deceiving". Appearance is not indicative of state>
but I stressed it out to the max and caused it to die. I thought it was small cases of crypt the tangs were getting, but it looks to be more like velvet now. It must have come on a live rock a coral was on or something, because I haven't added any new fish in months and even when I did I QT'd them. Thanks again.
<Can be introduced via anything wet. B>

Re: QT disaster, please HELP... parasitic 06/06/09
Thanks again Bob, so if you were in my shoes what would you do? I have a 180-gallon fishless reef and a clownfish pair that may have been exposed to velvet in a QT. I know the reef will be left fallow, but I am scared to ever put the clowns back in. Thank you.
<Well... likely the system is and will be infested... see/read on WWM re "parasitic reef systems"... B>

Ich AND Velvet - Need help fast! 04/04/09
You have been so helpful in the past, both through books (Conscientious Marine Aquarist) and WMM which have helped me with my new 120 gal tank be successful. I waited 7 months to stock my tank (hard to be patient, but I was) and my tank has become my pride. I started stocking in December and was adding the last of my fish (3 tangs). Now my demise is giving in and buying a fish not on my list (and against your advice) so I deserve what I get and am mad at myself for putting my fish through this.
I bought the 3 tangs on 3-14-09; zebrasoma flavescens (yellow), Acanthurus japonicus (white faced), and my mistake, the Paracanthurus hepatus (blue hippo). I gave them all three a freshwater dip with methylene blue for 5 minutes and then into a 10 gal QT tank.
<Mistake... these species can't be crowded together like this>
I changed 2 gal of water out each day and had no chemistry issues (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate all stayed 0) by doing that. I have a sponge filter and some PVC piping for them to hide in and an airstone to add more water since my powerhead seems to move the water around too much for them. QT tank is set at 80 degrees. All three eating good, feeding in the evening mysis shrimp and Formula 2 I soaked the food in garlic one day and the next day in Selcon. In the morning, I fed the Spirulina flakes.
Following your advice to a tee until on day 15 (3-30-09, they started bullying the hippo from getting food, so I was concerned about 3 tangs in a 10 gal anyway so since they were eating well and looked fine (no spots, eating, no flicking) I moved them to the display tank. (I use a Fish Corral box instead of netting them seems less stressful), also gives me a good look at them and the ability to drip acclimate them to the display and keep them in the Corral in the display for a few minutes to let the other fish check them out without immediately attacking them.
<All good points>
I let them go and they all swam around and none of the fish fought with them. So for the next 24 hours I watched carefully to make sure they weren't picked on etc.
So on 4-2 (Tues) I see spots (like sugar) stuck to the blue hippo body and dorsal fins and some on the dorsal fins of the chocolate tang. Panicked I quickly caught the blue hippo in the corral and looked closely at the spots!
How could I miss that? I did another freshwater dip in methylene blue for 5 minutes and back in the QT she went. I then added 8 drops of the Quick Cure (Formalin, Malachite Green) to the 10 gal QT daily. I caught the yellow and she didn't have a single spot on her so I put her back into the display (probably a mistake). I couldn't catch the chocolate, but when I got home from work, she didn't have anymore spots on her, but I was concerned about stressing her more trying to catch her � she's a smart one and wouldn't fall for my corral tactics.
Last night (4-3), the hippo was covered in velvet (looks like she was rolled in flour). So what I thought was Ich turned to velvet?
<Mmm, no... could be either, both>
She died this morning (4-4) in the QT :-(. I've been up all night reading about the stages of Ich and velvet � but I am hesitant to tear my 120 gal down and send all the fish off to the hospital (which I would need a bigger tank) if none of them show any signs of illness � except the 5-6 spots on the white faces fins.
So my question (finally � you say) is, given the display tanks exposure to the blue tang for 24 hours and the chocolates possible illness (probably brought on by my panic to get her out) do I watch and wait?
<Mmm, a toss-up... I'd wait, while ordering Chloroquine...>
(its now been
4 days since the tanks exposure to the tangs). Do I take down my tank and catch all my fish and move them to the hospital (not sure how big I would need � see list below).
And finally, I'm not sure what to treat for (which is my main reason for writing to you (and its unfair since you cant see � thus the long email I'm trying to give you all the details to help). What I thought was ich turned out to be velvet?
<Not able to say/state, but if Amyloodinium had taken effect in your main system, very likely all fishes would be dead by now>
But then I would think, as fast as that kills, my whole tank would be more in trouble than it seems. So if I move them all-out, how do I treat them? I've read how you leave the main tank fallow for at least 8 weeks. I can probably keep my invertebrates in, so I can find those answers in your site readily enough. If I move them, I should keep all in the display except for the fish (but can the mandarin stay in as well given her thick slime coat?) When I called my LFS, they suggested two directions: buying a cleaner shrimp or cleaner wrasse or tearing the tank down and putting a UV light on the display.
<Mmm, possible good advice...>
Tank parameters: Euro-Reef 180 skimmer, Eheim 1262 return pump, Current Sundial T5HO 4x54 watts, on 8 hrs, 125# live rock, 1 inch sugar fine sand in display and 50 gal refugium with 6" deep sand bed (sugar fine). Refugium lights on for 12 hrs at night with Chaetomorpha linum 3 Maxi-Jet 1200 and 2 Koralia-4 circulating the tank.
Tank parameters:
79 degrees
1.026 sp gr
0 ammonia
2 nitrate
1230 magnesium
360 calcium
0.03 phosphate (use RO)
7.7 kH
2.74 Alk
0.01 Iodide
0 Iodate
Astrea turban snails (6)
Nassarius snails (4)
Coral Banded Shrimp
Fromia starfish
Emerald Mithrax crab (2)
Green star polyps
Red mushroom rock (4)
Order of introduction � all quarantined first
Pajama spotted cardinals (5)
Green Mandarin (1 ½ yrs old from old tank)
Royal Gramma Basslet
Coral Beauty Angelfish
Flame Angelfish (they both get along well)
Cinnamon clownfish (9 years old from my old tank)
Diamond Watchman Goby
Yellow Tang (zebrasoma flavescens)
White faced tang (Acanthurus japonicus)
Any thoughts on my parameters is appreciate as well, but not top priority since I know that if I am dealing with disease I have to move quickly today and go buy a tank and set it up today. My 10 gal QT needs to be bleached and cleaned, but cant put all these fish into it. How large with this population would you suggest since they have to be in it for 2 months?
<... fifty or so gallons>
Now that my QT tank has velvet in it, am assuming I'll have to throw my sponge filter away?
<No... any water, surface could be infested>
If I need a 50 gal hospital tank for these fish, I would need an additional filter � what type would you suggest if I have to treat with medications?
<Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/cryptcures1.htm
and the linked files above... and here: http://wetwebmedia.com/quinmedfaqs.htm>
And finally, if I have to treat � what do you suggest for the above symptoms? And the moral of the story � minimum 30 day QT for tangs <And one to a quarantine system>
a whole year of careful planning down the drain and am hoping you give me something positive � as I hate to stress all these fish out if I'm wrong.
The White Faced tang is showing no signs of sickness (fast breathing, scratching � only the couple of spots on the front fins). All other fish are also without signs of sickness.
<Let's hope you can settle on a low-pathogenicity resident situation. Bob Fenner>

Marine Parasite Problem 3-31-09
<Hello, Mike here this afternoon>
I currently manage a marine aquatic laboratory. We have two closed saltwater systems (since the lab is fairly landlocked): one large and one small. At any given time, we typically house mummichogs and cephalopods. Since September 2008, we have only maintained mummichogs and larger predatory fish, and no cephalopods. However, we intend to house some cuttlefish this coming semester.
<Neat! I did a bit of work at the National Research Center for Cephalopods (NRCC) in Galveston, TX>
Since we brought in our first cohort of mummichogs in October 2008 (collected from the wild - we culled as many as we could identify with visible parasitism), we had a terrible parasite problem.
<Can you be more specific?>
We were hesitant to use any copper based parasite killer in either system for fear that residual copper compounds may inevitably kill cephalopods (should we house them in the future).
<This may or may not be an issue, depending upon a variety of factors; but you are correct about there being better alternatives to copper based medications>
By November, about 25% were dying a day, and by December, they were all dead. We contacted an aquarium shop and they suggested two things instead: 1) to increase the temperature (which we cannot do) and 2) switch the systems to freshwater. We elected to go with the second option, and turned both systems into freshwater. After a week in freshwater, it seemed to have worked. However, by the second week, the parasites once again took hold, and killed off our population.
<An internal parasite, then?>
We brought in a new cohort in late February 2009, and they were doing well for an entire month. This time, we kept the large system freshwater, and the small system saltwater. However, over the last two weeks, we've seen massive parasitism, and accelerated mortality. I'm not sure if this is due to residual parasite problems or a new invasion.
<Likely a new invasion, although it would be helpful to know what parasite is causing the mortality>
I don't think this parasite will jump hosts if we bring back cephalopods, but we're not sure. Also, I froze some fish specimens just in case we ever considered to do any histology.
<Highly recommended if you haven't determined the species of the parasite>
Given our situation, and our attempts to drop salinity and avoid copper dewormers, what would you recommend as a successful, alternative solution? We would really appreciate your help, since this issue has plagued us all year.
<A little more information would be helpful. Are you using UV sterilization? Ozone in the marine systems? Any idea what type/kind/species of parasite? If not, what symptoms are being displayed? Water parameters of the system? Flow rate and filtration method?>
<Let me know. Mike Maddox>

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