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FAQs on Marine Water Supplements, Rationale/Use 

Related Articles: Marine System Additives, Marine Maintenance, Understanding Calcium & Alkalinity, The Use of Kalkwasser by Russell Schultz,

Related FAQs: Marine Supplements 1, Marine Supplements 2, Marine Supplements 3, Marine Supplements 4, & FAQs on Marine Supplement: Science, Measuring, Using, Troubleshooting/Fixing... Products/DIY & Brands, & Biominerals, IodineCalcium and Alkalinity

Do you actually need to add "supplements"? What for? Perhaps your source water, synthetic salt mix, dissolving substrates, foods... can/are supplying all your livestock need, can use... Testing and observation are requisite.

Adding Supplements (Testing/Determining Need'¦Product Selection) -- 08/08/08 I was wondering about adding supplements to my reef tank. <<As with most all topics re the hobby'¦can be quite controversial. But most all authors will agree, supplementation should always be accompanied by purposeful testing of those elements being added>> The tank is 140 gallons and I was just wondering if this is a good supplement schedule? Thanks, Thomas von Bargen Supplement adding schedule: Kent Marine Phytoplex and MicroVert - Use either one or the other not both at the same time. 1) Shake bottle 2) Add four caps 3) Feed two times a week Kent Marine Tech-M Magnesium - 1) Shake bottle 2) Add 1/4 tsb per 50 gallons 3) Once a week Kent Marine Concentrated Iodine - 1) Shake bottle 2) Add 3 cap full every other day Kent Marine CB part A - 1) Shake well 2) Add 7 caps of part a never mix Part A&B - 3) Add every day Kent marine CB part B - 1) Shake well 2) Add seven caps of part B never mix A&B 3) Add everyday <<Okay, a few things to state here'¦ First let me establish that there is no way on the limited info provided that I can advise on the 'quantity and frequency' of these dosages. You will need to obtain and use test kits for Magnesium and Iodine, as well as for Calcium and Alkalinity to firstly establish a 'need' for these ions. If the test kits show a need for supplementation, then you will have to use those measurements along with the manufacturers' instructions to determine a proper supplementation schedule (please also read here and among the links in blue: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/suppleme.htm ). Honestly mate, the onus is on you here. As for feeding your corals/inverts/reef'¦I am a big proponent of this'¦and though it depends on the specific livestock needs of your system, twice a week is a good general schedule. Target feeding is best when possible/practical, but 'blanket' feeding of the tank is also of benefit when done judiciously in my opinion'¦but not with the artificially preserved bottled products you have listed. I advise you stop use of the Kent products (do a search on our site re 'pollution in a bottle') and switch to 'frozen' foods like Rotifers, Cyclops and/or Cyclops-Eeze, Oyster Eggs, Nutramar Ova (prawn eggs), Plankton, and the like for this purpose. The frozen fare (after thawing of course) will be more nutritious and importantly, more readily accepted/ingested by your tank inhabitants. For dosing Phytoplankton, I recommend either the spray-dried (ESV) or refrigerated (DT's) products'¦but used very sparingly/with caution. Regards, EricR>>

Soft Coral Supplements   4/22/07 I have a 55 gal reef tank with many soft corals in it.   I am currently dosing with B-Ionic 2 part and Iodine. <Okay>      I also add Purple up every so often along with essential elements and pro buffer when needed. <Mmm... is there a need for these? All biomineral and alkalinity needed, desired can be supplied with the above two-part product...>      My levels are all good around 450 on calcium and an alkalinity around 10-11.   My question is that I don't really see my corals really growing fast or expanding to good. They have kind of just stayed the same. <Mmm... do you feed them?>   I wanted to add Black Powder supplement, would that be ok? <For what purpose? I am not a fan>      Also, I am going to start putting Cyclop-eeze in the tank, will that help out too. <Likely so>      I figure I can start to experiment with other supplements <Whoa! Please tell me this is a slip, or just a casual joke of some sort... You do NOT want to "start to experiment with other supplements" I assure you> as long as my parameters don't fluctuate to much and as long as the tanks calcium, alkalinity, iodine, magnesium, etc stay at there appropriate levels. Is this true?      Thanks. <... no. Much that can be, should be stated here... and I do wish I had the time to write it up succinctly... but will have to refer you for now... Please read on WWM re the use of Marine Supplements: http://wetwebmedia.com/suppleme.htm and the linked files above where you lead yourself... I would NOT add anything to your system w/o you understanding the probable use/rationale, capacity to test for, the likely interactions... and consequences. Supplement Madness (my term) is a very common cause of self-induced problems, losses... Bob Fenner>

- Trace Elements 6/24/06 - Mr. Fenner, <Actually, Mr. Chodakowski today.> I want to first say what a pleasure it was to hear your presentation to the SCMAS last week.  I found you (as usual) most informative and 'easy on the ears.'  I appreciate it that you came to our Society. I have questions, which are similar but different.  Much has been discussed (and argued as usual) about making additions of trace elements to our marine aquariums.  I'd like your opinion and any reference you can point me towards regarding these questions: Assuming 'normal' water changes every two weeks: 1)  Does adding trace elements contribute to macro algae growth and health? <Not usually in a marine environment. If we were talking about a planted freshwater tank, then yes supplements are beneficial.> 2)  Does adding trace elements to a reef aquarium have any benefits for the livestock? <Really depends on THE trace element we're talking about. Typically the real "trace" [read as: available in tiny amounts] elements are replenished by regular water changes with a quality salt mix. Other items which are necessary in larger amounts like calcium may need additional supplementation.> 3)  Does adding trace elements to a fish only (with or without live rock) aquarium have any benefits to the fish? <Once again, it really depends on which trace element we're talking about. I take vitamins, so I give my fish vitamins... this is a viable use of trace elements, but perhaps not the ones you were talking about...> Again, I appreciate your involvement in our hobby and the time you shared with SCMAS members.  I hope you can find some time to express your opinion(s) about trace element additions. Sincerely, LEE B. <Cheers, J --> <<Mine are very similar to those of Jas's stated here. RMF>>

General supplementing, SW   8/17/06 Hello, <Good evening!> I have a general question. We recently hired a person to come in and clean our tank once a month. We have a 90 gallon with a few fish and mushrooms, polyps and a candy cane coral. I was adding supplements such as calcium iodine and strontium, Moly weekly and he told me to stop. He said that regular monthly water changes would be better then adding supplements and that you shouldn't add anything in the tank that you cant test for. Ever since I stopped  our candy cane coral isn't looking so hot. Is he correct in his opinion? <Well, Nancy, yes and no.  There are a lot of ifs here.  Like the salt mix you're using.  Some salts have more reef needed additives in them than others.  I do dose weekly on essentials that are depleted in my tank even though I am very diligent about weekly water changes also (you should be, in my opinion, doing smaller weekly changes instead of the larger monthly changes that you're currently doing.  Its better for the overall health of the tank).  The key here is to have the proper testing kits to make sure you aren't too low or too high on elements like iodine.  You can purchase these and I highly recommend it.  Considering what you have in your tank, however, you probably don't need more than what the salt mix provides.  You do not have corals that have a major draw on any specific additive - but I would switch to at least bi-weekly water changes to make sure.  The choice is really up to you want to handle this.  Jen S.> Thanks, Nancy Reef Tank Supplements   11/26/07 Hello, <Hey Nick, JustinN with you tonight.> I have been successfully keeping my reef tank for over one and a half years now and it seems my corals have stopped growing. I know about all of these different supplements. I work at an aquarium store, so I have access to them. I just want to know if there are certain supplements or certain brands that are better than others that you would recommend. I have 2 mushroom rocks, one elephant ear, 2 brown and yellow zoo colonies, a bubble coral, a colt coral, and a starburst colony. Any advice would be greatly appreciated. Thanks, Nick <Well, Nick, you really don't give us enough information to go on here. Tank size, current parameters, other tank inhabitants, equipment, maintenance schedule, and exactly what supplements you're using are nowhere to be found. Are you testing for all the supplements you're adding? Do you understand the balance between alkalinity and calcium levels? Much to learn, know here and we're only being given a small porthole to the picture. -JustinN>

Re: Reef Tank Supplements   11/26/07 <Hey again, Nick. JustinN with you again.> Sorry, <Is alright, thank you for clarifying> I have a 54 gallon reef aquarium with a Fluval 404 filter, a T-5 dual lighting system, 50 pounds of live rock with lots of coralline algae.   I have 2 percula clowns, 2 Banggai cardinals, 2 green chromis, a six line wrasse, a coral beauty, about 30 blue legs, 10 Scarlets, and 20   tricolor hermit crabs. <60 hermits?! Can you even see the sand?? Just kidding, of course, but this is an awful lot of opportunistic feeders, especially for this relatively small in comparison tank. Perhaps snails would be more appropriate?> I have been testing the Nitrite, Nitrate, Ammonia, and pH. Nitrite levels are at 0 ppm and the tank has already gone through the nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia spikes. Nitrate is 0 ppm. Ammonia is 0 ppm, and the pH is about 8.0. I know this is low so I am adding one teaspoon of Seachem's Reef Buffer twice a week. I clean the filter once every two months. The tank is kept at a stable 78 degrees F. I am also adding Kent PhytoPlex Phytoplankton three times a week (a teaspoon and a half). I understand my ignorance and I apologize. But I do not understand the balance between alkalinity and calcium. Thanks again, Nick <I would recommend against the addition of the Reef Buffer, until you have a bit more of an understanding of alkalinity, calcium, and how pH relates to both. I recommend you thoroughly read the wonderful article by Anthony Calfo on the issue, located here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/calcalkmar.htm Your low pH could be indicative of a further imbalance existing in your water, and I would recommend getting your hands on a calcium and an alkalinity test to add to your regimen. Please feel free to write back if you have any further questions. Hope this helps you! -JustinN> SW additives   4/1/07 Hello, <Good Evening> I have a 924-gallon system with Fiji Rock and Kenyan rock.  I also have around 25 fish, 15 of them being small fish like damsels etc. I am starting to add soft corals, leathers, polyps etc.  I do a 53 gallon change every 2 weeks with synthetic salt of course.  My question is should I be adding iodine, strontium, and trace elements or is there enough in the salt? <Simple test kits will determine this but without a large coral population as of yet they should be adequately maintained with the water changes, but as with most things, tests give figures. Also these will depend on the brand of salt used> Sump lab is out of picture. This was taken a while ago, since then I have added more rock and some soft corals. Still a work in progress really but my fish love the space. <Is and will be quite a tank once completed> Many Thanks, James. <Olly>

The Necessity of Additives... Hi Guys, <Scott F. your guy today!> Just set up a new 125 reef tank, transferring from a 29 gal. which I am going to keep up as a small-aggressive type tank, maybe 1 trigger, Imperator,  and puffer, etc. What can I use as clean up critters in that tank that the trigger won't eat? <Very little, actually! Snails and hermit crabs will be snapped up like so much popcorn! In these types of systems, there is really no substitute for good husbandry and talented use of the siphon hose by the aquarist!> In this tank I was using previously strontium and iodine twice a week. In my new 125, my reef store guy suggested B-Ionic part 1 and 2 instead. The bottle tells you to use this once a day. Can I get away with twice a week like before. Is this stuff that great, or should I stick with my previous strontium and iodine, or can you suggest something better? <B-Ionic is a great product, IMO. Do ask yourself, however, what purpose you are adding things for. You should always test for anything that you add to a system. In most systems, strontium and iodine are replenished via regular frequent water changes. If there is some sort of deficiency in your system revealed by regular testing, then their addition is warranted. B-Ionic is designed to help maintain the calcium/alkalinity balance in your system. The frequency and amount of the dosage can only be confirmed through- you guessed it- testing!> This tank will have mostly soft coral, maybe a couple of hard, a couple of reef safe fish, and a pink Anemone. Also just bought RO/DI set-up. Can I store some of this water for topping, and also pre-mixed with salt for water changes, if I store in, say, a container like the Instant Ocean comes in, with a big O-ring gasket cover, and if so for how long? <I'd make it a few days ahead of time, so that you have a supply ready to go.> Hate to be so long, but I hear so much, and you guys have always steered me in the right direction. Thanks, Louie <Glad to be here for you, Louie! Regards, Scott F>

Coral Food and Supplementation Hello,   I have two questions. Sorry.  You guys are very informative and your website rocks. 1)  My question is about supplementation and food for corals and invertebrates.   I have the following animals in my tank. Corals: Green Bubble Candy Cane Mushroom Zoos Kenya tree Invertebrates Feather Duster Hardware 46G Bowfront 30-40 lbs of LR 2 96W PC Rena Canister Filter Fluval 404 Filter -  with Bio Material only Aqua C Remora Internal MaxiJet for additional flow I have been looking for some good advice at what to feed my corals and invertebrates.   There are about 4 LFS within 30 mile radius from my house. Each time I go to them for questions they always try to sell me stuff.  Which after reading your site, I realized that I don't really need them.   One of the LFS told me that since I have my skimmer running 24 X 7,   I need to constantly replenish my trace elements, thus selling me the Reef Solution, and Coral Vite solution.  As for food, they sold me Krill, silverside, Marine Snow, Kent Filter feeders.  I just had enough from them.  I also went to them with the question of Iodine. I read that mushrooms needs a supplement of iodine and again they tried to sell be the Lugo Iodine.  Even after I told them that the Reef Solution already contained Iodine and No, I do not have a test for Iodine yet.  I am tired of going to my LFS store with the feeling of being taken advantage of. <I can sense this> After I started going to your website, I stopped asking them questions and started to go to the LFS knowing already what I need.   So could you please point me to the right direction as to a brand of supplements and food you recommend? <... you need, test kits... for whatever it is you believe you're needing to add... I would get/use something for alkalinity and calcium and leave all else out here... Along with water changes, careful feeding, you don't need, nor likely want more.> I feed my Green bubble coral silverside and chopped squid.  Frogspawn, Zoos, Candy cane, Feather Duster I am not sure that filter food brand to give. <Best to add a live sump, aka a refugium to this set-up, and rely on this as a principal food provider for your filter feeders. Many other benefits as well...> 2) Question I have a feather duster that lost its crown last week.   I have not removed the tube in fear that the worm may still be alive.   At the same time I am afraid that is the worm is dead then the tube may decomposed in my tank thus creating a bioload nightmare from hell. <Not to worry... In a system of your size, make-up, no big deal> I have hermit crabs in my tank and the hermit crabs has not jumped on the tube yet.  Thus is my indicator that the tube is still alive.  I know that the hermit crabs will know that the tube is decomposing thus they will try to eat it.   I am I correct with these assumptions?  Or should I try to grab the tube to check if the worm is still alive? thank you Louie <I would leave it as is. Keep reading, chatting with other hobbyists... and maintaining a skeptical mind... you'll do fine. Bob Fenner> Additives/supplements Hi-ya! Out of curiosity, are the additives/supplements that are sold for daily, weekly, bi-weekly dosings really necessary? <For some applications, iodine can be useful.> Does weekly water changes have enough of the trace elements in the salt mixes to really warrant adding more? <Weekly water changes would be far more beneficial to your tank's health than any combination of supplements.> I can understand adding calcium and the occasional buffer if needed, but why the trace stuff? Cheap money making ploy? Kim <You said it, not me. -Steven Pro>

Reef supplements can you recommend a good supplement that contains the trace, calcium, strontium and whatever else is needed for coral growth and health.  <one product is not possible for this purpose, my friend. Calcium and carbonates much be added separately and Iodine is an organic.<<? No. RMF>> So three is the minimum without doing daily water changes to replace minerals/elements> I hate to have 6 bottles to deal with if there's a good multi-supplement on the market thanks Robert <the easy route would be Bionic 2-part supplements and Iodine. The better route would be to include Kalkwasser with a calcium reactor, water changes and Iodine IMO. Best regards, Anthony>

Reef supplements can you recommend a good supplement that contains the trace, calcium, strontium and whatever else is needed for coral growth and health. I hate to have 6 bottles to deal with if there's a good multi-supplement on the market <<Even under the best of circumstances, you're still going to end up with more than one bottle. Many of these substances need to be stored separate from others so that they don't have their own private reaction party in the bottle, and in addition all have different dose amounts which just wouldn't work if they were all packed into the same bottle.>> thanks Robert <<Cheers, J -- >>

Trace Elements I now use a calcium reactor with Korallith media, and I am wondering - with so many trace elements being dissolved, is there any need to continue adding bottled trace elements such as: Kent Marine Tech I, Kent Marine Essential Elements or any of the other additives I used before? <I am not a big additive fan to begin with. I only maintain calcium and alkalinity and experiment with iodine for my Xenia.> Is the calcium reactor taking care of pretty much all of this now? <That and water changes, though you may still want to dose iodine.> I know my calcium and alkalinity are great. Thanks! Steven Youngblood  <You are welcome. -Steven Pro>

Chemical addictives? Hey Bob: I thought I would drop you just a thought. I was looking through my past notes and correction of errors I keep since I have been in the hobby for the last 1 1/2 years and I noticed most of my major deaths comes from over adding chemical and trace elements. Let me explain.  I have a 55gallon reef with some fish. running protein skimmer, carbon backpack filter, U.V. sterilizer, Undergravel filter, 1" crushed corral, gravel tidy netting then sand 1", 1 powerhead, liverock, pc lighting, and 2 air pumps ( 1 for the skimmer and 1 for just air). I also do about 20% water change every 2 weeks with corral life salt mix and distilled water.  I add Kent corral-Vite trace elements on Sundays and Kent's coral essentials on Wednesdays. My levels are always as follows PH--8.3 ammonia--0 nitrites--0 nitrates--.10 to .20 alkalinity--2.5meq/L calcium--450 ppm My calcium is always high. But I am always having to add the alkalinity booster. Containing more calcium. Plus consistently adding the trace elements as advise by the LFS.  My coralline algae is spreading. My star polyps are spreading and growing. My Xenia's have more than double in the last month. And my fish (purple tang 4", bi-color blenny 4", sand sifting goby 4", citron clown 1", mandarin 3", flame hawk 2", 2 Percula clowns 1.5" and 5 starfishes) and F.F.E. cleanup crew look fine. I got so many starfishes remember the story I sent you about the one losing it's legs?).  My livestock looks pretty good most of the time. Right now my elegance is starting to show the "burn" from super saturation. I have experience this once before by when I was using a bio-calcium supplement that says it has everything needed and I used it strictly by it's direction. And burned up several torch corrals, elegance corral, tangs, and basically killed off a tank full.  I have come to the conclusion the adding of all these chemicals can be more dangerous than not having a regular cleaning schedule. But my problem is how can I add the trace elements and chemicals needed to keep the ph and alkalinity up to par and the needed trace elements to promote growth for the corral and fish. Without the calcium "burn"? All the chemicals and buffers seem to have a high calcium content. And how can I know when to add some of the other needed trace elements since all trace elements can't be tested for? This is a problem for me and probably all the other inexperienced hobbyist. KJ  >> Amen, and I can't believe my luck. I swear I did not put you up to writing this query/statement... besides, it's better written than I could have done! Yes! Many more organisms are bumped off from "supplement madness" than none being added at all. This being stated, YES, calcium (and some Mg, Sr...) and carbonates, bicarbonates et al. for buffer capacity are necessary... but/and how to "add them"? There is a whole line of approaches here: predicated on the bases of what the hobbyist is intending to do, what they're set-up comprises, gear and livestock-wise... In order of importance (Sez Me!) these are: 1) Proper set-up... live rock (of the right types...), substrate... other decor, can/will add these materials in moderation... once again, depending on your set-up circumstances and goals... Crowded systems (with biomineralizing biota), that are boosted with intense, high PAR light... are going to become alkaline earth and buffer deficient... 2) Water changes... especially with synthetic salt mixes... (versus natural waters that have very little useful "supplement" material in them... add a substantial amount of assimilable matter of utility. 3) Calcium, aka Kalkreactors... that incorporate highly soluble "reef based" starter feeder stock of mineral and carbon dioxide to melt it down... are going to be HUGE in the hobby/trade... People are FOOLS for not utilizing these units IMO... for about a hundred dollars a year (compare this with the amazing sums people pay the "additive" companies per annum) you can have a very easy to regulate, phenomenal method of supplying about the right mix of about the right types of minerals... without the always-accruing eventuality of poisoning from selective supplementing.... 4) "Balanced" additives. A few companies actually have compound mixes or miscible solids/solutions that "work" together to yield high alkalinity and high calcium and moderate pH... (Kent, SeaChem... a few others). If you're going the supplement madness route: USE ONLY ONE COMPANY'S LINE. Is this clear? HOPE SO! 5) CaOH (Kalkwasser, lime, pickling...), Calcium chloride, polygluconate calcium... and as far as I'm concerned: THE REST. Are tools of last resort... Along with regular, large water changes, these "additives" should be VERY CAREFULLY MONITORED... with test kits... I DO NOT USE THEM, OUR CORAL FARM DOES NOT USE THEM, THE COLLECTING, CULTURING FACILITIES WE HELP SET UP AROUND THE WORLD DO NOT USE THEM...  Bob Fenner, who IS going to expand this fervor into an article for the hobby press.

Lighting & Supplements Bob, I read most of the FAQs and got the impression that you don't really believe supplements are necessary. Your book left me with that impression, too, though I have not checked it for that specific detail recently...Your answer below seems to confirm that... <Yes... I agree with your assessment> So, when you say you agree that biominerals should be supplied and there should be an alkaline reserve, are those things usually supplied by frequent water changes and substrate changing? <Yes... synthetic salt mixes are formulated to have more biomineral and alkaline content than NSW (natural seawater)> Should I be testing for Ca to see if I NEED to supplement?  <If your animals require it, yes> I don't test for that at the moment, so I have no idea what my Ca level is. I do change about 6 gallons of water (just under 10% of the 65 gallon tank + 5 or so gallons in the sump) once every week or two. Most of the time, it's every week. Sometimes I slip and let it go two weeks. My Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, pH, and phosphate levels are consistently good, so I think the water changes are adequate. I think I read on your WetWebMedia site last week that I could change the water less frequently than once/week and still maintain good water conditions. <You are right. Tienes razon. Bob Fenner> Thanks again, John

Re: Lighting & Supplements Bob, Re: supplying biomineral and alkaline reserve I am a bit confused about which supplements I need and which I do not.  <An easy area of confusion for sure> I get the impression that I should test for Ca and probably supplement Ca. Is something like Red Sea's Calcium + 3 (Ca, St, Mo & Io) a good product, or do you recommend another way?  <This is an okay route to go... folks should test for whatever they're adding... Please read through the "supplement" FAQs posted on the Marine part of our site: www.WetWebMedia.com for more here> I am not sure I want to add more equipment (e.g. calcium reactor) if I can avoid it. <I would add no more gear than you want, need/is necessary... Most folks can/could get along fine with simple water changes, using/augmenting substrates periodically... in non-boosted (overlit mainly) systems... Bob Fenner> Thanks for your help, John

Reef tank hello again Robert, thanks very much for replying to my last email. my query this time is trace elements should I dose iodine, calcium etc and how much. I have had my reef tank for 3years and never added anything. <You may not have to, or benefit from such additions... many "non-driven" (i.e. not boosted lighting, carbon dioxide or other factor) systems do fine with "regular" maintenance (e.g. water changes) and maintenance (e.g. feeding)...> my tank is 50 gallons, I have 5 tubes 2 4foot LifeGlo 1 4foot triton 1 4foot MarineGlo 1 4foot marine white. with mirrored inside hood. 1 Fluval ext [303] 3 internals,1 with carbon, 1ext protein skimmer, I have a selection of soft corals [13] which are all doing great plus I have also cut off 6 small frags ? they are also doing well, 1tube anemone, 2 mushroom corals,2 lots of xenia, plus loads of Caulerpa. fish are 2 damsels, 1 watchman gobie,1 cardinal, 1coral beauty. my nitrate 0 ph 8.4 sg 1.22. I do have a touch of troublesome algae but nothing to serious. I cant help thinking if I dose with supplements it could be better. I feed the corals through a syringe with various foods. could you please help me on this query, and any helpful hints on my set up. cheers Paul. <Hmm, "nothing succeeds like success" (Zig Zigler I believe)... I wouldn't add anything to this system if you're happy with the results thus far... If you do develop a supplementing habit, do test and record your inputs, measures... Bob Fenner>

Mushroom question Hi Bob, Please clarify for me just one more time, because both GARF and one of your associates told me that mushrooms only need iodine supplementation and only need calcium suppl. if you want coralline algae growth. I know I have to maintain good water parameters (pH, Alk, temp, ammon, etc.), but I am trying to simplify my tank in both expense and time in going with the mushrooms. To ask it again, do I really need to supplement for calcium, mag, stront, etc, in these non stony corals? <Not supplement... but understand that these are essential elements... you/they need to have sufficient concentration in the systems water for health, growth... A good idea to test, understand what is/may be involved in possibly augmenting... Please do yourself and your livestock service and read more widely. Don't ask just myself, or any other concern on the Net what is advised. A ready source of more useful, "balanced" information are books, chatforums (ours: http://talk.wetwebfotos.com/), magazines, clubs...> I read your web site recommendations but the specifics were not there. Farewell again. <Do keep journeying for a more complete grasping of what you seek. Bob Fenner>

Reef plus I haven't set up with corals just yet but are hoping to sometime next week I have a 432 liter tank and the reef plus say to add 5ml per 80L or to desired amount needed for corals 2 twice per week will I really need to add this much because in Australia they charge $20 a bottle and this will run out just about every month <Mmm... I would study the simpler aspects of reef aquarium water chemistry and with the gained understanding, use of test kits, determine what values you are trying to achieve and look into less expensive means of accomplishing what you're looking for. Please read through the links posted here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/Marind4of6.htm under Water Quality, Tests, Testing. Bob Fenner>

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