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FAQs About Sump/Filters Design/Engineering 8

Related FAQs: Sump Design 1, Sump Design 2, Sump Design 3Sump Design 4Sump Design 5 Sump Design 6 Sump Design 7, Sump Design 9, Sump Design 10, Sump Design 11, & Sumps/Filters 1, Sumps/Filters 2, Sumps 3, Sumps 4, Sumps 5, Sumps 6, Sumps 7,  Sumps 9, Sumps 10, Rationale, Construction, Sump Components, Pumps/Circulation, Maintenance, Refugiums, Plenums in Reef Filtration, Marine System Plumbing Holes & Drilling 1, Durso Standpipes, Overflow Boxes, Bubble Trouble, Plumbing NoiseMake Up Water Systems, Marine Aquarium Set-Up, Algal Filtration in General, Mud Filtration 1

Related Articles: Pressure Locking Sump Baffles; Welcome to the World of Versatility! By Joshua McMillen, Refugiums, Marine Filtration, Reef FiltrationMechanical, Physical, Marine System Plumbing Fish-Only Marine Set-up, FOWLR/Fish and Invertebrate Systems, Reef Systems, Coldwater Systems, Small Systems, Large Systems, Refugiums

Improved filtration/Overflow, sump setup 11/24/08 I recently set up a new 135 gal Oceanic reef tank. I converted my old 55ga tank into a refugium underneath. The refugium is a simple design. It consists of three compartments, divided by two acrylic sheets. The first compartment is where I keep my skimmer and heaters, this spills into my second compartment, which contains some live rock rubble and Chaeto algae, and then the final compartment simply contains my two return pumps. The volume of the system is approximately 40 gallons. My question is do you think this simple design will be very effective? <Yes, tis the setup nowadays.> Could I improve on it by putting a small pump (200 gph or so) in the final compartment and pump the water that was going to go to the display back to the first compartment to run through the process again so to speak? <No, you want the raw water from the tank running to the skimmer.> Also, I'm not sure what my two overflows are rated at (if that means anything). <Typically 1� bulkheads, good for a bit more than 300 gph per, though �rated� much higher.> My return pumps are rated at 740 gph ea (again ratings don't seem to mean much). <Nope.> The water level draining at the teeth on the overflows is not even half way up the teeth. <Not a factor, the bulkhead is the limiting factor here.> Last question, can it handle more return? <Likely not.> Is looking at the water level on the teeth a half-way accurate way to judge this? <No, see above.> Thank you Corey <Welcome, Scott V.>

Sump question, des.  11/17/08 I have an Aqua line sump and removed all the bio balls. I have filter material in the top tray trickling down over pieces of live rock sitting on the egg crate that the bio balls used to rest on, so my live rock is not full submersed on the bottom of the sump. My question is should I remove the plastic egg carton allowing the live rock to be fully submersed and there is a long filter sponge preventing any debris to get to the area were the main pump and skimmer are, do I keep that sponge in place? <I would submerge the rock. As for the sponge, you definitely could keep it there, but do be sure to clean it frequently. If you plan on a refugium to culture pods, do not use the sponge before the pump.> Finally I wanted to breed some co pods and other micro algae with the live rock so do I need to hang a light on one side to allow light in as the filter material on top will not allow light through. <You will need a light to grow the algae, a macroalgae such as Chaetomorpha is what you will want here.> Thanks for all the expert help. Brian <Welcome, Scott V.>

Sump/Refugium chamber order 11/15/08 Hi Guys, unbelievably in-depth and expansive resource you've put together. Thank you all for your time! <A collaborative effort; thank you!> I'm working on a sump design for my 90g reef tank. I'd like to use Ogo (Gracilaria?) <yes> in the refugium section since I'm a sashimi fan, which I realize will require some design finesse to keep it "tumbling". To help facilitate that I'm thinking of incorporating adjustable control of the flow through the refugium into my design. How I accomplish this will depend on the order of my sump's sections, which leads me to my questions that I haven't found answered after lots of reading. It seems that the recommended sump section order is skimmer and refugium on either end, with the return in the middle. Overflows draining into skimmer and refugium. <It is one way, generally allows for a larger refugium since the water level in the refugium can be higher, not dependant on skimmer chamber flow through.> -Wouldn't the skimmer catch more junk if all the tank's overflow was passing through it, instead of some passing only through the refugium at each pass? <It does to a point. Running too much water through the skimmer will decrease dwell time. This will also decrease skimmer output, to nothing if too much water is run through. > -Would the refugium (and therefore the tank) be happier with skimmed or unskimmed water? <I would go ahead and plumb one of your overflows over to the refugium, feed it raw aquarium water.> My gut tells me that ideally all overflow would pass through the skimmer, then refugium, then return. This would seem easiest to do by arranging the sump sections in the same order. If my gut isn't lying this time, do you know of any design ideas/plans/pics on allowing some skimmed water to bypass the refugium to facilitate the adjustability I feel I might need? <Do check out http://www.melevsreef.com/allmysumps.html. Marc has a number of designs posted here.> Thanks a ton! <Welcome, Scott V.>

Sump Change Out  11/07/08 Hello Crew, <<Hiya Carlos>> Let me say first what a great asset you guys are. <<And gals, yes?'¦thank you>> There are so many questions (and differing answers) on our hobby and you are certainly the best resource I have found. <<This is indeed true (differing answers/opinions)'¦we appreciate the kind words>> I have a 75 g tank that has been established for a year and a half. One of the challenges (and enjoyment) of the initial setup was to DIY as much as I could (I'm an engineer so I could not help myself). <<Ah yes! I too much enjoy DIY>> I made my sump from an old 20g tank and added a wet-dry filter consisting of two Tupperware containers, a filter pad and some shotgun wadding. I also made my own skimmer using an old in-line pool leaf catcher, an airstone (wood), and a venturi that came with my pump. I've always had two concerns about this setup: 1. That my trickle would eventually become a nitrate factory <<This type filter really has no capacity to further process/reduce NO3>> and 2. That my skimmer had very poor bubble production and would eventually not keep up with demand. <<Indeed>> I recently got a deal on a new skimmer from an aquarium shop that is (sadly) going out of business. I'm planning to revise my sump this way: The skimmer will sit in a container that will maintain a constant 10" of water level (fed directly from the overflow on the tank). This will overflow into a division that will contain live rock. On the other side of the division will be my pump and heater. I plan to start out by dumping all of my shotgun wadding into the live rock area, then slowly remove portions of it and replace it with equal or slightly more volume of live rock. <<Okay>> Does this sound like a good plan? <<Sure sounds fine>> How much live rock should I add at a time? <<A few pounds at a time to replace the wadding over the course of a couple weeks>> I really do not have a good way to cure the rock. Would I be better of adding "dead" rock and letting it seed from my wadding? <<Mmm, not in my opinion. I would try to find cured/partially cured rock at your LFS and just monitor water quality closely. There's a good chance that the small amount of newly added live rock will have little/no impact and will be HUGELY more beneficial than adding dead rock>> Thanks in advance for your patience and your response. <<Is my pleasure to assist>> Best Regards, Carlos <<Cheers, EricR>>

Sump Modification 10/12/08 Hey Crew, <Chris.> I've finally decided that it's time to install a sump on my 55g reef. <You will love it.> It's been up and running for almost a year now, and yes, I am kicking myself for not doing this right at the start. I recently inherited an old acrylic wet/dry trickle filter from my dad's old reef tank. My plan is to convert this into a sump for use on my tank. The design is shown in the picture below: The dimensions of the unit are 31.5" long x 15.75" tall x 10.5" deep. Originally, the water flow into the unit was in chambers 1 and 2. I remember him having empty shotgun casings as a biomedia. (This was about 1990, things have come a long way). <Quite an innovative media.> I believe I will need to slightly modify the existing design. The two red pieces in chambers 1 and 2 are not there. I believe that in order for me to have live sand in the first chamber, I will need to add these correct? <Yes, at least the one closest to the first chamber, to hold the sand in.> If not, that would be fantastic. <Don't worry, these are very simple to add. Just a matter of having the new baffle cut, place in the sump, and a small bit of acrylic solvent to bond it all together.> Also, in chamber 3 there is an automatic top off system that is controlled by a float valve. Now, here is where I need a bit of guidance. In order for me to get this sucker inside my stand, I'm going to need to remove the center support temporarily. Obviously, this requires draining and removing my tank. <There are ways to get around draining the tank, but draining is the safest way.> As for water flow into the sump, I have two options. I've been given an overflow box that is a "gravity run" type. That is, no option for adding a powerhead to ensure a siphon. I've heard the type without a powerhead can be somewhat risky, but that could've been due to the guy at the LFS store trying to sell me his for $250 which I find completely outrageous. <As for HOB overflows, the non powerhead using types work fine. The real trait to look for is not dumping the water from the tube when the return pump shuts off; this will help the siphon start when the flow starts back up. All good HOB overflows on the market share this trait. If you are going to tear the system down anyhow, do consider drilling for a true gravity fed overflow. You can visit my site for more info on this: http://reefercentral.com/drilling_video.html.> If these types are really that bad, the other option is to buy another 55g tank, and have it drilled. <You can, or drill yourself.> Your thoughts/advice are much appreciated. Chris <Thank you, Scott V.>


Re: Sump Modification 10/13/08 Scott, Thanks for the quick reply! <Happy to help out Chris.> I've also realized that in order to run my skimmer in the second compartment, I'm going to need to add a baffle there as well in order to keep the water level up. I've also decided to go with buying another tank and having it drilled. <A good move, do shop around a bit, some 55's out there are tempered (undrillable) on the sides and back in addition to the normal bottom tempered pane.> I picked up the overflow yesterday and it doesn't look to be in the greatest shape. I also figure that with drilling a new tank, I will be able to get exactly the type of overflow I'm looking for. A few more quick questions while I have your attention. For a return pump, a Mag 7 should suffice? <Yes, is fine for filtration purposes, you will need some supplemental flow via powerheads or a closed loop. A Mag 7 with typical plumbing and head height will give you in the area of 300 gph.> Do you recommend anything higher than that? <You definitely could, but if you have a Mag 7 or can get on cheap go for it.> The sump will be located directly underneath the display, so I would only be push water maybe 4 or so feet. I've also decided to replace the substrate in the display. I have fairly large diameter crushed coral substrate in the display now, but would like to go with something a bit finer. <Many of us have made this switch at on point or another!> I appreciate all your help! <Again, my pleasure.> Chris <Scott V.>

Sump Question, lighting use 10/9/08 Good morning to all, <Shawn.> I'm planning on adding a sump to my 75 gal. mostly reef tank. I presently have a lighted refugium with live rock and it houses my protein skimmer and heater. I have been reading through your archives and remember reading that you can set up a sump with out lighting which would help produce plankton. Did I read this correctly or am I wrong about this. <It can, but so can a sump with a light.> Would there be any advantage to setting up a lightless sump. <There can be. Many use lightless sumps set up as biofilters with sponges or Aiptasia. For the most part it is hugely beneficial to set up a lit refugium with a macroalgae. This will aid both the pods and your filtration.> My main intentions are for culturing more food for the corals as well as adding capacity to the system and additional filtration. I have been adding live Copepods to the refugium and tank to try and get a reproducing population going but have not been very successful as of yet. <Try the macroalgae refugium, lit on a 10-12 hour cycle. > Thanks in advance for your help and advice, Shawn <Happy to share, Scott V.>

Questions from a Newbie 8/13/08 New to the saltwater world, been reading a lot. Have had a 55g freshwater tank for over a year. I have purchased an up and running 55g saltwater with 5 fish, couple crabs, bunch of hermits and snails and a shrimp, live rock (27 rocks, don't know how to estimate lbs) and sand (about 2" deep). Uses 2 Fluval cartridge filters, 204 and 404. (Nitrates 160, Salinity 1.030 when I got it! Nitrates 40, Salinity 1.023 now, working the nitrates down with water changes.) I have also purchased a 120g tank with a 30g sump that I am planning to startup. <Okay.> My questions: 1) The setup came with one overflow box, 1" bulkhead. I'm thinking of using 2 overflow boxes, 1" B/H in each or a rated 1200 GPH, but from reading your site planning on 600 GPH, then using a ¾" return to a Current Switching Valve (3iQ Ventures) fed from a Rio 20HF HyperFlow for the return pump (870 GPH at my head height that I will adjust with a ball valve) and 2 Hydor Koralia #2 Powerheads (600 GPH each) for a total of about 1800 GPH total circulation. How does this setup sound? <There are many numbers floating around about how much a 1' drain can flow, 300 gph is the actual number. Also, consider running an extra overflow or two for redundancy, if two will flow what you are running, use three or four overflows. One will likely fail in time and this will keep the water in the tank. Do also consider drilling this tank before setting up, it is a far more reliable method to transit water to the sump.> 2) The sump (pic attached) has ½" openings between chambers. This seems very limiting to me. Will I have to reconfigure or will this work? <This is a bit small, but can work. The issue you may run into with higher flows is higher water velocity through these openings. This means that the baffles will be less effective at stopping bubbles.> 3) I am planning a 5" DSB in the refugium in the sump. Do I still need a DSB in the display tank or can I go 2" deep there? (looking for ways to reduce startup costs, but willing to invest if best for the long run) <You can run a DSB in one or the other, the more the better. If you do not run a DSB in the display, 1' or less is all that is needed/wanted.> 4) Not sure the best way to start the new tank and transfer the fish, sand and rock. I'm thinking of filling the new tank with new water and half of the live rock from existing tank, then cycle for a month or until all the numbers look good. Then move the fish and the remaining rock. With this plan, I'm not sure how to move the sand without making a mess of either the existing tank before I move the fish or the new tank after it is up and running. I'll obviously be buying a bunch of new sand but would like to use the existing also. Your thoughts? <I would just move everything at once. One move is less disturbing, moving half your rock out disrupts some of the filtration on your existing tank, and you should not need to cycle/cure your existing rock in the new system. You may even consider bringing the Fluval filter over to the new system for the first few weeks to help out.> Thanks for your help and for your great site. Jeff Gaines
<Welcome and thank you, Scott V.>

Sump size 08/08/2008 <<Hi Jeff...Andrew today>> I am setting up a 120 gallon tank, which I have not decided will be reef, or FOWLR. I am planning to use a 20 gallon long aquarium as a sump. Will this be sufficient? <<Personally, I would prefer to go somewhere in the area of 40 gals for a sump, for a 120g. 20 Gals does not fair much when divided up.>> Thank you for your reply. Best regards, Jeffrey Castaldo <<Thanks for the question, hope this helps. A Nixon>>

Sump re-design 5/17/08 Hi Crew, <Jason> I have what I hope to be a fairly straight-forward question regarding my sump redesign. I've looked over your sump articles to get some ideas, but I'm still a bit unsure on how to proceed. I have a 55 gallon display with a 15 gallon sump inside the stand. Because it's a relatively small sump, I want to make sure I'm making the most of it. Basically I'd like to remove the bio-balls from the first chamber (A) and either replace them with sand or live rock rubble. <I would use the last> I'd also like to add more sand to chamber B as well since the current 3 inch depth is kind of in-between the preferred depth; of course that may be a problem because if I add too much sand then the pump for the skimmer will be close to being out of the water (at least given the currently sustained water depth). Eventually I'd like to add some Chaeto to the sump - as soon as the LFS has some in stock. <I would definitely move the skimmer and its pump to area "C"> Does my plan seem sound to you? Or, in your infinite wisdom and kindness, can you recommend an alternative modification? <Mmm, this is "about it"> I've attached a drawing of the set-up to help clarify things. Thank you, Jason <A very nice graphic! Bob Fenner> Re: Sump re-design 5/17/08 Thank you for such a quick response! I'll take your advice and place rock rubble in the first chamber. I'm not sure if I can move the skimmer to chamber C, as it's a pretty snug fit and the Mag pump is rather large, but I'll give it a shot...I may have to get creative :) Glad you like the diagram. If you have any graphics/drawings on your site that you would like updated, I'm happy to volunteer my services. <Heeee! Be careful where you volunteer! The tasks are endless> Thank you,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Sump Design 3/9/08 Hello, I am just starting out in the SW hobby. I have a 150 gal tank that I initially want to use as a FOWLR setup, and maybe in the future add some corals and inverts. <OK, many of us start out this way.> I also have an empty 55 gal tank that I want to convert into a sump / refugium. I have some Plexiglas to use for baffles and dividers for the sump but am not sure what would be the best way to configure everything. Does this design look like it would be ok or do I need to make some changes? Any advice or suggestions would be appreciated... thanks! <Your design looks fine, although I would put the skimmer in the first chamber to get the rawest water possible. One other option is to put the skimmer chamber on one end, the refugium on the other and a common sump return area between the two. With this configuration you can split your overflow lines between the two sections on the ends and have the both overflow into the return area. The advantage to this is it allow you to run a higher (greater volume) refugium. Your rock rubble can go anywhere you wish with this. Either will work fine, just wanted to give you another option. Have fun with this, Scott V.>

Sump Question, des., store-bought... no WWM referral...   2/29/08 Hello all. <Hi Matt> I currently have a 55 gal reef aquarium with some mushrooms, polyps, and leathers. I also currently have 2 tank raised clowns and some snails. I really want a sump in order to have all of my "gear" hidden. My tank is not drilled. I have an old 10 gal glass aquarium or I can afford to buy a 20 gal aquarium. What do you suggest I do? <I'd go with the 20, gives you more water in the system.> Are there any good plans out there for building one of these? <Really need to do nothing to the sump, just place your return pump into it unless you want an area for chemical media. Eshopps manufacturers very affordable sumps so you might want to think about this. Drs. Foster Smith carries these. The model RS-75 would work great and it is priced at 114.00 including filter sock inlet assembly and at 18" long, should provide plenty of room for your gear. See here. http://www.drsfostersmith.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=3578+3579+18365&pcatid=18365> Also, I have an AquaC Remora HOT skimmer that I want to continue to use. Can I use this and hang it on the sump? <Yes, as long as the water level in the sump completely covers the pump.> I do not want a refugium at this point, so I do not really want to plan for that. All I really want is a place for my skimmer, and a water return, just for more volume and circulation. Any help would be great. <Do a Google search, DIY Sumps. Should provide some links re this.> Thanks a lot. You are all wonderful. <You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)> Matthew Diethorn

Re: Sump Question... still no referral...  3/1/08 Wow, thanks for getting back to me so quickly. <You're welcome.> Just one more question about this though. I will get a 20 gal glass tank. But I guess I will need an overflow box too because my tank is not drilled. Can I just run piping from the overflow box into the 20 gal tank which will be under my 55 gal tank and place a pump in the 20 gal sump with piping going right back into the main tank? Is this possible, or do I need another box on the outside from the overflow box into the sump? <All you will need is an overflow box to feed water to your sump and would not pipe, but run the standard 1" flexible drain hose. I would also install an inlet assembly with filter sock. See here. http://www.drsfostersmith.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=3578+3579+16746&pcatid=16746 This will help cut down splashing and offer mechanical filtration. A nice set up as the sock can be backflushed and reused.> Thanks again. <You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)> Matthew

Thoughts and Suggestions on a Combined Refugium/Sump'¦and Pumps -- 01/07/07 Hi Crew! <<Hiya Doug!>> I've been in the hobby just a few months now, and am excited to step up from my 20G to a 120G! <<Neat! Bigger 'is' better>> I'm planning for mostly FOWLR, but may add more inverts/corals as I slowly gain experience. <<Mmm, then do keep this in mind when making your stocking selections'¦you will want to collect 'reef friendly' specimens>> Here are my current plans: - 120G tank, 48x24x24", acrylic. - Stand 40" tall, 9" canopy. - 2 corner overflows -- each with 2" inner diameter bulkhead at 20" height. <<Ahh, very good'¦I see you've been reading!>> - 2x 1" inner diameter bulkheads for return from sump. For a sump/refugium below, I'm thinking of a standard 55G tank following your diagrams. <<'Standard' glass tanks work quite well as sump and/or refugium vessels'¦and are a whole-lot cheaper than the purpose-built retail alternatives. Add a few baffles, drill and install a couple bulkheads (when/if necessary), and you're 'golden''¦with money saved/ready to spend on other areas. My own system incorporates a modified 55g tank for a refugium, and a modified 75g tank for a sump>> - Skimmer: AquaC EV180 w Mag 7 pump. - Aiming for 15x water flow gives 1800gph. <<Indeed'¦but I expect you will find that trying to process this much water volume through a 55g sump will be problematic>> - Two sump return pumps, internal Eheim 1262s (want it to be quiet),should be about 1600gph at 5" head. <<Very good pumps'¦and the 'redundancy' of two pumps for your return can be a lifesaver, literally. About a year ago a faulty GFCI tripped and shut down the return pump on my heavily stocked 500g reef system (was off more than nine hours before discovery). The ensuing anoxic condition resulted in the loss of more than $1200.00 worth of livestock (fish and corals). Let's just say 'lesson learned''¦ I now have two return pumps on separate circuits for this system>> Questions: 1. Is that too much flow through the refugium? <<Yes'¦ A couple to a few hundred gallons per hour is generally sufficient for a refugium. Obviously, utilizing 'separate' vessels for sump and refugium make plumbing for the differing flow rates a bit easier>> 2. If so, would it work well to use just a single Eheim for the sump return, ~800gph, with an internal powerhead like a Tunze Stream in the tank? <<800gph through the sump would be easier to accommodate (and a LOT less noisy), and some creative work with the baffles could provide a 'raceway' to allow the full force of the flow to circumvent the refugium section on its way from the skimmer chamber to the pump chamber, while allowing you to divert a few hundred gph to the 'fuge'¦if you choose to keep with a single combined vessel. I still like the idea of two return pumps'¦perhaps a couple Eheim pumps of lesser size'¦>> Then maybe reduce the drains to 2x 1.5"ID? <<A pair of 1.5' drains would handle a flow of 800gph quite well, with a healthy safety margin>> Your thoughts and suggestions are very welcome! Thanks, Doug <<Is my pleasure to assist. EricR>> Rack system with individual sump style prefilters for fish room ingenious or idiot  12/16/07 Hi Crew Merry Christmas, <And to you and yours> I have quick question about rack systems. Since my pursuit of the fish hobby rests on my wife's tentative interest I have decided to try a rack system as an addition to my fish collection. The reasoning behind this is my wife has a particular taste in fish. Box fish, Cow fish, Cucumbers, Octopus, Nudibranchs, seahorses, and other special needs, and system crashing animals. typically when doing rack systems the tanks all flow into one big reservoir. Now the design I am thinking of doing is using all drilled tanks, but with the outlets drilled into the back wall about an inch from the top and two inches from the corner. <Okay...> with the return line at the opposite side. now instead of having the drop directly into the reservoir I am considering using individual pre filter sump boxes for each tank, five gallons each with live rock then carbon just prior to entering the main reservoir. <Neat idea> I have considered this because with CERTAIN Nudibranchs, sponges, cucumbers, box fish, Sea apples and the like can release toxins that can wipe out a system as experience has shown. So as a precaution I figure this will help. Of course I will be using a commercial protein skimmer in the receiving portion of the main reservoir. Does this seem like a good idea? or will it not matter if something goes awry? Thank you for all your help crew. <I do think this is a good idea... make sure and situate these intermediate sumps where you can service them... Bob Fenner>

Adding sump/Fuge to a Nano -12/14/07 Dear Mr. Fenner & Crew, <Hello again Pearson> Below, you will find my previous correspondence for reference. I couldn't find the original emails, so I just copied them from the FAQs. <Ah, good> I wanted to thank you again for your input, and to let y'all know I finally went ahead with this project. A few nights ago, I successfully drilled and plumbed my JBJ Nanocube 12 gallon tank to accommodate a 15 gallon sump/refugium. While I have never drilled a tank before, nor done any kind of DIY projects related to aquaria, it turned out to be pretty straight forward. There were a couple of design considerations I took into account that may be of use to someone else considering doing something similar. <I thank you for sharing your experiences, observations> I decided to plumb the return line into the display portion of the tank, and the drain line in the last chamber of the rear section of the tank. This way, the rear section functions as an overflow of sorts, and still causes water to flow through all three rear chambers, so they can still be used to house LR rubble, carbon, a heater, or whatever else you might have back there. I also made sure to line up the return bulkhead with the location of the existing hole in the rear wall of the display tank where the stock MaxiJet pump outlet was, so I could take advantage of that hole, and not have to drill a new/larger hole. This also allows me to return to the stock configuration if I ever need to. I would only have to seal the bulkheads, and place the MaxiJet back in place. <All sounds/reads as reasonable> The benefits of this experiment are already evident. I'm using a Mag 2 as a return pump. Flow in the display is increased, and at the same time temperature is decreased. I now have plenty of room in the sump for growing macro, a DSB, more live rock, one or more media reactors (Phosban, carbon, what have you), an automatic top-off system, room to fit a decent skimmer, without having to resort to one of those tiny Nano skimmers, not to mention the increased water volume and system stability. <Yes> Attached are a couple of pictures for reference. If you feel any of this might be helpful to others, please do post. <I will definitely do so> A great big thanks to everyone at WWM for all that you do for the hobby and hobbyists, and for helping me work out this project. Pearson <I REALLY wish that a couple friends/crewmembers here would crank out a title on "Aquarium Engineering"... such a work (DIY, mathematics...) with good graphics could/would help so MANY folks. Thank you again for sharing. Bob Fenner>

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