Logo
Please visit our Sponsors

More Recent/Older, Accrued FAQs

help... Injured FW puffer    11/28/18
So i have a 40 liter freshwater tank with penguin bio filter (charcoal), powerhead with small bio balls in plastic container, heater and java moss balls along with snails, cherry shrimp, tetras, Bristlenose Pleco and a blue fish that i cannot identify.
<Okay>
Anyway, i also have a cute leopard dwarf puffer.
<For browsers, also known as Pygmy puffers and Malabar puffers, Carinotetraodon travancoricus>
They've cohabited in the same tank for the past 12 months just fine, all of them. no issues.
<Good>
But i noticed a few days ago that my puffer has a lesion growing on his right back side. please see photo along with blow up photo and outline of lesion.
<I see this in your excellent pix>
It is fleshy looking with a reddish tint along with white. I cannot figure out what it is, it almost looks like a bite but the other fish are not carnivores, they just eat tetra fish flakes and mind their business.
<Might be a bite... some sort of infection... started by a physical trauma>

it seems to be getting bigger, right now it is about 3mm. he's not that big, maybe 1.5" length....i believe a female, and the only puffer in the entire tank.
<I agree... don't see the typical "crinkling" about the eyes; designating a male>
She acts fine, moves around the tank looking and observing, not showing any signs of being in pain or in discomfort.
if you have an idea, i would be willing to try any steps necessary to make that lesion go away.
thank you in advance.
regards, Bob
<Am asking Neale to chime in as he knows much more re puffers than I. Bob Fenner>
help /Neale     11/28/18

So i have a 40 liter freshwater tank with penguin bio filter (charcoal), powerhead with small bio balls in plastic container, heater and java moss balls along with snails, cherry shrimp, tetras, Bristlenose Pleco and a blue fish that i cannot identify.
<This is 10.5 US gallons, so rather a small tank for the fish you already have, let alone any additional species.>
Anyway, i also have a cute leopard dwarf puffer.
<I cannot find the name "leopard dwarf puffer" anywhere online. The Dwarf Puffer is Carinotetraodon travancoricus, a very small freshwater species.
The Leopard Puffer of the aquarium hobby is Tetraodon nigroviridis, a large (15 cm/6 inches) brackish to marine species. It is definitely not compatible with any of the fish you have, and of course needs a much bigger tank.>
They've cohabited in the same tank for the past 12 months just fine, all of them. no issues.
<There's not been a shot fired for years on the Demilitarized Zone between the two Koreas, doesn't make it a safe place to live. Tetraodon nigroviridis is a large, aggressive, potentially territorial species that readily bites tankmates. While sometimes works okay alongside other punchy fish, such as the larger marine Damsels, it's otherwise a shockingly poor community fish that tends, at the very least, to be nippy.>
But i noticed a few days ago that my puffer has a lesion growing on his right back side.
<My money would be on a pufferfish bite if there's two puffers in this tank. Could otherwise be a physical wound from being thrown against something sharp, like a rock. You sometimes see this sort of wound when skittish fish throw themselves out of the tank, hit something sharp in the hood (like a reflector behind a lamp) and then fall back into the water.
But if the bite is circular, and there's another puffer, then puffer-on-puffer aggression is the story here. When you keep similarly sized puffers of like disposition, circular bite marks on the skin are quite common. These usually heal with little/no need for medication. If the puffers are very different in size, then the smaller one can be damaged much more severely, the skin being broken, and as you can see here, the underlying flesh becoming exposed. Isolation, and medication as per Finrot, is the order of the day. Fish can recover from such wounds, but fungal and bacterial infections are very probable without the use of a reliable medication, such as an antibiotic, to keep the wound clean.>
please see photo along with blow up photo and outline of lesion. It is fleshy looking with a reddish tint along with white. I cannot figure out what it is, it almost looks like a bite but the other fish are not
carnivores, they just eat tetra fish flakes and mind their business.
<Yeah, it's not the tetras or the catfish. The read is muscle, the white is decaying flesh and skin.>
it seems to be getting bigger, right now it is about 3mm. he's not that big, maybe 1.5" length....i believe a female, and the only puffer in the entire tank. She acts fine, moves around the tank looking and observing, not showing any signs of being in pain or in discomfort.
<Indeed.>
if you have an idea, i would be willing to try any steps necessary to make that lesion go away.
<See above.>
thank you in advance.
regards, Bob
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

Re: Hawaiian Forcipiger longirostris Collected / Not eating    11/28/18
Okay, I’ll prob take him back.
<I've done this; in Hawaii and elsewhere, a few times... whole wholesale set ups where the livestock wasn't fit to sell; better to return it to the sea>
I guess some YLN Butterflies, if too big when captured just don’t start eating?
<Yes; this is so. BFs in particular get bumped on their mouths easily... and olde ones are set in their ways>
Perhaps I shall try again with a smaller specimen and have better luck. I had a couple Raccoons but worried about them eating my corals and Shrooms a friend gave me frags of.
<Mmm; maybe another smaller Forcipiger of either species; but am a big fan of the two species of raccoons for the job.>
In Gratitude,
Sky Kubby
<Cheers Sky, BobF>

Re: Queen Angel bullying    11/28/18
Hi Bob,
<Hey Danny>
I have an update and an additional question.
I re-introduced the 5 inch Queen Angel into my tank today, having drip acclimated it for an hour and floated it in a plastic colander for 3 hours.
I notice that its mouth is red (see attached pics)
<I see this>
and that it's been breathing hard for the last few days (I'm sure it's stressed out by the move, but it was breathing hard a few days ago in QT as well).
Any idea what the red mouth signifies? Is there a treatment for it?
<Damage... from netting, handling... the colander? Perhaps infection (bacterial likely)... I'd hold off on adding med.s to the system itself.
WOULD add some vitamins, HUFAs (commercial prep... Seachem Vitality; Selco products...) to the food, likely to the water as well; and be patient at this point>
Thanks.
<Should heal on its own in days, a couple weeks. As long as the fish is eating I'd be content. Bob Fenner>

Overcrowding J. marlieri juveniles to minimize aggression    11/28/18
Hello,
<Hi Rina>
I wrote very recently regarding keeping panther crabs together with J. marlieri. Thanks again Bob for your help there.
<Welcome>
I've decided to separate the two for the safety of the crabs, but now what to do with the Julies? One of them is a real bully and keeps the other two hanging near the top of the tank so the 10 gallon is clearly too small for them.
<Yes; best to move it... if no room, float it in a "breeding trap/net" or plastic colander...>
I have a 30 gallon tank but I can't quite justify giving three tiny fish so much real estate! I do however have three other J. marlieri, about 1-2 cm bigger than this group and I'm wondering if I could put all six in the 30 gallon tank until a breeding pair forms.
<With decor (rock, plants, wood...) I think this is your best plan>
I know the larger fish will pick on the smaller ones until the latter get a bit bigger at least, but if I add a fake rock wall with caves and three or four distinct rock piles, plants to break up lines of sight, plus five
Danios (which I also happen to have already) to give the larger Julies an extra outlet for their aggressive behaviour,
<Yes; good dither fish>
would that keep the aggression at a manageable level?
<I do think this will work. Have seen Julidochromis cultured, kept in such settings several times successfully.>
Thanks again!
Rina
<Welcome! BobF>
Re: Overcrowding J. marlieri juveniles to minimize aggression    11/28/18

Hi Bob,
<Rina>
Thanks for such a swift response.
I'll go ahead and do that then. Which brings me to my next two questions.
If a breeding pair forms, I know I'll have to promptly remove all the other fish from the tank.
<Mmm; maybe not so promptly>
But again, it seems like a lot of tank space for just two fish.
<Wouldn't be two for long eh? Is there a local market (fish stores, clubs...) for your African Cichlids?>
I just recalled reading somewhere that a Julidochromis mating pair can be kept in a 20 gallon.
<Yes; a long vs. a tall format better>
But a 20 gallon would be too small for growing out six juveniles with Danios, right?
<Mmm; no; it might well work>
And secondly, could I keep the Danios in the breeding pair's tank or no?
<If they're smart, yes... such that they'll keep out of the way. May be an issue with eating young>
Thanks again,
Rina Khan
<Welcome as well. Bob Fenner>
Re: Overcrowding J. marlieri juveniles to minimize aggression     11/28/18

Thanks again Bob. Will try to find a cheap 20 gallon then.
Rina Khan
<Real good>

Fahaka teeth problem      11/27/18
Hi Neale!
How are you?
<Hello Nathaniel. All good here.>
Great news - my Fahaka is getting big - like 8 inches!!.
<They do grow fast.>
I've had him for a number of months now and he's been happily feeding on frozen cockles (NOT in the shells). He usually eats 10-15 a day with 1 day off a week. (plenty of heavy filtration and a decent sized tank - so no worries there!)
<Cool.>
The only problem is, I can see his teeth getting bigger. At the moment he has no problems eating but I can imagine in the future it will be a problem.
<Indeed. Without lots of crunchy food, this is probably inevitable.>
I have only fed soft foods as he wasn't big enough for shell-on foods at first and showed on interest in small snails.
<Snails will be eaten if the puffer is hungry enough. Besides molluscs, do also try unshelled shrimp and crayfish, or even the legs from cooked crabs and lobsters.>
I have now tried to introduce him to shell-on foods and he looks at me as if to say "what do you expect me to do with that? Give me some proper food!"
<"Hunger makes the best sauce.">
I have tried, mussels, clams and snails and not one of them was touched. I have even tried smashing them before putting into the tank to help him out but still no interest.
<One possibility is to smear foods into something like a pumice stone or artificial lava rock, such the puffer will have to work at the rock to extract the food.>
I have ordered some half-shell clams and plan to starve him for maybe 2 days and try those.
<Should help, but if partially shelled, the puffer may simply suck the meat off the shell.>
Do you have any other suggestions?
Thanks
<Hope the above helps. Otherwise dentistry may be in your future. It's not difficult, but easier avoided. Cheers, Neale.
Fahaka teeth problem      11/27/18

<Nate; I'd like to add this article on WWM for your perusal/review:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_2/cav2i1/puffer_dentistry/puffer2.htm
BobF>

Re: ID please
it's really hard to identify. Limnichthys has high positioned eyes... Gobiesocidae... I used to think they have flattened head. however Pherallodus indicus has an acute head and resembles the photo in some way.
Could be it?
<Might well be... BobF>

December calendar      11/27/18
Bob,
Here is a calendar for the WWM site.
<Real good Mike. Cheers, B>
Cheers,
Mike

Importing live wild corals       11/27/18
Dear Bob,
<Hey Branko!>
Your help was crucial to us being able to successfully acclimate imported fish and helped us to minimize the lose of life. Lately we lose less than 1% per shipment!
<Ahh, excellent>
However its time for us to start importing live corals from the wild. I did keep hard corals for years however i have never imported any, and i do remember how different things were with fish when
we started out. So i am hoping you have words of wisdom to help me with this matter as well.
Do you have an acclimating procedure for live corals and clams?
<Yes... there is a bit of variation for both, depending on where they've shipped from (mainly how long in the bags, amount of water... quality on arrival). Without knowing the condition of the animals, I'm a fan of matching shipping water pH, temperature (or a little warmer) and doing what you do for fishes drip acclimation wise, using all new or system water with a bit of freshwater added (lowering the spg a thousandth or two), throwing away all shipping water... AND for all cnidarians, ADDING a 3-4 or so times dose of iodide-ate to the drip. IF the animals don't look good, I'd add (for both cnidarians and clams), a teaspoon per gallon (or so) of hexose sugar (glucose is best)... to the drip as well. Do you have concerns re photoadaptation? I'd keep all under low light the first few days; otherwise, please read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/PhotoAcclimGasta.htm>
What would you suggest for us to do.
Desperate for your advice.
Kind regards,
B.
<DO write me w/ specific concerns if this isn't clear, complete to you. Bob Fenner>

Unidentifiable Squirming Object     11/26/18
Hi
<Greetings Saquib>
Guys I am from a under-developed country, though it's not peculiar to find bugs and such in the tap water but I have kids and just wanted to be sure what I have on hands here. I have spotted this fella a couple of times in the tap water and one time on the clothing too (since we wash clothes with the same water). Can someone please let me know what this is and if it's harmful. If yes, please advise what to do.
Regards
Saquib Haider
<Can't quite make this out... is it segmented? Don't see any "mouth parts"; my best (though general) guess is that this is some sort of insect larvae or segmented worm (Oligochaete). In both cases it is highly unlikely that either are deleterious/harmful to humans. Do please send along a better resolved image if you can.
Bob Fenner>

Hawaiian Forcipiger longirostris Collected / Not eating     11/26/18
I recently collected a YLN Butterflyfish.
<Hey Sky! Thought Forcipigers... oh, I see your comment below>
Yes, the Long, Long Nosed. No easy feat with he aquarium ban here in Hawaii, free diving and free-netting, on a single breath, approx 2 min breath holds. It took me a couple hours but I finally got one. I treated him as gently as possible and he has been in my tank for about three weeks now. Originally he was getting picked on by a Yellow Tang in my outdoor sump, so I transferred him to my display, where he’s been for about a week. Still he hasn’t eaten. I’ve afforded all the usual suspects and everything suggested here, like Mysis shrimp and my own food pasted onto a rock. He also hasn’t touched my Aiptasia, one of the reasons I got him.
<A Raccoon BF would be much better for eating Glass Anemones>
I haven’t however offered anything live because I don’t know where I can get any live shrimp her on Hilo side of the Big Island. I did begin hatching some Brine shrimp out of desperation. They are still too small to feed. The only thing I can think is the very small, almost unnoticeable tuft (possibly fungal) on the top end of his snout. Otherwise he seems perfectly healthy. If he doesn't eat soon I feel I should take him back. ;-(
<Good>
Any hail Mary ideas?
<Mmm, three weeks.... I'd return the fish, look for a Raccoon>
Oh Aquarium parameters are near perfect ;-) MAHALOZ!
In Gratitude,
Sky
<A hu'i hou mate. Bob Fenner>

ID please      11/26/18
Hi Bob,
<Hey Igor!>
please, tell me what species it can be? taken at Raja Ampat, less than 1 cm. I think it could be juvenile of a wrasse.
<Don't think so... but am at a loss; have asked folks on FB re who know such... their response:
"Anthony Gill The coloration and head shape is suggestive of a creediid, such as a Limnichthys species.
Joe Fish
Joe Fish that was my first thought... but the pattern seemed a bit off
Anthony Gill
Anthony Gill My other choice would be a gobiesocid - the swimming posture, general appearance and (perhaps I'm seeing things) possible presence of a pelvic sucking disk just below the pectoral fins.">
Best regards,
Igor
<Bob Fenner>

Parathelphusa pantherina, FW crabs and Juli's tog. in a 10 gal.     11/24/18
Hello,
<Rina>
I recently acquired two very small Parathelphusa pantherina (shells just over 1.5cm across) and three juvenile Julidochromis marlieri (about 3cm long). They're currently in a lightly planted 10 gallon grow-out tank with plenty of rocks for the fish and some wood for the crabs to hide in. I know the tank will be too small for them in the long-term and that it's not recommended to keep crabs together with fish, but my crabs are so small and shy I can't imagine them being able to do any damage to the Julies for a while yet.
<Mmm; yes; hard to imagine... but at night when the fish are settled down, near the bottom, easily pinched>
And from what I understand they have similar pH and hardness requirements.
So I'm hoping to keep them in this tank for a few months until they all get a little bigger. (Assuming I see no aggression of course.)
Which brings me to my three questions:
1.I haven't treated the tank with PraziPro yet. Is it truly safe for freshwater crabs?
<It should be; yes>
2. How will the Julies tolerate the extra iodine the crabs need?
<This too should not be problematic>
I do 50% water changes once to twice a week and add 1 drop of Kent Marine Iodide to the change water every other time.
<No worries here>
3. At what size can I expect the Julies to start pairing up and become territorially aggressive?
<Another couple cm. With close observation you'll find this happening more in a few months time>
Thanks for your help,
Rina
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
Re: Parathelphusa pantherina      11/25/18

Thanks for such a quick response Bob! Will definitely keep a sharp eye out for any aggression.
Rina
<Real good Rina. This is not a very "mean", territorial genus of Cichlids; and less so w/ successive captive-produced generations. You'll see trouble coming. BobF> 

Flasher wrasses - pair/trio or single?       11/23/18
Hi WWM Crew,
<Hi Kim>
I was planning on keeping a pair or trio of flasher wrasses in my 65g FOWLR once the tank has stabilized & the refugiums have matured.
<Neat fish! >
I keep running across conflicting information though... Based on the WWM articles & FAQs, it seems the pair/trio is the way to go for fish health, happiness, and display colors. Unfortunately, none of the suppliers online seem to regularly have females available.
<The size of your tank may be a limiting factor, I suggest a 100 g as a bare minimum, as these fish become very aggressive towards each other in limited spaces, but, since you already have the 65,you can give them a try.>
While I was researching where I would be able to buy a pair/trio in the future, I ran across this article which argues the exact opposite, that attempting to keep a pair/trio always ends up having all the females transition to male:
https://www.reef2reef.com/ams/pairing-wrasses-thats-not-how-any-of-this-works.3/
<Personally I haven´t had that issue; when introducing a trio or more specimens at the same time, it always ended up with only one becoming the dominant male. However, I recommend you to introduce them at a small size , 2-2.5” would be ideal; this way you will give them time to get used to each other and coexist peacefully.>
Keeping single males from multiple flasher species would certainly be more colorful and be easier to procure, but I want to stick to what's best for the fish's happiness/health. Have you seen issues with flasher females in a pair/trio transitioning despite already having a terminal male like that
article claims? If so, what recommendations do you have for avoiding this and maintaining the pair/trio's status?
<Go for the trio or a small group(five or six), if you plan upgrading in the medium term. Pay special attention to their diet; pods and other critters growing in your refugium will make a good basic, daily food source, but, you should also supply meaty foods, mysis, frozen and vitamin supplements. Also provide a thick sand bed(4-5") and plenty of rockwork to decrease aggressiveness and make them feel at home.>
Thanks!
<You´re very welcome>
~Kim
<Wil>

LAST Hope for my Betta     /Neale's go       11/23/18
Hi,
<Danielle, apologies for delay responding.>
I have a 2 year old Male Betta living in a 5 gallon planted, heated tank with a sponge filter. I am guilty of falling behind on cleaning the substrate and I think that might be to blame for his current condition.
<Understood.>
About 2 weeks ago I noticed he was unable to "catch" his food(pellets). He would keep trying and missing. I foolishly ignored this. For the last 3-4 days he has been laying on his side at the bottom of the tank. Yesterday I moved him into a shallow "hospital" tank. I thought it was just his time to go at first, but his condition has lingered too long for it to be a natural death(I believe). He has no signs or symptoms other than previously mentioned.
Is there anything I can do for him?
<Likely not. Two years isn't a bad innings for a Betta. Anything between 2-3 years is far better than most experience in captivity. So don't be too hard on yourself.>
If not what is the best way to euthanize him?
<Personally, I prefer the "30 drops clove oil in 1 litre of aquarium water" approach. Evidently painless; fish relaxes in seconds, stops breathing within a couple minutes, and certainly dead within half an hour. Do read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/euthanasia.htm
Do note that some traditional methods (like ice) are not considered humane by vets.>
I can't let him suffer like this much longer. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Danielle
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

Broken bottom aquarium frame      11/22/18
Looked around and saw a lot of great info but need an honest opinion cause of the size of tank. I have a 220 gallon glass tank that is (72x24x30) and when moving it the end of the bottom frame got caught and snapped off so the whole frame is fine except the 2 foot piece on 1 end that snapped off.
Is the structural integrity of the tank gone now. I cannot find new frames anywhere for sale. I could use JB Weld and glue it back together. I am worried my 220 is now useless. Glass is 1/2 thick. Thank you for your time.
Cullen
<I would either Silicone the broken bit back on as well as you can... Or fashion your own frame (can be plastic, wood...) as long as it's the same thickness, makes the tank level, planar when set on your stand. Some sort of frame is a good idea for looks as well as helping to spread out small discontinuities. Bob Fenner>
Re: Broken bottom aquarium frame      11/22/18

Thank you Bob. Happy Thanksgiving.
<And you Cullen. B>

Re: Persistent Flashing      11/22/18
Thanks Bob. On a separate note one of my new flasher wrasses developed these bump like spots on its one side. It dove into one of my Randall Assessors cave and came out a bit beat up. Do these spots look parasitic or more like a wound injury? If an injury do you think it could be a start if an infection? Photos attached.
<Much more likely the former Eric. Happy T-Day! BobF>

Re: Persistent Flashing      11/22/18
Thanks Bob. Such a bummer since everything has been QT'd.
<Eric; I don't think this is parasitic... sorry for the confusion; should've stated "much more likely the latter". D'oh!>
Tank was fallow for 120 days prior and the fish went through prophylactic copper with a tank transfer. I guess time to break the tank down again. Is this more likely Ick or velvet? What's odd is that you can only see it at certain angles. Looking dead on it blends in perfect.
<Cheers mate. BobF>
Re: Persistent Flashing      11/22/18

Lol. To much pre tryptophan. Enjoy Turkey Day.
<Too Eric; cheers>

Unknown Betta Issue      11/21/18
Hello,
My Betta fish has become increasingly sick throughout the past couple of months. I have tried a new filter, bottled spring water,
<Mmm; need to know about this... pH, hardness especially. You may be missing useful mineral content here>

stress coat, salt treatments, frequent water changes, Kanaplex and fungus clear, cleaning the entire tank and turning the heat up. Nothing I have tried seems to help, he continues to get worse. He still eats,
<What? Have you read on WWM re Betta health? Care?>
swims around and flares. He does not seem to be impacted by this much.
I have attached photos below from when it began until now.
Thank you in advance for any suggestions you have as to how to treat this or what it might be.
<... Please respond to my concerns above. Bob Fenner>


Last Hope for my Betta     11/21/18
Hi,
<Danielle>
I have a 2 year old Male Betta living in a 5 gallon planted, heated tank with a sponge filter. I am guilty of falling behind on cleaning the substrate and I think that might be to blame for his current condition.
<Oh? Do you use nitrate concentration as a guideline here?>
About 2 weeks ago I noticed he was unable to "catch" his food(pellets). He would keep trying and missing. I foolishly ignored this.
For the last 3-4 days he has been laying on his side at the bottom of the tank. Yesterday I moved him into a shallow "hospital" tank. I thought it was just his time to go at first, but his condition has lingered too long for it to be a natural death (I believe). He has no signs or symptoms other than previously mentioned.
Is there anything I can do for him?
<Yes! Check your water quality; switch out a good deal (like half) of the system water for new (best from another established aquarium); and add in a bit of frozen/defrosted food to the fish's diet>
If not what is the best way to euthanize him?
<Mmm; I am hesitant to suggest this at this juncture. I'd hold off. This fish may well rally... return to robust health. IF you feel otherwise, please read Neale's piece on the topic:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/euthanasia.htm>
I can't let him suffer like this much longer. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Danielle
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Re: Fwd: Last Hope for my Betta     11/21/18
Hi,
<Little Dani>
Thank you for the fast reply! I gave up my tanks and all of my water testing supplies a while back. I adopted this Betta from a poor situation after the fact. Yes, I feel confident that nitrates are to blame for the issue. I am keeping the water in the hospital tank "safe" by using Seachem's Prime. I did acclimate him very slowly when switching over. I've rehabilitated fish in the past this way successfully.
<I see>
If he pulls through, I will absolutely make the diet changes you suggested.
As for right now, he is showing no interest in food whatsoever.
<Too likely there are "cycling issues" w/ the current situation. Just adding Prime won't do... I'd place this fish back in its water changed system w/ the filter, substrate...>
Is it safe to assume that the best course of action is to keep him in the shallow tank, continue daily water changes and hope for the best?
<No; see above>
He has been without food for at least 4 days, but probably longer since he was having trouble catching his food before turning lethargic. My fear however is that he is slowly and painfully starving to death :'(
Thank you again,
Danielle
<Welcome. BobF>
Re: Last Hope for my Betta     11/21/18

Will get on that right away. I just got home and noticed that he is looking a little "bloated" now. Is this a clue to a different issue?
<Likely all related to environmental stress. IF biological, secondary in origin. Bob Fenner>

Re: Crayfish turn green after moulting     11/21/18
My water's pH is 7.8 and her crayfish pellets should be giving her sufficient protein.
<I'd still be supplementing w/ a bit of animal source; AND iodide/ate added directly to the water weekly>
I think she's fine but I'm just shocked to see a bright, almost grass-green colour on this species because usually they don't turn green.
<Mmm, I worked quite a bit w/ Procambarus clarkii in college, on my own...
Crayfish can/do occur, change in shell color quite a bit... genetically, via env. and nutritional influences. Bob Fenner>

Crayfish turn green after moulting     11/20/18
Hey WWM,
<Howsit Darren?>
My female crayfish (Cherax quadricatinatus/red claw crayfish) moulted today and her head turned from her usual brownish blue colouration to a moss-like/grass-like green colouration. I tried searching for answers online but nobody seems to have indicated that their crayfish have turned green (only turn blue/brown). Do you know what might have caused this?
<Mmm; yes... "know" as in high enough confidence in my interpretation of facts/evidence>
My water parameters are good and she is living quite comfortably in her 10 gallon. The tank is very sufficiently aerated (you can even see bubbles in the water) and she is given algae wafers and traditional crayfish pellets.
Could it be the algae wafers (which was the only food she would eat prior to her moulting) or could it be something else?
<Such color changing, difficulties in moults are most-often due to nutritional and environmental (water quality) issues. These crayfish need some protein from animal sources, iron and iodide/ate... and a setting with sufficiently hard, basic water.
These requirements are gone over and over on WWM.
Provided all, your crayfish may well change shell color in time, with successive moults. Bob Fenner>

Help MASNA this holiday season by using Amazon Smile!     11/20/18
The latest news from MASNA.
View this email in your browser (https://mailchi.mp/masna/10-off-macna-weekend-tickets?e=2cb2da1c85)
https://masna.org?utm_source=Public+BOD+Email&utm_campaign=6096c746cd-MASNA+Amazon+Smile+MACNA+2019+Weekend+
Tickets&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_684126d033-6096c746cd-457263653&mc_cid=6096c746cd&mc_eid=[UNIQID]

SaraL returns to WWM~!     11/20/18
Hi Bob,
<Sara>
If you still need help answering pet-fish questions, I would be happy to come back to your crew.
Cheers,
Sara ("Sihaya")
<Ahh, I/we thank you.
The log-in is (still):
ID:
PW:
And on a personal note, I'd have you know you have inspired me: AM having Pete bid to enclose the patio at one of the rental houses... that has a large flat yard... and likely will have him build out a "fish building" there; and will move, have a pool built, sand v-ball... AND be more active, enjoy/ing m'self rather than too much time being inactive/sedentary. I think Bandita will like the new walking paths as well. BobF>

Restart aquarium     11/18/18
I had a FOWLR aquarium running for years until Hurricane Sandy knocked out power for 2 weeks and everything died. Tank has been laying idle ever since, still filled with water, sand, and rock. Pumps, skimmer, lights, etc have not been turned on in 6 years. I want to start her up again. Any advice?
<Rinse the submersible equipment in a 50/50 solution of water/vinegar for a day or two; put the rock and sand for 24 hrs in water with 10% bleach, after doing this, just rinse and add dechlorinator, then you can reinstall the
tank. Wil.>

Fin rot or aggression?     11/18/18
I have a Yellow Tang and Hepatus Tang whose dorsal fins seem to be eroding. The Yellow Tang's caudal fin is also in bad shape. Can you tell if this is fin rot or aggression from another fish?
<Looks like some fish is nipping both of your tangs>
The water tests out fine.
<I need more accurate information here, also what size is your tank, equipment...etc.>
The water is changed regularly. I feed high quality food with vitamins. The fins have been like this for several months. I am at a loss.
<I don´t think this is a disease, more likely, as mentioned above, aggression. Could you tell me about the other tankmates? species, size…>
Best regards, Steve DeFilippis
<nice weekend, Steve. Wil>
Re: Fin rot or aggression?     11/18/18

It is a 220 gallon tank. UV Sterilizer, Skimmer, bio sump under the tank, Reactor.
<Decent size tank, don´t think aggression(if that´s the case) is due to space>
Here are the fish:
3 Percula or Ocellaris Clownfish (I am not sure which) 2-3 inches
Naso Tang 8-9 inches
Yellow Tang 3-4 inches
Hepatus Tang 4-5 inches
Flame Hawkfish 2 inches
Royal Gramma 3 inches
Coral Beauty Angel 3 inches
Blue jaw Trigger 3 1/2 inches
Tail Spot Wrasse 4 inches
A few small crabs and one larger hermit crab
<All of them can coexist. have you see any aggressive behavior?...maybe during feeding or at night?>
Thank you.
<Welcome>
Best regards,
Steve
<Wil>
Re: Fin rot or aggression?     11/18/18

I have not seen any aggression. That's why I am puzzled. Fin rot would also seem unusual given the quality of the water conditions. The Yellow Tang in particular had beautiful fins before this started.
<Then the only thing that comes to mind is that it is an environmental/nutritional issue, very likely HLLE, plus something in the water you´ve been missing or that test kits don´t measure; try doing a large water change(20% +), run activate carbon or Chemi Pure for a few days and add vitamins A,D,E enriched foods/supplements to the water.>
>>Ahh; yes; THIS IS a type of HLLE... nutritional, environmental (water quality) most often the cause. SEE/READ on WWM Re: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/HLLESWCure.htm and the linked files above.
BobF<<
Best regards,
Steve
<Wil.>

Amazing Website!     11/18/18
Wow, I am learning so much from your website.
<Great!>
Mostly, I am learning that I've been doing everything wrong!
<Oh dear. Well, I guess this is what they call a learning curve...>
I have a Betta who has been behaving very sluggishly. He's actually been "holing up" at the bottom of the tank, in a little "cave" made by the stones on the bottom.
For the past 2 days he didn't come out and I was sure he'd died. But no, today he's been swimming around and I was able to feed him. But this can't be normal behavior?
<Not really, no. Fish will often be reclusive for a few hours to a couple days after being introduced to a new tank. But if they're persistently shy, beyond what they should normally be like, then there may be something frightening them. Sometimes, it's bright light or unnaturally coloured substrates (such as white gravel) that alarms them. But other times it's the water chemistry. Fish will respond to non-zero ammonia and nitrite levels by behaving as if they're scared. It's kind of like when cats are sick and they hide. They don't "know" they're sick, they just feel pain,
and their instinct when scared is to hide. Fish do the same thing.>
I've been speaking with Petco, who recommended bringing the water in for testing, and they said it was just fine.
<I would suggest letting us have the numbers. Get a water test kit, at minimum, a nitrite test kit. Non-zero nitrite (or ammonia) levels are dangerous, potentially lethal after a few days.>
But now I'm reading on your blog that "just fine" isn't good enough, you need me to tell you the actual numbers.
<Yes.>
So I need to get my own test kit. What do you recommend?
<They're all much the same chemicals, so doesn't really matter.>
I've also been told to do a 50% water change once/week, but what about what has settled in the stones at the bottom? Doesn't that need to be cleaned?
<Not beyond stirring gently before a water change, and then using that water change to siphon out any muck.>
I don't have a filter. Should I have one?
<Yes!>
If so, what brand to you recommend?
<Again, doesn't really matter. Small internal canister filters from the likes of Eheim, Fluval and other well-known brands all do the job well. The Eheim ones are probably the best in terms of long-term reliability, easily running 20+ years if cared for, while the generic Chinese ones will do the job, but seem to fail after a few years. So it's really down to personal preference and budget.>
I do have a small pump which creates air flow, and of course a heater.
<A simple box filter or sponge filter can be connected to the air pump.
These would be perfectly adequate for a Betta, which actually prefers little water current, so an internal canister might not be the perfect choice if you can't tone down the water flow rate.>
Two heaters, actually, since my house is quite cold. It sits at about 74 degrees in the fish tank (which is 2.5 gallons). Is that warm enough?
<Long term, no; Bettas really need a consistent 25 C/77 F, and more to the point, cold air kills them -- they're air breathers. So make sure the tank has some sort of hood to trap warm air. I can't imagine why you need two filters unless they're really poor quality. Assuming this is a 5 gallon tank -- the absolute minimum for "easy" Betta keeping -- then something like a 50 W heater should be more than adequate.>
Thanks!
Nicole
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Amazing Website!     11/19/18

Wow, thanks for the lightning-quick response Neale!
<Most welcome.>
For me, it all started with this:
https://backtotheroots.com/collections/top-sellers/products/watergarden So I guess my first problem is that the tank is only 3 gallons. So this is really not sufficient?
<It's tight. Here's the deal. While Bettas *can* certainly live in tanks this size, the margin for error is much less. The water cools down faster if the heater fails, the water quality worsens faster between water changes
(let alone if the filter dies) and there's less volume to dilute overfeeding if you have someone look after this fish in your absence (something almost never worth bothering with -- fish can go weeks without food). Given that a 5 gallon tank is still tiny, and won't take up much shelf space, but offers up nearly twice as much water as you've got now, it's still a worthy upgrade for the future. I'd also observe that 'hiding' a heater and a filter in a 5 gallon tank is much easier too, because you'll have more space for plants, rocks, etc.>
I quit trying to grow the seeds because they leaked into the tank and made a huge mess, so now I am just enjoying my Betta fish!
<Seeds? What seeds? For what it's worth, it's not worth bothering growing aquarium plants from seed.>
He's been in that tank for about two years, so there is nothing new that could be scaring him.
<Understood.>
So it's back to water quality. I will get a test kit today. In the meantime, I just did a 50% water change.
I keep a lid on the tank to retain the heat, but the temp is never 77 degrees as you suggest below. It's more like 74. I live in Colorado and my house is pretty darn cold! So I will get a new heater today too.
<Assuming you've got central heating in this room, the air temperature in the room shouldn't really be much colder than, say, 20 C/68 F. If you look on the back of many brands of aquarium heater, there are tables describing
what wattage you'll need to elevate the water temperature 5 or 10 degrees above ambient room temperature. You can find these tables on line, too.
Anyway, something around 50 W should be ample for a 5 gallon tank, even if you need to raise the temperature a full 10 degrees above ambient room temperature. Don't go overboard though, and get a really high wattage, as
these may heat the water immediately around them much too quickly.>
I read about gravel siphoning devices somewhere on your website. Do you like those, or just a regular filter? Or both?
<I'd skip the gravel siphon. It's a device to facilitate water changes, sluicing the gravel through the water being sucked out. While quite useful, they'd be much too big for a tank the size of yours. A simple turkey baster
(new, or at least well cleaned!) can do much the same thing if jetted into the gravel at a few places, and any muck that emerges can then be sucked out with your standard issue hose pipe of the sort (I assume) you use for
water changes. Note that water changes complement filtration. They're not an either/or. Yes, Betta breeders keep their fish in jars without heaters or filters. But those jars are emptied each day, and the fish room is heated to keep the water at upwards of 25 C/77 F all day long. Much too expensive and labour intensive for a hobbyist!>
Thanks for the info about Betta's not liking a strong water flow. Thanks
for all the info!
<Welcome!>
Nicole
<Neale.>

Removing center brace     11/18/18
Good Afternoon,
<Hi Peter>
I have been a long time reader of WWM and appreciate the reefing wisdom!
<Well thank you!>
I am writing today because I am in the process of upgrading my 90 gallon mixed reef tank- established for 3 years which is currently sitting on a standard pine stand 48 in x 18 in. My issue is that I would like to place a large sump/skimmer combo but am unable to do so due to the center brace of the stand. I have seen conflicting reports of whether temporarily removing the brace with the aquarium set up as-is for the sump installation. What are your thoughts? Do I need to reinforce the piece once it is removed and re-installed? Do I have better options?
<Its too risky to remove the center brace with the tank fully filled, If it were me-my tank, I will empty it at least half, remove the brace, do the sump/skimmer installation and reinstall it before filling the tank again; otherwise you would have to empty it completely so that you can remove the tank without disassembling the stand.>
Any and all advice would be greatly appreciated..
Sincerely,
Peter
<Kind regards. Wil>

Elegance coral, dying in/comp.     11/18/18
My Elegance Coral died so I removed it and did a water change. Same night I lost 80% of snails then 5 days later 2 clowns and a blenny started to act funny then passed. Do you think the Elegance dying could have created that
or a chemical. (all crabs and shrimps not affected)
<Almost certainly it was caused by toxins released by your Elegance coral dying; do a large water change,40-50% and use a Polyfilter pad combined with a high grade activate carbon or ChemiPure, a couple of days later try adding some "test" fishes like bluetail Damsels(Chrysiptera sp).Please keep us posted on how it goes. Wil>

Re: Hydrogen peroxide     11/18/18
Good evening Bob. Thank you for your reply a few days back on the peroxide question. I’ve been dosing 1ml per 10 gallons of total water volume per your suggestion. I’ve been dosing now for about 10 days. The Cyano has been reduced by about 30%. It seems as though it’s holding and not reducing any further. I’d like to know if I can safely increase the dosage of HP to say 2ml per 10 gallons of water.
<Mmm; yes; you could. WITH careful watching that your ORP doesn't much exceed about 400 micro-siemens/cm.
I’m running ozone so I’ve been watching my ORP while dosing. The ORP drops about 80 points immediately after dosing but then climbs up to 380 within about an hour afterwards. What’s your thoughts on increasing the dosage? As always, thank you for your time.
John
<Cheers John. BobF>

Quick note     11/18/18
Hi all:
<Cynthia>
I just wanted to let you know that I’m a writer for reef2reef.com, and I mention Bob Fenner (kindly) under “Methylene blue” in today’s article here: https://www.reef2reef.com/ams/keeping-your-marine-fish-healthy-part-2-the-reef-aquarium-medicine-cabinet.526/ 
I’ve asked WWM several questions over the years, and you folks have always been wonderful. (I even asked a question a few days ago.)
Warm Regards,
Cynthia White
Vancouver Island
<Ahh, thank you for your timely and pleasant note. Oh how I wish I could spend more time tide-pooling off Vancouver, ala "The Outer Shore" by Ricketts. Bob Fenner>

Re: Hydrogen peroxide     11/19/18
Thank you Bob. Have a good Thanksgiving
John
<Thank you John. You as well. B>

Persistent Flashing      11/16/18
Bob,
<Eric>
Hope all is well. I am having an issue with a few of my fish that are in QT. They are continuously flashing and am not sure why. I have had them for 3 weeks and my QT process is as follows:
<Mmm; flashing can be... "just natural" to extents, due to irritants of a wide array: Water quality and parasites most commonly>
Freshwater Dip to check for flukes
7 Day Metro GC for flukes and worms
14 Days of copper than ttm into display
<Ahh, could be just the copper exposure>
Problem I am having though is my fish show no signs of white spot but are constantly flashing at the gills. Tough to explain but my fang tooth blenny is also spinning in a semi-circle to clean its tail. Not sure what else to do? Is it a reaction to the copper, Healing from Ick or velvet, some copper resistant parasite?
<Could be any of these. I wouldn't be overly concerned. With conditions and health returning, the flashing behavior should subside>
Thanks for taking look.
Eric
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Question about transferring marine fish      11/15/18
Dear Crew:
<Cynthia>
I read your website and questions and answers all the time.
I think you folks are fantastic.
<Well, Thanks!>
I have just one question, and I have read a lot of conflicting information about it.
<Will do my best to dispel any doubt>
I don’t have any tanks set up at this time, but after many years of freshwater experience and breeding cichlids, I am starting to set up a saltwater aquarium. This is my question: regarding marine fish, if you have to transfer a fish from one tank to another or from the bag he/she came in to a tank, and you’re in a hurry (let’s just say the sky is falling) what parameter is the most important to match between the water you’re moving from and the water you’re moving to? Is it the salinity or the pH or both or temperature or something else?
<The three of them are very important, but I would say Ph adjustment is the most critical, since this parameter is the one that causes stress shock in newly acquired/acclimated fish; secondly I will put salinity, fish are reasonably tolerant to slight variations. And lastly, water temperature; this one may be a bit different (preferably warmer) than the water containing the fish.>
Thanks very much,
Cynthia White Vancouver Island
<Welcome. Wil>

Hawkfish with "fuzz" on fins.     11/12/18
Hello,
I recently noticed my healthy flame Hawkfish has developed what appears to be a white fuzzy substance on his pectoral fins. Am I looking at a fungal infection?
<Very doubtful... such are rare on marine fishes (unless dead, dying) and cirrhitids are very tough, resistant to such>
How should I approach this. He is behaving perfectly fine. I apologize for the quality of the pics.
Thanks
<Something either to do w/ getting stung here or being chewed by a tankmate likely. I'd be observing this fish, system carefully. If you write again, do include a list of organisms present please. Bob Fenner>

Re: Hawkfish with "fuzz" on fins.    11/12/18
Hello,
<Ave John!>
Thank you for the prompt response! Upon further examination it almost has cotton-like quality to it. I can see a “strand” or two hanging off.
<Mmm; could be a few things; best guess simply (body) mucus trailing the irritation>
As for tankmates, he is in with a Melanurus wrasse, Sixline wrasse,
<Most likely bully>
2 Percula clowns, a Blue/Green Chromis, a Bartlett Anthias and a large rose bubble nem.
<And if this is the sole Cnidarian here, the prime candidate for stinging>
I had wondered if what I am seeing was fish squabble related or from a sting but it looks so… strange. He is 2nd in charge of the tank under the Melanurus who pays him no mind whatsoever. Last thoughts?
<Again, not likely biological in origin... I would do nothing treatment wise; just simple optimized stable conditions (water quality, nutrition)... should see this fish improving>
Thanks again!
Sam
<Welcome. BobF>
Re: Hawkfish with "fuzz" on fins.    11/12/18

Is a parasite possible? It definitely resembles no parasite I’ve experienced.
<... possible? Yes; probable, no. Please READ on WWM re such... need sampling, microscopic examination to af/con-firm. B>

Re: Flasher Wrasse Question     11/11/18
Bob,
<Hey Charles>
Thanks for the prompt reply. I do plan to upgrade to a significantly larger system in the next couple of years (though I’m well aware of the danger of using that as a plan for fish size). Are there any particular signs in the tang’s behavior I should look for to indicate it has reached a size that is “too big” for its current home?
<"Jousting" so to speak... chasing other fishes, swiping at them w/ its caudal peduncle>
If I were to remove the tang and replace it with, for example, a purple tang, would there be enough space for the wrasses, or is this a case of either the wrasse harem or a tang?
<More time; yes. Z. xanthurum is "more calm" and doesn't get as large as the other Sailfin sp.>
Am I just all full at this point with species space in the tank?
<Per the livestock you list fish-wise, yes. Again... you can review what I stated earlier. >
I’d like to have one more species in there to provide additional movement and color.
Regards,
-Charles
<For me; I'd go w/ the Flashers, maybe switch the tang out for a Ctenochaetus species. BobF>

Re: Baby Oscar     11/11/18
Thank you, Neale for all of your help.
<Most welcome.>
Yes, the 125 could turn into an issue. I bought the two larger as a shoaling pair. As juveniles, they have proved inseparable. Of course, that can change any day as they get older.
<Precisely. Juveniles are social, even, as you say, to some degree schooling fish. Presumably this is some sort of defence against predators. As they mature, this will change, and pairs of sexually mature fish will claim territories and drive away other Oscars. Very similar to most other monogamous pairing cichlids, e.g., Angels.>
There have been some displays of dominance like lip locking, but it hasn’t happened often.
<Good. Every Oscar is different, and they're intelligent animals with behaviours that can, to some extent, adapt to their environment. So I'm quite sure that sometimes two 'brothers' end up living together more or less amicably. Just don't bank on it!>
There have been mating type behaviors, though, too… (tail slapping, rubbing up against one another and cleaning a corner of the tank floor). They still actively shoal at 6”. So, at this point, young as they are, it’s a tough call. I have a cycled empty 55 on standby (hospital tank) so if things go south, I at least can separate them.
<Cool.>
And you’re right about the baby. I shouldn’t have bought him. I don’t want to encourage the poor husbandry. I can’t go to those places.
<Totally understand your feelings and actions. Not saying I wouldn't have done the same -- but logically, as hobbyists, we would do the fish (overall!) a service by not patronising the scummy stores, and not buying the fish that shouldn't have been imported.>
He’s still not eating, but I will keep trying.
<Oscars (like virtually all cichlids) will eat when they're ready, and not a moment before. Assuming he's not in terrible shape, I'd simply focus on giving him quiet, darkness, and good water conditions. If live river shrimp are available, by all means stick a few in the tank since they're stay alive until such time as he eats them, so won't adversely affect water quality. Otherwise, feel secure about waiting a few days, even week or two before offering meals and seeing them eaten.>
Its hard to say, Oscars are wonderful sad sacks and have a tendency to “mope” when things change in their tank.
<Precisely. It's the flip side of their high level of intelligence. Just as with any other smart animal (dog, parrot, pig) that's been abused, they're not going to suddenly eat food just because it's there. It's Guppies and other mindless fish that do that! No, with these big, cuddly cichlids you need to get them on side first. Calm them down, get them feeling secure, and train them to recognise you're not a threat but a friend. Takes time, and repetition. For example, walk past the tank, say "hello", then walk on, without causing a disturbance by turning the lights on or opening the hood. He'll probably stay hiding, but so long as he doesn't dart away in panic, then it's steps in the right direction. Soon enough he'll figure out you're harmless, and since Oscars, like Goldfish and Koi, genuinely enjoy human company, he'll start seeing you as a friend and come to the front to see what's going on. Once that happens, offer a small, tasty meal. Bit of white fish fillet, an earthworm, whatever. Only a tiny bit, because it might not be eaten, and whipping out a net to remove multiple or large chunks of uneaten food will terrify a nervous fish. I find a turkey baster a great tool for removing small bits of food in a discrete manner.>
Or they don’t get the food they want. Or they haven’t seen you in a day. Or if its Tuesday. He was swimming around this morning, but has gone back into hiding during the day. My guess is he is trying to be sure there is nothing in his tank that would eat him. I tested his water, offered him food and left him alone for the most part. I will continue to offer food.
Thanks again!
Kym
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Help with black mollies     11/11/18
I have 2 black mollies I think one male one female one of them the skinnier one will sit at the bottom take a little bit and then held swim up and swim next to the other one and he let himself float down to the bottom of chain sit there for a little while and the other one is way bigger than the other ones skinny ones having the problem or if it is a problem I don't know but I'm just wondering if it's normal behavior or if it's something I should be concerned about
<Hello Mike. Let me have you do some reading first:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/mollies.htm
The thing about Mollies is that they're a bit disease prone when kept in plain freshwater. Certainly, hard water is better, and ideally, a reasonable amount of salt, maybe 2-3 teaspoons per US gallon, can make all the difference. On top of that, they're often maintained poorly by retailers and wholesalers, and the quality of farmed Mollies is very variable. So it's a bit hit-and-miss whether you get healthy ones or not.
Understanding their specific needs will help a lot. So yes, I'd be worried about a skinny Molly that wasn't swimming properly, but before medicating, I'd be checking water chemistry first. Simply maintaining them in saline conditions can make all the difference! Cheers, Neale.>

Spaghetti Eel... which reminds me of bugs bunny    11/9/18
Good day Neale, Marco and all you good people in WetWebMedia,
<Hello!>
Neale, I remember this chat in fishforum, many many years ago (2006)
http://www.fishforums.net/threads/got-my-freshwater-snowflake-eel-today.140196/
In the chat you are advising a brackish aquarist to get an Echidna Rhodochilus (I already have it) and/or Spaghetti eel.
<Ah, yes. Back when I had time to do online forums! A distant memory, sadly.>
Well, since I already have E. rhodochilus (a model citizen, very nice, stay small and docile),
<Yep, this is the usual experience.>
and I have given away most of my eels to other eel lovers (except for my E. Rhodochilus), I decided that I still have room for small slimmer non-aggressive eel, so I asked my procurer to get me a Moringua
raitaborua.
<Nice!>
What he ended up sending me are these two eels (pictures included), which a bit surprising to me. What bizarre eel, I thought, when I saw them first time. Body like Monopterus albus, paddle-like tail (like some kind of fish.. well eels are fish anyway), face like moray... but they behave more like Bugs Bunny!
<The paddle-tail is presumably to help with digging. As you're seeing, these fish are extremely happy when half buried in the sand.>
That is, not long after I plunge them to my aquarium, they immediately burrowing! I just turn my back for a short while, then as I look back, they already gone beneath the sand. They stuck out their head every now and then (like Bugs Bunny!), but every time I bring my face closer to my aquarium, they will pull their head back in and swim underneath the sand, making curious patterns. Even my white cheek moray got confused (I think ;) ) as it remained home and not coming out at all.
<Neat.>
So, are they Moringua raitaborua? But they are not pink, their color are more like Monopterus albus. The smaller one is about 30cm in length, the bigger one is about 40cm. They have slim bodies, shaped like Monopterus albus... kind like spaghetti :D so the name is proper. They are caught in a freshwater river several kilometers away from the estuarium, and they were being kept in freshwater for months before my procurer bought them and send them to me. Maybe M. raitaborua change colors when they grow bigger? or maybe they are M. microchir? but isn't M. marine eels?
<It's really hard to say. The pale colour could easily be down to the light coloured substrate -- many fish adjust their colours, becoming paler if the substrate is pale. I'd be looking at the pictures on Fishbase for a start:
https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Moringua-raitaborua
https://www.fishbase.de/summary/8051
While both occur in brackish water, as you say, of the two, Moringua raitaborua is the one more associated with fresh and brackish conditions, and presumably the more adaptable in the longer term, Moringua microchir being more marine when adult. That being the case, I'd be maintaining the tank around 1.003-1.005, and seeing what happens. If the fish stop eating or get ill, upping the salinity may be required.>
Well, thank you for your time, and have a wonderful day with your fishes!
Best Regards, Ben
<And to you! Cheers, Neale.>


 

Re: Spaghetti Eel... which reminds me of bugs bunny      11/10/18
Hello Neale and all you cool people in WetWebMedia!
<Hello Ben,>
Thank you for the reply. The smaller eel immediately begin eating chopped shrimp and bloodworms, while the larger eel looks like it's not hungry yet.
Or maybe it's eating the bloodworms when I wasn't looking. Closer examination reveals that the larger eel actually does have a pinkish face.
It's the smaller one that is not pink. But both has the same morphology.
The smaller one is now more outgoing and will leave the sands for food, while the big one is still behaving like a mole or a bugs bunny.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tHaDQgCWiZ0&feature=youtu.be So, maybe one of them is M. Microchir and the other one is M. Raitaborua?
Or maybe they are both M. Raitaborua, and simply changed colors when getting old! :D
<Could be either situation. I admit they don't look like the same species, and maybe their behaviour is different too. But you really can't be sure without contacting someone who actively studies this genus, or at least knows the common fishes collected in this area. Indeed, there may be other Moringua species (described or otherwise!) that we aquarists aren't aware of, and without photos online, we wouldn't be able to compare them to the fishes in front of us.>
My salinity is 1.005sg (fluctuating) at the last water changes, so I hope it's still within range.
<If they're eating, it's probably fine; with Moray Eels at least, refusing food is a good sign the salinity is wrong.>
These eels will hide under bright lights (just like my white cheek moray), but when I reduce the lights, they will eventually come out, especially when smelling food.
<Correct.>
It is rather difficult to find more online info about these spaghetti eels, even though our local fishermen and procurers here are familiar with them and their behavior.
<They are extremely rare in the aquarium trade, in Europe at least. So likely very few experiences among the sorts of people who write web pages!>
They are known as agreeable pets, but not as desirable as morays (morays are considered more "beautiful"). And to catch them would require some patience as they only easy to catch in the rivers at certain times of the year.
<May well be migratory, by the sounds of it.>
Well, thank you for your time, and I hope my report will be useful for all you WetWebMedia fans out there who wish to know more about these spaghettis!
<Oh, I am quite sure this will help those luckily enough to obtain Moringua spp.>
Best Regards, Ben
<Cheers, Neale.>

Marine protozoa; trtmt.       11/10/18
Lots of questions for you!
<Oh!>
I have a 55gal QT with a mappa puffer, queen angelfish, and harlequin Tuskfish at the moment, and unfortunately am struggling with some sort of protozoa. The symptoms are very different between them: the puffer seems to be behaving totally fine (eating, swimming about, being social), but is covered in white specs and has cloudy eyes - assuming ich. The angelfish and Tuskfish look fine, but are not behaving well (breathing 115 breaths per minute, lethargic, and won't eat) - marine velvet?.
<Perhaps either, even both>
I'm treating with copper sulfate (0.2 mg/L), but haven't noticed much of a change in 4 days!
Yikes. Considering something more aggressive.
<Yes I would... For one I would definitely (NOW) drop the specific gravity... to about 1.010... yes, drastically. AND do this ASAP. Not only will the lowered density help the fish breath more easily (they may be dead in a short while otherwise), the sudden decrease will impugn the parasite/s....>
Kordon's Rapid-Cure ingredients are listed as: Triethylene Glycol, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-29, and Malachite Green. There's quite a bit of info online about Malachite Green, but I can't find any on the other two ingredients.
1. What does Triethylene Glycol do? Is it toxic to the fish? Will it kill the bio-filter? Will it kill both marine ich and velvet, and if so, at what part of their life cycles?
<Mostly is a carrier/binder... won't kill the parasites and should not impede nitrification>
2. What does Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-29 do? Is it toxic to the fish?
Will it kill the bio-filter? Will it kill both marine ich and velvet, and if so, at what part of their life cycles?
<Got me... PVP itself is used in quite a few all in one "dechloraminator" products... makes the fishes a bit more slimy. Don't know what the designation K-29 refers to... NOT an IUPAC descriptor; likely some snazzy commercial modifier. I WOULD write, contact Kordon-Novalek (or the Net; you may have to pay) re their MSDS with your concerns>
3. Malachite green: Believe it is toxic to the fish and will kill bio filter alone with all protozoa? What part of the protozoa life cycle does it kill?
<Can be useful in arresting protozoa; and yes, will subtend nitrification; and in strong doses, some conditions more/less toxify fishes>
4. Can this be combined with Methylene blue (to help oxygen transfer in the fish)? What about formalin? Copper sulfate?
<Methylene Blue is the safest... AGAIN, take out about half the seawater and replace it w/ dechloraminated new/freshwater. Formalin is a biocide... useful in some applications; better for dips/baths for hobbyists than direct application. CuSO4 is a fave for several applications. You can read
what I have archived on WWM re.>
My local fish store sold me a bottle of "Copper Sulfate".
1. Is Copper Sulfate (CU 2 I think) chelated?
<Might be; should state on the container... if just CuSO4, not chelated>
2. Is it correct that ammonia reducers convert CU 2 to Cu 1 which is very toxic?
<Mmm; not so much, or often an issue>
If so, will "API Stress Coat", "API Tap Water Conditioner", or "Instant Ocean Marine conditioner" do the same thing with the copper (since they're advertised to neutralizing chlorine and heavy metals)?
<They will do degrees precipitate out copper; more/faster non-chelates>
3. Can this be combined with Methylene blue? what about formalin?
<The former should be fine; I would skip formalin use: TOO dangerous, toxic>
I have four total ammonia testing abilities:
1. API Ammonia Test Kit (drops into 5mL water)
2. Seachem Ammonia Alert color wheel (always in the aquarium)
3. Seachem multi test ammonia free and total (drops and powder mixed in a little tray)
4. Tetra easy test strips (swirl strip in water).
1. How do you test ammonia if you're treating with something that dyes the water (like malachite green or Methylene blue)?
<Can usually see through the dye; there are other test moda, including strips... titration, send away (too slow) electronic methods>
2. Which ammonia test kits work when treating with Formalin? Copper?
<These don't interfere w/ colorimetric assays>
3. Will the dying protozoa add to the ammonia buildup?
<Not appreciably, no. HOWEVER (man that's big), the increased stress on the fish WILL be greatly contributing>
I use seachem marine buffer and in all the water I mix just to make sure the pH is where I want it. Is there a drawback to this other than cost of buying the product?
<Not as far as I'm aware, no>
Will it interact with any of the medications listed above?
<Will if added directly to the tank. BETTER by far to pre-mix synthetic, additives and store new water and use a few days later>
Thanks for the help. There's a lot of info out there, but it's a bit overwhelming.
-Valarie
<I do understand. IF it were me/mine I'd drop spg, READ re the use of quinine/s and use them instead of the med.s you list. AND do all this soon, as in ASAPractical. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Marine protozoa

Thank you so much for the detail and quick response. My fish appreciate it too! :-)
<The initial reaction from the salt/solids dilution will amaze you; and please them Val. Cheers, BobF>

ID Parrotfish      11/10/18
I’m thinking it’s at Quoy’s Parrotfish but not sure. Male? Female??
<Yes, it is a Greenblotched Parrotfish. Males are more colored than females.>
Thanks,
<Welcome>
Kirk Lieberg EcoAquatica
<Wil>

Baby Oscar      11/10/18
I have two 6” Oscars in a 125 gallon I just hard reset to give them each a territory with lava rock and driftwood, caves with plastic flower pot liners inserted into siliconed rock surrounds, etc.
<Indeed; if these are two males, there's a good chance they WILL NOT cohabit in a tank this small once mature. I know 125 gallons sounds massive, but bear in mind that an adult male Oscar will be guarding a territory with a radius of some 6 feet around its spawning pit. For sure they'll sometimes ignore dissimilar tankmates, but a rival male Oscar has almost no chance of being tolerated. Observe both fish carefully, and be aware that fights can easily result in injuries that are very difficult to treat. The classic ones are eye injuries (which lead to pop-eye or blindness) or most distressingly, dislocated jaw bones. Once the jaws are damaged, usually through wrestling, the jaws never heal, and the fish starves to death.>
I have 2 HUGE canister filters and a HOB and will be building a fluidized bed sump when the rest of the parts arrive next week.
<Cool.>
They are doing well, growing around 1.5” a month, love people (and haven’t even eaten the sacrificial plants I threw in there for entertainment). They get 25% water changes every other day and are water tested everyday. So, in short, I am a little familiar with the species. Today, while out grabbing some supplies for the house the hubby and I saw an inch and a half Oscar in a tank full of 3-4 inchers. It was in a store we all go to, but preferably NOT for fish because their tanks have a super-high mortality rate.
<Oh!>
I knew what would happen if we left him there.
<Indeed.>
Sadly, I think we all do.
<Yes; but the flip side is plenty of animals much smarter than Oscars are bred and die on an industrial scale for human uses, such as pigs. Once you buy a pitiable fish, yes, you're saving that fish, but the retailer simply sees this as a successful sale and orders another. So while the humane act would seem to be rescuing such fish, in reality what you're doing is encouraging the overproduction of large, difficult to house 'tankbuster' fish. The logical thing to do is ignore the fish, and yes, it'll die, but the retailer won't order it again given money was lost on it. Make sense?>
So, I brought him home, knowing full well the mess of filters, water changes and probably the creepy crawlies he was bringing home. My friend owns a pet shop, so we popped by and threw together a 10 gallon hospital tank. We filled the tank with pre-heated, oxygenated R/O,
<Do be careful about making "good" water chemistry changes all of a sudden. If this beast was in hard water, slapping him in moderately or very soft water could do more harm than good. Best thing with water chemistry changes is to do them across several days.>
slapped in a filter with cycled media, air and lights (kept low to keep him calm). I set the temp to 84F and am giving him the first round of Paraguard. I know its probably stress, but he’s not eating. Is there anything I can try to tempt him with that isn’t crushed pellet, homemade frozen or pieces of prawn? Anything you think I should know about caring for a guy this young?
<Earthworms and small river shrimps are crack cocaine for Oscars, so these'd be my go-to foods. Earthworms are usually safe because they're unlikely to be exposed to water parasites. With shrimps, ideally gut-load them with flake food first. Frozen shrimp is okay, but remember it contains thiaminase, as do mussels, so long term causes serious health problems if it isn't used alongside thiaminase-free foods such as cod fillet, cockles and squid.>
(Oh, and please set your mind at ease about his future, I’ve already got a mailbox with his name on it outside the new 55 gallon tank sitting on my living room floor for this guy. �� )
<Cool.>
Thank you so much for this site, when I first decided on Oscars, I read everything I could get my hands on, and I spent a ton of time here. I promise never to ask about the sex of an Oscar, lol.
<Indeed! Virtually unsexable.>
Thanks for all you do,
Kym
<And thank you for the kind words. Cheers, Neale.>

Flasher Wrasse Question      11/10/18
Good morning crew!
<Charles>
A quick question on stocking Carpenter's Flasher Wrasses. My current system is a 75 gallon reef (plumbed in line with a 30 gallon mangrove tank and 20-tall sump) - so total system volume around 100 gallons. My current fish stocking list is as follows:
Desjardinii tang

<Yikes; will get MUCH larger in time>
Potters Angel
Helfrichi Firefish
pair of Ocellaris clowns
Tailspot blenny
I've been planning to add a small harem of Carpenter's Flasher Wrasses - 1 male, 2 females.
<Mmm; I wouldn't w/o re/moving the Zebrasoma first... not enough psychological/room here>
I finally found someone who has females in stock. I wanted to clarify a couple of things:
1 - I've read in 1 or 2 places that it is best NOT to quarantine these fish. I wanted to get your opinion on this. My usual quarantine is 6 weeks for all new arrivals. Thoughts?
<IF the fish/es are in good (apparent) shape, full-bodied, feeding, they may benefit from quarantine... THEY ARE JUMPERS! A small opening may find them out on the floor; more so in small/er volumes. IF they were mine, I'd likely utilize a dip/bath (see WWM re) and simply place them in the main/display>
2 - I've read that I should add the females first. Is that advisable, or would it be ok to add the females and male all at once. My concern is one of the females turning male while the male is in quarantine if I wait.
<For a trio... this setting, I'd place all at once>
As always, your input is greatly appreciated.
Regards,
-Charles
<Again; I'd trade out your Tang in advance of introducing the Wrasses. Bob Fenner>

Re: tiny chip on aquarium glass     11/9/18
Hello Mr. Fenner,
thank you. You made my day. I was freaking out a bit last few days.
<Ah, glad to be of assistance>
I really apologize about the pics size.
MF
<Appreciate your message Matej. Cheers, BobF>

Tetraodon miurus availability     11/8/18
Hi Neale!
<Hello Nathaniel,>
How are you?
<Just fine, thanks.>
I have been looking for a few months for a Miurus (Congo/potato puffer) to add to my collection.
<Nice fish. Doesn't do much, but not difficult to keep.>
I have a tank that has been ready and cycled for a while now, but the Congo puffer season is nearly over and nobody has had them in!! I'm worried that the season is nearly over and I'll have to wait another year!!
<Quite possibly.>
I've even tried Keith at wildwoods and he's due some but as always with shipments from Congo it's proving tricky.
<I believe the civil war might have something to do with that.>
Do you happen to have come across any shops/individuals who are selling these currently??
<Well, the TropicalFishFinder.co.uk database suggests Wildwoods has them in stock. But that might not have been updated in a while. In which case, I'd have a quick peruse of the PFK readers' favourites from 2017, here:
https://www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/news/fishkeeping-news/articles/2017/1
1/14/top-of-the-shops
The top scoring stores there are probably the ones to get in touch with first of all, Wharf Aquatics for example being regarded as the best store for oddballs (and indeed a very highly regarded store within the UK hobby).>
Thanks!
<Hope this helps, Neale.>
Re: Tetraodon miurus availability     11/8/18

Thanks Neale, I already tried all top 40 from PFK but no look :-(
Wharf are looking out but also struggling.
If you happen to come across one then please can you let me know :-)
Thanks again
<Your best bet might be social media. The Puffer Forum is a good place to start, but somewhat US-centric. If you use Facebook there might be groups of interest (I'm afraid I don't know any). One thing with social media is you can offer to rehouse an adult fish, which may be welcome if someone wants to change their focus or have to downsize their collection.
Maidenhead Aquatics is one chain of stores that routinely takes adult fish in and rehouses them, but I don't know if they have a central network that'd allow you to get in touch with all the branch managers
simultaneously. Worth asking, though. In any event, if Keith at Wildwoods can't get something -- it's probably not in the wholesale trade at the moment. He's really very, very good at this. Cheers, Neale.>

Tiny chip on aquarium glass     11/8/18
<... 16.6 megs.... we have a requested limit on file size...>
Hello WetWebMedia crew,
I am looking for answer from people who works with glass and i found your site. On my new and first aquarium I found a tiny chip about 3-4 mm (around 0.12 inch) big and about 0.1-0,2 mm (0.004-7 inch) deep. Sorry I am from Europe. So, I am aware that is really tiny. But it most probably happened
during transportation and unfortunately I did notice it after few days.
<Happens>
My vendor is not willing to repair/change the tank. Even though he is saying it is fine, the communication with him is really problematic, so I am looking for different opinion. The chip is on long front glass about 4inch from corner on the outside. The tank is 4ft long, 24 inch high and 20 inch wide (48x20x24) and glass is 3/8" (10mm). It will accommodate the turtle, so the water level will be up to 16".
<Ah good; and an important datum>
Possibly sometime in the future up to full. I tried to fill it up 16" for few hours and now its in 12" water
level for 2 days and nothing is happening (luckily). My question: is there any chance to find out if the damage and chip cause some glass structural integrity issue which can pop in future?
<Mmm; there likely are some invasive and not engineering means to assess this chip; but I'm not familiar w/ these. My habit/practice is to render best guesses based on long experience w/ such breaks>
My idea was to reinforce it with the 2x 5"braces on the side (basically finish Eurobraces, which cover the chipped part) and with the middle 5" brace. Right now the braces are only in the front and back side. Chipped site picture included in attachment.
Thank you a lot with your opinion.
I am looking forward to the answer.
Sincerely,
Matej Fabisik
<I do think you'd be okay even w/o your planned added bracing, definitely so w/ this added support. As long as this tank is set on a level, flat stand I would go ahead and set it up, use it for the intended/stated use. Bob Fenner>

plus tape

Sick Jack Dempsey     11/7/18
Hello,
I hope you can help diagnose this problem for me. I left my fish in the care of a friend while I was away for 3 weeks, and upon returning, the poor guy was almost dead :(
He is alone in a 75 gal. tank at 78 F. He has developed a very large white growth on his underbelly, lost most of his blue colouring, and won't eat.
There was a lot of uneaten, rotten food at the bottom of the tank. I immediately changed out half of the water, removed the rotten food, and put some Nox Ich in the water in case it was a fungus.
<Nox Ich has no impact on fungus. It's a Whitespot medication.>
Is there anything else you would suggest? He's an elderly fish of 12 or so, so I hope I don't lose him yet!
<A fair age of a JD, so well done!>
Thank you,
Tonja
<Tonja, hard to say what the problem would be. But I'd be using Metronidazole alongside an antibiotic (Nitrofuran works well in this situation). Alongside these two, I'd be doing regular water changes,
increasing aeration without adding too much turbulence, and laying off feeding the fish for at least a week. Good luck, Neale.>

What is this?     11/7/18
Hey. Do you know what type of algae this is? It's an oddly firm texture and
grows in clumps varying in size 2-4" like heads of cabbages or something similar. Solitary clumps attached to the walls in refugium under a Kessil grow light where there is Chaeto growing but nothing else intentionally added. Thank you!
<Hey John! This is so reminiscent of the genus Colpomenia to me... A Phaeophyte for sure. Not harmful but likely scarfing up most all iodide/ate you're adding. I'd keep it trimmed back therefore.
Thank you for sharing, Bob Fenner>

Re: What is this?     11/7/18
That's interesting as the Iodine was low (icp test) so I dosed it and two weeks later there were these.
<Ahh!>
Thank you for the info!
<Welcome! BobF>

Re: Queen Angel bullying     11/6/18
Thanks Bob. Will do as you suggest.
The French is swimming much more freely and ate well this morning, now that its tormentor is in a different system. But he definitely got beaten up during the 16 hours they were both in the same aquarium. Hopefully no secondary infections, etc as a result.
<Yes>
Ideally both angels will get along well upon reintroduction. In the meantime, I'll use water from the main display to do the weekly QT water changes, as you recommended.
Appreciate your help.
<Glad to help. DO float the Queen... in a very large plastic colander in the 200 for a few hours ahead of release. BobF>

Carpet compatibility     11/6/18
Crew: I believe I have read most of what you have on your website concerning carpets, but I am not able to find an answer to the following.
Is the reason you do not recommend multiple species of anemones in the same tank, because of incompatibility when placed (or moved) near another one, or is it because of chemical incompatibility in a closed system.
<For the useful species, mainly the former>
I have healthy Rainbow BTA's at the top of the tank (90 gallon) and had a S. haddoni at the bottom for over two years and they seemed to get along just fine. I would like to replace the carpet with a larger one. Thanks Jim
<I would not do this... Even if the new carpet starts larger, it will likely shrink due to competition w/ your BTAs. Better to keep what you have. Bob Fenner>
Re: Carpet compatibility     11/6/18

Competition for space, food, light, or ?? Thanks for your help Jim Wedel
<All of these Jim. BobF>

WAMAS greetings; Aiptasia control and flower/rock anemones     11/6/18
I wanted to ask you two questions. When we talked I had asked you about Aiptasia control and flower/rock anemones.
<Oh yeah>
My tank has been inundated with the Aiptasia. I currently have a filefish in there now, but I think he has gotten too mature and only likes the frozen food/pellets I feed. I just ordered two smaller ORA filefish that I am hoping will help. You also mentioned raccoon butterflies?
<Yes; these are faves (both species)>
I think you mentioned that peppermint shrimp are hit or miss too.
<This is so>
I was thinking about throwing some money down the drain and buying some Berghias too. Inland
aquatics had a good article on what to do with them to ensure they survive vs. just throwing them into your display tank. Any further thoughts or advice?
<Like foxes and rabbits... you'll end up w/ some of both... The large ones will need being taken care of otherwise. Please have a read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marine/inverts/cnidaria/anthozoa/aiptasia/aiptasia.htm
and the linked files above.>
Also, I had mentioned to you my interest in propagating flower anemones.
I just got a bunch and have been spot feeding them. From my readings, they propagate infrequently, but you had mentioned some other ways to induce breeding. What do you recommend?
<Either stress (lots of current is a fave) or very good conditions... AND that universal ingredient patience>
Thank you again for your time and for coming to speak at our club.
<A pleasure and honor Scott. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Scott Friedman

Queen Angel bullying, TWA period     11/5/18
Good morning Bob (and team),
Yesterday I brought a 3 inch French Angel out of quarantine, where it had been for 3 weeks, and put it in my main display (200 gallon FOWLR).
Immediately my 5 inch Queen Angel began bullying it, and the French has a decent amount of fin damage this morning as a result.
<To be expected, anticipated. The size difference, size (small for the wild)... better to have had either the species or size reversed in order of introduction>
I knew I had to put a stop to it immediately, so I removed the Queen Angel (boy was that fun to take out most of the rock in a 200 gallon aquarium)
<I'll bet! Hopefully two nets, make that four, with another/friend to help>
and drip acclimated it back to my 29 gallon QT system. Both the Queen and the French seem to be doing OK at this point.
My question is, how long do you think I should keep the Queen Angel in QT?
I want the French to recover from its injuries, eat well, and establish some territory in the new tank before putting the Queen back in. I'm just not sure how long that typically takes. 3-4 weeks perhaps?
<Yes to about this time frame>
Given the size constraints I know the Queen can't stay in my QT tank for a long time.
Thanks,
Dan
<Do weekly or more often water changes, additions in the 29 w/ water from the 200... this will help introduce (chemically) the two Angels. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

I.D. Corydoras catfish       11/4/18
Hi, I hope you could help with an id on a Corydoras I picked up recently.
<Will try.>
The closest I could find was C. copei.
<Corydoras copei is rare in the hobby. Though I agree, it certainly looks similar in terms of markings. With that said, many species in this genus are notoriously difficult to positively identify. Books have been written on the subject (such as Fullers & Evers 'Identifying Corydoradinae Catfish') and several names in the trade are almost certainly used for the wrong fish (most if not all "Corydoras julii" are probably Corydoras trilineatus, for example). By the same token, Corydoras copei is quite similar to a number of other species, including Corydoras punctatus.>
Apart from the black in the dorsal the most distinctive feature is the black line which runs down from the eye but there is also an electric blue line that runs along side it. Also there is a black spot that appears on
the body just before the caudal peduncle, it comes and goes depending on mood.
<This latter feature is characteristic of Corydoras punctatus, but also appears on Corydoras copei, Corydoras acutus, and a few others.>
Regards
Steve
<I do think your guess is a good one, but would suggest positing somewhere like the PlanetCatfish forum where an expert on the genus might be able to help. In the meantime, rest assured that this species has all the same requirements as the vast majority of Corydoras; to wit, low-end tropical temperature (22-25 C/72-77 F) water that isn't too hard (1-15 degrees dH, pH 6.0-7.5) and not too deep (ideally 30 cm/12 inches at most). Keep in groups, on a soft, ideally sandy substrate, and provide brisk but not turbulent water current. Avoid nippy tankmates, but otherwise mixes well with community fish. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Nudibranch ID       11/4/18
Hi Robert
<Hey Otilia>
Thanks for the reply what would be the expected diet of this Nudibranchs so I can try to feed it adequately.
<Mmm; a tough one. Likely whatever it will accept is in your system, shipped with it. Many Nudibranchs eat types of Hydrozoans... but need to know what you have here exactly. My guess was just that; a guess>
It’s not in my main reef tank due to potential risk and trying to hunt it in a 6ft heavily coral stocked aquarium.
I would like to keep it and am happy to even give it frags
<Then I'd go ahead and place in your main display. Most nudibranchs don't consume/nibble on species aquarists keep.
Not at all likely to be problematical. Bob Fenner>
Re: Nudibranch ID       11/4/18

Sorry for a second email I just looked up that species. It says it is mainly from the northern hemisphere. I live in Australia.
<Ahh; not it then. The one mentioned is from off of the southern Caribbean on south>
We are not allowed to import live inverts including coral.
<Yes; am aware. Do take the long look on WWM re my pix of Nudis...
something similar look up the genus on the Net; Google, look at images. Bob Fenner>

Re: Anemone compatible       11/3/18
Thanks for your fast response. Thanks v/r.
<Certainly welcome. BobF>

Re: Mollie needs help PLEASE?       11/3/18
Well thanks for the education on mollies.
<We aim to please!>
Nitrites are at about the 30 mark
<Do you mean nitrate? Nitrite (with an "i") would be beyond lethal at 30 mg/l. Nitrate (with an "a") at 30 mg/l would be typical tap water, a bit high for Mollies (in freshwater, at least) and most cichlids as well, but acceptable to most other community fish (tetras, catfish, etc.). So fine for general fishkeeping, but not good for Mollies if you insist on keeping them in freshwater conditions.>
but I test after 48 hours of water change so water has time to cycle through biofilter.
<Nitrate will ONLY increase going through a biological filter. By definition that has to be the case, since what a biological filter does is turn toxic ammonia ions into less toxic nitrite ions, and then those less
toxic nitrite ions into almost completely harmless nitrate ions. Nitrate is the end product, so kind of like dirty plates in a restaurant without a dishwasher, as time passes, just as the pile of dirty plates gets taller,
so does the nitrate level in the fish tank go up. Nitrate is, in almost all community tanks, removed (well, diluted at least) through water changes. If your nitrate level is 30 mg/l out of the tap, then that's as low as it can ever go. It'll creep up to 35, 40, 45 mg/l as the weeks pass. Under experimental conditions, nitrate isn't particularly toxic until at least upwards of 100 mg/l, but that's based on work with food fish done in labs.
Some aquarium fish are equally tolerant, but cichlids, Mollies, and most marine fish are much more sensitive. They become sickly as nitrate creeps above 20 mg/l, and above 40 mg/l they often show severe health problems. In the case of Mollies, it's often over-production of mucous that becomes the most obvious thing, together with fin-clamping, rocking from side to side ("the shimmies"), and a tendency towards diseases such as Finrot and Fungus.>
I also use stress zyme plus when needed.
<Let's be clear here. API Stress Coat is a useful product for use when shipping fish or when introducing new livestock that may have been damaged in transit, but otherwise serves no particular benefit above that of plain vanilla water conditioner. So it's nice, but not essential. API Stress Zyme on the other hand is almost completely useless. It may or may not speed up the cycling process, reports are very mixed indeed, but what it doesn't do is magically improve the aquarium once the filter is properly matured. Of
course API will happily sell the stuff, and it probably does no harm, but it doesn't do anything a water change and filter clean won't do better.>
Bettas water is diff than the Molly tank.
<Good oh!>
Thx again. Going to redo something's. And I do have plants in the tanks.
Have a great day and again thx for your time.
<Glad to help. Neale.>

Nudibranch ID       11/3/18
Are you able to identify this Nudibranch that was found in a tank that has lps and Zoanthids and gorgonians
Thanks
<Mmm; black rhinophores, gills, spots, yellow margin, white body, flattish; small for now... this at least resembles the Heterobranch Felimare kempfi (Ev. Marcus, 1971); was/is there rock in this system from the tropical West Atlantic?
Unless I saw it eating something valuable, I'd leave/enjoy it. Bob Fenner>

Re: Betta Question; attachment     11/2/18
WetWebMedia is an amazing website and I've just made a small donation.
Thank you, Bob!
<I thank you for your kind, encouraging words and donation. Cheers, BobF>

Re: Hello!     11/2/18
I can't believe I didn't attach those pics! I was really sleepy when I emailed lol. Sending now and looking into Microsporidian and see what I can find! Thank you.
<Oh! Another possibility is that these spots are resultant from reproductive, hormonal cause... "Nuptial tubercles"... These too shall pass if so. BobF>

Re: Hello!     11/2/18
Wow! Never heard of that! I will look into that as well thank you! I'm just glad that it will pass if so. I am rather attached to my fish and was really worried.
<I sense/d this; and am glad for it. These organisms are dependent on our care entirely.>
Especially considering that they are genetically altered. This has been my first time owning fish that have been altered in such a way.
<Aye; a bit of "jellyfish DNA" clipped on eh?>
They have been much healthier than I originally thought they would be with no losses as of yet. Quite hardy and comical little guys. Thank you very much for the insight!
<Glad to share. Bob Fenner>

Hello! /Neale     11/2/18
First I would like to say that this website has been a complete obsession almost for any little thing that I ever seem to have questions about. I haven't had to actually write more than once before now. You all are lifesavers! Literally. With this particular situation though I am completely stumped. I have gone through everything I can on here and have not found a match yet that I can see. I will start with a bit of history, not too much though and water parameters. This is a 30gal long, planted tank. Everything from stem plants to floating hornwort. Home to a shoal of 6 albino Cory's ranging from 1-3 1/2 years of age. A school of 6 Glofish (skirt) tetras also ranging the same age. A small school of 6 Glolight tetras. A pair of juvenile peacock gudgeons and a male Betta that is a little over 2 years old. Water parameters are in ppm... 0 amm, 0 nitrite, less than 10 nitrate, GH around 80ppm, KH around 50-60ppm and PH ranges between 7-7.2. I do use peat moss and air stones in my 20gal water tank that I keep cycled and full for water changes as my water here comes out a hard 280-300 GH, about 120-150 KH and a PH of 8.4-8.6. I top off with a mixture of distilled and spring water. My question is about one of my older tetras. She has developed 2 odd pimple-like spots on her but they have come up from under her scales and pushed them out. Its hard to get a good pic of as her scales reflect back the light and the 2 "whitehead" looking bumps are under. She is about 3 1/2years old and roughly the size of a 50¢ piece. She acts completely normal and is eating normally and such. I first noticed these 2 bumps about a week ago and they don't seem to have gotten bigger or gone down any. I thought maybe some kind of parasite but nothing I have read about sounds like this. The only new fish to the tank within the past year are the gudgeons and they have been added in the past month. They have settled in nicely and seem healthy. Idk if they could have brought something with them or if its unrelated. I am attaching the best pic I could get but getting her holding still enough for any length of time to take a pic is not an easy task. Any thoughts or help/advice is greatly appreciated! Thanks, Allie.
<<Bob's covered the basics, but will add an observation re: Hemigrammus rodwayi, the Gold Tetra. This species is actually silver in colour, but the ones in the trade are infected with a non-lethal trematode parasite. I believe this happens naturally, in the wild, rather than a manmade thing. Anyway, the parasite causes the skin to secrete extra guanine, and that forms metallic gold patches, hence the common name of the fish. Praziquantel and other antihelminthic medications have been used successfully against trematodes, though in the case of the Gold Tetra the fish itself appears to be unharmed so such treatment is rarely, if ever, done by home aquarists. Still, it's an option. Of course first of all I'd be treating as per Whitespot and Velvet, just in case either of those (or some similar ciliate parasite) are to blame. The old salt/heat method can work very well, and has minimal toxicity if done correctly. Otherwise, if the tankmates aren't sensitive to standard anti-Whitespot medications, you could try a couple runs of those (Velvet in particular seems to need two courses to be thoroughly dispensed with). Good luck, Neale.>>
Re: Hello!     11/2/18

OK, I don't have any salinity in the tank at all as the Cory's don't seem to like it.
<Soft water fish, including Corydoras, are just fine at the 2g/litre used to treat Whitespot. Just as a reminder, other medications often include copper sulphate and formalin, which are FAR more toxic than salt, particularly to catfish and loaches. Hence the old salt/heat method remains a very useful approach for handling Whitespot and Velvet in situations where other medications aren't an option. Do also note than 2g/litre IS NOT brackish water, and furthermore, the salt/heat method operates over a week or two. A lot of people get confused by the salt dosage, and assume it'll turn the tank brackish. It really won't.>
I do have both the API Aquarium Salt ( just incase ) and Instant Ocean ( I have a low end brackish set up on another tank ).
<The API tonic salt is the one you want. While the Instant Ocean salt would work, it'd also raise pH and hardness. Plain non-iodised cooking salt, or some aquarium specific alternative, only affects salinity, and has no impact at all on pH and hardness.>
I can treat with if necessary. The temp stays between 76-78°.
<Traditionally the temperature is knocked up a few degrees to speed up the life cycle of the Whitespot or Velvet parasite. Once mature, the motile stages burst out of the fish, allowing them to swim about looking for a new host, but crucially, this is THE ONLY stage at which they can be killed. They have little tolerance for salt, much less than fish, so the salt added to the water kills them. Anyway, 28-30 C/82-86 F is considered optimal for the heat/salt technique. Since warm water has less oxygen than cold, you need to up the aeration during the process, or the fish may become stressed.>
I have looked into the velvet and it doesn't seem like that but it could be I reckon and I'm pretty sure its not the Whitespot/ick.
<Velvet tends to be like powdered sugar, often resulting in a golden sheen. Attacks the gills first, so affected fish often gasp, breathe heavily, or look nervous and distressed. Velvet usually progresses extremely rapidly. Whitespot more like table salt, with visible pimples. Often develops more slowly.>
I have had a bit of experience with that over the years but I will definitely be watching close and will treat the tank if other fish start developing whatever this is. I haven't moved her to the hospital tank yet as I'm not sure if that would help or hinder the situation.
<Indeed.>
I think she would be really stressed by herself but I will do it if its necessary. I did notice today that she has 2 identical spots on the other side in the exact same places. Just not as noticeable. No other spots anywhere else and they are right in a horizontal line almost like its part of her spine or something. I thought the spine was higher up though. I don't have much in the way of meds on hand aside from Melafix.
<Melafix largely useless.>
The ones I had expired unused months ago and I just haven't replaced them yet but I will. I really appreciate you guys taking the time to respond! If you think of anything else please let me know. Thanks again.
<Cheers, Neale.>

Anemone compatible     11/2/18
Good morning
<Good morrow to you Richard>
I am trying to find out if a LTA and flower or rock anemone are compatible.
<They can be; given space/room around the two, propitious circumstances (food, light...) and determined, slow introduction (see WWM re Anemone Compatibility; the use of "quarantine" acclimation systems)>
I have a 55 gallon tank 2yrs old. I already have the LTA and would like to add a flower anemone only if they are compatible. Any info would be of great help. Thanks v/r.
<I'd hold the flower anemone in a separate system, add water from either system, mixing a bit (like a cup) every day for a few weeks for introduction; place the new one distal to the established. Bob Fenner>

Re: Hydrogen peroxide       11/1/18
Thank you. I dint know how I missed your reply, I just found it. So just to clarify, is the HP approach supposed to be a onetime thing or do hobbyists continue to dose daily until the Cyano is gone.
<Many dose daily...>
I did see where you mentioned follow up does at 50% afterworlds.
<? words?>
Is that a maintenance dose or for continuation of the original problem?
<... you should study re RedOx, ORP....>
My main concern is my sps coral. I just want to make sure this is a safe approach (given correct dosing) for coral and other inverts.
<Most of the time; better by measuring microsiemens per cm.>
Oh, also, just to be clear, you are referring to dosing the HP in the water column and not spot treating with a syringe right?
<... yes>
And to answer your question , yes, at the moment it is really bad. My entire sand bed is covered as well as several pieces of rock.
<.... have you read on WWM re BGA?>
Not sure where things went wrong. I’m still tracking it. GFO, ozone and UV is running and I have pretty good flow.
<AH!>
I was waiting several weeks thinking it would burn itself out, but it’s not. I suspect that maybe I did a 150 gallon change with water high in po4 or maybe some bad salt mix.
<Could be a factor!>
Thank you very much for your time!
John
<So glad to discourse w/ you. BobF>

Mollie needs help PLEASE? /Neale       11/1/18
So I've had my Dalmatian since May. My favorite of all. My male black Mollie CONSTANTLY harasses her since June.
<It is what the males do. Ideally, keep 2-3 females per male, and even better if you can add some salt-tolerant floating plants to help her hide at times, such as Floating Indian Fern.>
She just had fry last week. Since her spine is all bent and keeps swimming weird. I moved her to my other tank (no males just a community Betta and a couple guppies) but is she sick or is this normal?
<Not normal.>
Took black stallion months to even get her pregnant of constant harassment.
<It's very unusual for female Mollies (kept with males) to *not* be pregnant, and much more likely that any fry were eaten by other fish before you see them. But yes, harassment can cause them to miscarry on occasion.
See above with regard to tips that can help.>
I don't want to lose her.
<Do review the basics.
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/mollies.htm
Mollies appreciate warmth, hard water, a plant-based diet, and a bit of salt added to the water. In fact they'll thrive in seawater, but often become sickly in plain freshwater, and adding a scant teaspoon (around 5 grams) of aquarium 'tonic' salt or even better marine salt mix per litre of water can make a huge difference. That's about two-thirds of an ounce per US gallon.>
I can send pic or video if that would help. Thanks in advance.
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: Mollie needs help PLEASE?       11/1/18
My aquariums are in excellent status to suit Mollies and all levels of nitrites, nitrates, ammonia, pH are all great
<Actual values would mean a lot more to me than this statement, I'm afraid. What's "excellent" for Bettas is actually "terrible" for Mollies. So it's one, or the other, but can't be both. Kind of like saying you're keeping both Camels and Polar Bears in the same excellent environment. Can't possibly be true. Make sense?><<Does to me; excellent allusion/comparison. B>>
and have been for months and there are a total of 5 females (1 Dalmatian and 4 white) to one male (black). I always use aquarium salt when cleaning and pre-prepping new water.
<How much? Depending on the hardness and pH of your tap water, more or less salt would be helpful. If you have very hard, alkaline water -- i.e., around 20 degrees dH, pH 8 -- then you might not need much salt at all. But if you had soft water -- <10 degrees dH, <pH 7 -- then a sizeable quantity of salt would be essential for Mollies to survive any great length of time.>
I never just add tap water.
<Good.>
Tanks always crystal clear. Seems like she gave birth and then ended up like this the next morning and hasn't changed since. She is the only one having an issue I see that way however I noticed the top dorsal fin on Midnight (black Mollie) and Pearl (2 of the white ones) brown tint spots rather than his black and her white and I used my lens to zoom in and almost looks as if my bristle nose looks to be almost beginning to peel. Maybe too much salt?
<For the Mollies, no; for the other fish, could easily be. Salt SHOULD NOT be used in standard community tanks except for treating specific illnesses. Put another way, a "safe" level of salt for Bettas and Bristlenose Catfish will have no, as in ZERO, helpful effect on your Mollies. The idea of using "tonic salt" in community tanks goes back decades, and some aquarium shops still sell the stuff, even though it's been debunked since at least the 1980s.>
I even have a community Betta and all seem happy but the Dalmatian (Spinky).
<Do please read the article I sent you last time. Mollies are NOT community fish, and attempts to keep them thus usually have mixed results, at best. Some live, some die, but hardly anyone gets all the Mollies they bought to live long, normal lives in plain vanilla community tanks.>
I test my water after every cleaning, liquid test kit not strips,
<So again, please share the values, not your interpretations.>
and I never do the filter on the same day
<Good.>
I usually give 2 days between cleaning tank and cleaning filter.
<I'd even leave a week, but sure, this is fine.>
I have noticed a wee hint of stinky fish odor.
<Often normal. Could be decaying fish food around the hood/edges of the tank.>
But I was able to capture 12 of her babies in a breeder net.
<Cool.>
Thx for any and all other advice. Maybe the only thing different I've done recently was add drift wood and feeding zucchini to my albino algae eaters and Bristlenose buddy and my zebra algae eaters in my other tank but the other tank seems fine. I did soak the drift wood (purchased at an actual fish store not just a pet store) for about 7 days plus boiled prior and let cool before adding. Thanks in advance.
<The Molly with the white gunk is showing the classic 'something wrong, but hard to say what' scenario you see with livebearers generally. It may be a parasite called Costia (also known as Slime Disease) but often seems to be environmental. High nitrate can be a cause, especially with Mollies, which in freshwater rarely tolerate above 20 mg/l nitrate before showing a tendency towards disease. Read, review your tank, and act accordingly.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Mollie needs help PLEASE?       11/1/18

Okay, thank you. Nitrates 0 ppm,
<I find that hard to believe unless you have rampant plant growth (i.e., removing armfuls of plants per week) and minimal stocking. Nitrate is the end product of the biological filtration process. It goes nowhere. So should accumulate between water changes. If it doesn't increase above tap water levels, then either there's no biological filtration going on, or your test kit is broken. Tap water supplies typically have somewhere between 10-40 mg/l, depending on your supplier, so again, zero levels even for freshly drawn tap water are extremely unusual.>
Nitrites 0 ppm, ammonia 0 ppm,
<Fine.>
pH around 7.6-7.8 if that helps.
<Good for Mollies; less good for Bettas and Bristlenose Cats. You don't mention how much salt you add. Likely adding more (which would stress/kill the Betta) would be a very good first step in the sick Molly's recovery.>
Both tanks. My tank with the Betta she is solely with guppies and mollies are in their own tank.
<Understood. Regardless, Bettas and Mollies aren't really compatible for the reasons described earlier. Mollies are best kept with Mollies, Mollies, or some other type of Molly. Being slightly flippant there, but their need for relatively warm water, brisk water currents, plant-based diet, hard water chemistry, and realistically, the option to add significant salinity, all make them tricky to house with anything other than fish from similar habitats. Some coastal Killifish species can work, like Florida Flags, and some of the gobies too, Knight Gobies for example, but otherwise Mollies are single-species rather than community tank residents if you want 100% success.>
Thanks again.
<Most welcome. Cheers, Neale.>


Rabbit Fish teeth shed?       11/1/18
Do rabbit fish shed their teeth? I've had this fish for several years, and every now and then it looks like his teeth are shedding in a row... almost like fish dentures? They almost look like a white fake eyelash for women's cosmetics. I can't seem to find anything online about this.
<Hi Valarie, Yes; like all fish, Siganidae shed teeth from time to time. What you described as an "eyelash" is actually its tooth plate.>
Thanks for any info/feedback!
<Welcome. Wil >

Re: Resealing a tank from the 60’s/70’s.       11/1/18
Thank you so much for your help Bob. I'll try the black aquarium sealant.
<Ah good. This is the route I'd go, have gone for a long time. The asphaltous material is a mess... >
I didn't try it before because I was told it wouldn't seal.
<... The same formulation is used to hold glass buildings together>
I'll also look on eBay for the lid to go along with the light I have. Glad I was referred to you. Thank you again, Robin
<Thank you for your follow up message Robin. BobF>

Betta Question; attachment        11/1/18
Hi there. I have a few questions about my Betta fish, which reference the attached picture.
Should I be concerned about
1. the fish's pale color,
2. the clumping at the end of the fins, or
3. the prominent bump near the end of the torso?
<Only the last semi-concerns me>
This fish was dumped off with me about 4 months ago. For about a year+ before then he was kept in a very small, unfiltered fish bowl.
<Ugh!>
He's been moved into a 10 gallon, filtered, and heated tank that's changed about 20% every week. He's become a lot more active and eats regularly. Are any of my concerns warranted?
<Again, not much appears "off" concerning this fish, considering its previous care. I would do nothing in the way of treatment, environmental manipulation>
Thank you so much!
Shannon
<Thank you for sharing; glad to help. Bob Fenner>

Resealing a tank from the 60’s/70’s.     10/30/18
Hello, I was referred to you for a suggestion on how to reseal an older tank with a slate bottom and tar as an sealant.
<Oh yes; I recall... did reseal them w/ heated Pecora et al. and have done so for "retro" purposes in recent years>
I have a 5 gal with the original light the only thing I’m missing is the lid.
<Do seek out on eBay and such>
I would like to reseal the tank and showcase it since it’s special to me. Any suggestions?
<Yes>
Is there a tar base out there that can be used that’s safe for the fish?
<There are... sold as liquid asphaltum>
Ild like to keep it in the original condition instead of removing the slate. Any assistance is greatly appreciated. Thanks, Robin
<I encourage you to "cheat" and just use black Silicone (aquarium sealant). Folks won't be able to see it, and it will much more likely make a good seal (that is if you intend to fill it with water) than trying the tar-based material. Unless you're a big risk taker, I would NOT try heating the present packing material to remove the slate bottom or glass sides. DO read on WWM re such repairs... USE only "Aquarium" intended Silicone/Silastic. Bob Fenner>

Propagating Rock Nems      10/29/18
Bob,
<Hey Tyler>
I'm looking for some feedback on propagating Rock Flower Nems. I heard someone or when we last talked about slicing the mouths of Rose Bubble Tips
and it caused them to split. Would this technique work on Rock Flowers?
<Indeed it will; or I should say, can. Best to cut through both sides of the mouth (bilaterally) to ensure success; AND only do so when you're sure the animal is in very good shape (opening daily; readily accepting food; staying turgid...) AND only do on an every several month basis (like twice a year). Bob Fenner>
--
Tyler Johnson,
President of Addictive Aquaculture LLC,
YouTube Channel:
http://www.youtube.com/cichlidmania26/
Addictive Aquaculture Website:
http://www.addictiveaquaculture.com
Re: Propagating Rock Nems      10/29/18

so let me get this straight start the cut at the corner of each side of the mouth and then all the way through to the outer skirt?
<Yes; through the entire mouth, sideways/long ways, through the body.
SEE/READ on WWM re Iodide-ate use in this procedure. BobF>

Re: FOWLR Stocking Questions      10/29/18
Thanks for the response, Bob. I appreciate the time you and the others take out of your day to help out those of us in need of guidance. I thought I would send a follow up email while the first one is hopefully fresh in your mind.
<Ah, I thank you>
In your comment you said "... in the 65 the Maroons last, in the 72, the Lemon." I had actually indicated that both the Maroons and the Lemon are planned for the 72. Hopefully that doesn't change your response other than possibly the comment regarding the stocking order. Regarding adding a Bubble Tip Anemone (BTA) for the Maroon pair, I had considered it and would like to very much, but I had some concerns about that that perhaps you could address.
<Sorry re the error. Yes to both here, and these being added last of other fish stock. I'd place the Premnas the very last if possible, practical>
I have never kept an anemone and don't want to be the cause of its demise, I wasn't sure if the BTA could be a threat to the non-clownfish, and I was unsure whether the Maroons would become too territorial if they had a BTA.
<These are valid concerns; and no, the/an anemone not necessary here with captive produced clowns>
(Although perhaps that would keep the other fish safely away from the anemone?) By the way, you made my day when you suggested the genus Cirrhilabrus (Fairy). The Fairy Wrasses are some of my favorite fish and this sounds like the perfect excuse to get another one! Thanks again.
David
<Cheers David. BobF>

Mollie needs help PLEASE? Beh., stkg.      10/29/18
So I've had my Dalmatian since May. My favorite of all. My male black Mollie CONSTANTLY harasses her since June.
<Mmm; yes; this is "what they do"; hence the need for stocking more females than males, having decor they can hide, evade each other, space to get away>
She just had fry last week. Since her spine is all bent and keeps swimming weird. I moved her to my other tank (no males just a community Betta and a couple guppies) but is she sick or is this normal?
<Likely normal>
Took black stallion months to even get her pregnant of constant harassment. I don't want to lose her. I can send pic or video if that would help. Thanks in advance.
<Add more females if you have room; more floating plants... perhaps watersprite/Ceratopteris. Bob Fenner>

FOWLR Stocking Questions            10/28/18
Hi WWM crew. I have a 72 gallon bowfront FOWLR tank that currently houses a pair of Ocellaris Clownfish and one Royal Gramma. I need to empty the bowfront tank to repair the center brace and plan to move the fish permanently to a standard three foot 65 gallon tank along with the live rock, sump, and Aqua-C protein skimmer rated for about 135 gallons. I currently have a Flame Angel and a Solorensis Wrasse that I plan to add to that tank also once their quarantine is done in 4 - 6 weeks. To complete the 65 gallon setup, I would like to add either 3 Yellowtail Damsels (Chrysiptera parasema) or 3 Azure Damsels (Chrysiptera hemicyanea). Does this combination of fish work, and would one of those types of Damselfish work better than the other?
<The genus Chrysiptera damsels are faves of mine all the way around, and these two rank about the same in terms of hardiness and temperament. I like the C. parasema for being a bit more colorful here>
Once it is repaired, I want to set up the 72 gallon bowfront FOWLR tank with a pair of tank raised Gold Stripe Maroon Clownfish as the primary inhabitants. I know they can get aggressive and want to determine what other fish I might be able to add. Captive bred fish will be preferred.
<There are several, and growing choices here. Starting with small specimens of (tank bred, reared) Maroons should work out for all. Will you be adding a host anemone as well? I strongly suggest a clone of Entacmaea quadricolor (Bubble-tip) if so. >
This will be a tank set up similarly to the tank above with lots of rock for caves and a similarly sized protein skimmer in a sump. Additional inhabitants I would like to add (in priority order from left to right)
include a Lemonpeel Angel and 1-3 Azure Damselfish or Yellowtail Damselfish, preferably whichever type of Damselfish I didn't select for use in the 65 gallon tank. In addition, I would like to add one or more of the following a.) Flame Hawkfish b.) tank raised Purple or Neon Dottyback, c.) Red Dragonet, or Wrasse of some sort. I know a lot of the fish in "c" are considered "peaceful". Can any of them handle a tank with the other listed inhabitants?
<Yes; particularly a small/er species; let's says of the genus Cirrhilabrus (Fairy) or Halichoeres...>
Prioritizing as mentioned, which ones could I include and still maintain a comfortable stocking level as well as the sanity of both myself and the fish?
<All that you list. Again, start with the lower size range of offered specimens.>
Do you have any other stocking suggestions/alternatives?
<A bunch. Better to have you set upon building this collection slowly... write me/us back as you find other species on offer (rather than trying to adhere to a wish list)>
And of course the inevitable question, "In what order should I add them?"
<Less aggressive species first... in the 65 the Maroons last, in the 72, the Lemon>
Also, would it be possible to add a cleanup crew such as one or two blue or red tuxedo urchins, snails such as Nassarius, Cerith, and Nerite, and a hermit crab for both or either of the tanks above?
<Yes to both. Of course, a cautionary statement re Hermits; look for small, easier-going species; NOT ones that get big, eat all>
Thanks for your help. David
<Thank you for sharing David. Bob Fenner>

Black red fin shark acting weird; need data      10/27/18
My black red. Fin shark has been in the top left corner of the tank for.
Awhile it barely does anything it just floats on its side moving its tail and it's depressing is there something wrong with it?
<Might be. What other livestock is here? Am wondering if another fish is hassling your minnow shark.
Is the fish eating? This is a good clue. Do you have sufficient decor for it to feel comfortable? How long have you had it? Do take care to make sure the tank top is covered as these fish are great "jumpers".
Bob Fenner>

Calendar     10/27/18
Good morning Bob. Here is a November calendar for WetWebMedia.
Cheers,
Mike
<Thanks Mike. Will post... as usual!>

 

Hydrogen peroxide; use for BGA control      10/27/18
Good afternoon Bob.
<Hey John>
Hope all is well. I’d like your input on the method of treating Cyano with HP. First, I completely understand the importance of addressing the root cause of the problem.
<Ah yes; good>
I’m working on it. However, in the mean time I would like to know if HP is a safe and effective way to deal with the outbreak.
<Can be... a "cheap" one-shot way to raise RedOx... of all things was just chatting this (H2O2 use for diminishing BGA last night w/ friend JoyB at the SDMA club meeting!>
My tank is 750 gallons with a sump holding approx 60-70 additional gallons. I keep mostly sps. I do have some lps as well as a extra large Devi’s hand and toadstool. Several fish as well. Do you support dosing peroxide 3% in a mixed reef?
<Again; at times, yes. IS your Cyano "that bad"? You have tried other means? Best are increasing circulation, Ozone, UV... diminishing nutrient influx, increasing removal like w/ the use of GAC...>
If so, could you please advise on how many ml per gallon and the frequency of dosing?
<A guess that works out often is 1 ml. per ten actual gallons of system water (deduct for decor, substrate...) of 3% solution. Some folks continue to add... about half a dose in AMs, PMs...>
As always I appreciate your expertise.
Thank you,
John
<Best done in conjunction with an ORP meter; keeping the reading under 400 micro-siemens/cm. Bob Fenner>

Re: Exophthalmia/Pop-Eye      10/26/18
Thanks Bob, for the quick reply. Yes, it is unilateral. And it was of course the nitrates (not nitrites) that are at 20!
<Ah yes; assumed>
I’ve always kept the Moorish Idols, the last two in Australia I had for 4 years before we left for South Africa. I collect sponge from the rock pools every now and then…
<Ahh! >
Wishing you a good day further,
Kind regards,
Jana Maddock
<And you Jana. BobF>

Re: peacock guppy question to Bob( copy/paste from fb)      10/26/18
Thanks again Bob. I have no idea the exact amount of total water amount, including the water in the filter.
But I am pretty sure, the little pond at my parent's place definitely have at least 1,000 gallon....at least 800 gallons for sure.
<I see; would add a dozen or so; rely on reproduction to increase the population>
anyway...one corner have a pile of rocks that they can hide. I guess I can take a picture or two to show you in the morning.
oh...speaking of mosquitoes.....sometime we catch some out and put in containers we use for plants that roots can sit in water to eat mosquitoes eggs or at least before they get out of the water and become blood suckers.
<I used to raise them when much younger... blending in a few teaspoons of milk to attract>
OK.....not sure why that pet store guy says that...maybe he didn't feed the koi? hahaha I will give platies a try and see what happen and I will make sure there are more females then males...and see what happen
thanks again....well things sure gets interesting between USA and China...Taiwan kind stuck in the middle between 2 giants.
take care, Bob.
George
<Thank you George. Neighbors are from the R.O.C.... and my olde grad. advisor. Interesting times for sure. B>
Re: peacock guppy question to Bob( copy/paste from fb)      10/26/18

Thanks again, Bob. Milk to attract what? Mosquitos?
<Ah yes; sour milk/water attracts them to lay eggs>
for fish to eat?
<Yes the larvae>
I think I heard someone says soapy water works too, because the fragrance or something...don't remember if there are other stuff was added with it...but of course we don't want to feed the fish dish soap.
<Never heard, read re soap use>
But that recipe was more for get rid of the mosquito within the room, so they don't bite you. But for those mosquitoes one can see....I do use the zapper power by rechargeable battery shape like tennis/badminton racquet to go after those in the room, or when they fly near by trying to find a sweet spot to stick their needle in.
<Yikes!>
well there are plenty mosquitoes want my blood when I go out to the little back yard. Whenever I am in the backyard and kill mosquito when I found them land on me, I always try to drop the corpse in the pond or the tank (because due to its age, water can't fill all the way to the top...will leak) we have on the patio...anyway ..so the guppies can eat the dead mosquito. They seem to enjoy the occasional treat....but hopefully they don't enjoy my blood came with the mosquito too much...hahaha
thanks again...George
<Cheers! B>

Re: peacock guppy question to Bob (copy/paste from fb); pond use       10/25/18
Hey, bob, thanks again for helping like always. I miss San Diego and the reef tank days.
<Come on back... at least visit!>
ok...last time I asked about what I can put in my dad's koi pond and you guys suggested the platies. I asked one of the local fish store here in Taiwan. He doesn't think Platies will cut it.
<Mmm; why? They are tougher than Poecilia spp. for sure. Wider tolerance to cold, water quality range...>
He says Koi will eat them and only reason guppies is ok is that they are meaner. Any truth to that?
<Meaner? Nah>
I am pretty sure I was pointed at the platies when I ask the question.
any thoughts?
<Am a giant fan of Platies... for their hardiness, beauty, utility in ponds... otherwise for mosquito abatement et al. Heterandria formosa (I raise), Gambusia species... will work in many pond settings>
so will platies like the peacock fancy guppies loose their color as they breed among them self?
<Very slowly; several generations... and one can always add a bit more genotype over time>
I can't find at this moment but I know you told me in one of the msg about having more female fishes??
what's the female/male ratio? half half....or as long as more females then males??
<More females are better, unless the pond is VERY large (thousands of gallons)>
thanks again Bob.
sincerely,
George
<Welcome George. Bob Fenner>

Exophthalmia/Pop-Eye      10/25/18
Hi there,
I wonder if you can help with a question regarding pop-Eye. I acquired a Moorish Idol about 5 months ago, and while he was in quarantine, go through the tank transfer method, he developed a fairly large pop-eye.
<One-sided? Do READ on WWM re... most all unilateral... are due to physical traumas. A Zanclus kept for months is testimony to your good care>
This would get a bit better and then flair up again, but once he settled in the DT, it remained constant. The eye is not cloudy, but it rather looks as if there is a gas bubble behind it.
<That or fluid... yes; does happen; and hard to "remedy">
No other fish in the tank have ever had pop-eye and the Moorish Idol is not being bullied by any other fish. He is healthy looking with no other symptoms, can clearly see the incoming food,(not sure whether with both eyes…), behaves normal and eats well and everything he can get. All water parameters are within a good range, with nitrites sitting around 20. There is no other disease in the DT either.
My question is, should I at some stage treat the fish? Will the pop-eye go eventually away or can it be that it has become a permanent condition after 5 months?
<I would not treat, will not likely go away in any time frame.>
As always, I appreciate your expertise and help,
Kind regards,
Jana Maddock
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Help please; GF... damage, infection
Hi Support team, You might be able to help me save my Oranda.
About a week ago I noticed an unusual wound on my lionhead Oranda, it is right at the end of its spine were the tail starts. The wound is about 8mm in diameter and about 3 mm deep.
It is eating well, and hasn't changed behaviour, but I believe he is suffering. I have attached a few pictures of it to this email for your reference. I would really appreciate it if you could help me to save my Oranda.
Regards
Rahim
<I do wonder what caused this damage initially Rahim? A physical trauma?
The issue now appears to be bacterial and so I suggest: #1, checking your water quality and gear to keep it up: your water should be at least slightly alkaline, have moderate hardness and a lack of ammonia, nitrite and no more than 20 ppm of nitrate; CLEAN your filters and filter media. 2) Administer an antibiotic; can you get Kanamycin where you are? If not eSHa 2000 product. Given good, clean water and time your Oranda should recover; though the missing fin area looks like it is too far gone to regenerate. Bob Fenner>

Re: Ember tetra pathogen     10/23/18
Thank you for your response! Looking forward to hearing more. I have attached higher resolution images this time. Hope that’s ok. Also wanted to point out that the bush fish is a Microctenopoma ansorgii. I wasn’t sure if the proper genus for this one was Microctenopoma or Ctenopoma.
<The former; and yes, I did see that it is this small species (to about 2") that you have. Even little, they do have large mouths and as you noted, are given to predatory behavior>
Sorry for any confusion on that point. First and second images are zoomed in, I think to 200x, from two of the previous images. The others are just higher resolution of previous images.
Amber
<Let's still wait on Neale's independent response. I am presently given to think the round objects may be eggs, the damage, losses here due to trauma. BobF>
Ember tetra pathogen     /Neale     10/23/18

Dear Crew,
<Amber,>
I am hoping you can help me to diagnose what I believe to be a disease slowly killing off my ember tetras. I am wondering if it is Pleistophora, but all of the symptoms don't quite seem to match up with that. Anyway, before I get into it, here are the basics of the tank.
<It may be Pleistophora, but this is indistinguishable from bacterial infections such as Flavobacterium infections. So to some degree you need to keep an open mind, even where Neon Tetra Disease seems likely.>
Planted 29g with Aqueon20 filter (with additional/better filtration media) and sponge filtration, kept at 78-80 degrees F. Water parameters are good and I do ~30% water changes once per week (sometimes it goes 2 weeks). I use soft, slightly acidic tap water that I treat with Seachem Prime. I have occasionally dosed the tank with Flourish Excel but generally don't add anything to the water except Prime for conditioning during water changes.
This tank has been set up for around 7 months.
The tank is currently stocked with:
9 ember tetras
3 Otocinclus
6 hockystick Pencilfish
1 (Micro)Ctenopoma ansorgii
<Nice fish!>
2 gold rams
1 large amano shrimp
1 Nerite snail
I feed 1-2x per day. Most days they get a bit of Nutrafin Basix Staple Food and Nutrafin Bug Bites Cichlid Formula. Around 1-2x per week I feed them Hikari frozen brine shrimp and I also add about 1/2 of a Hikari algae wafer a few times per week (though I don't think the embers get much of that).
Over the past 7 months they have gotten Hikari frozen blood worms maybe 6x and freeze-dried blood worms maybe 20x (though they haven't gotten any blood worms in the past probably 1-2 months).
<All sounds fine.>
The first fish I added to the tank were a few embers. Since then, I have added a few more, as well as the other listed occupants (more or less in the above listed order). Over the course of the past 7 months, I have lost 3 ember tetras but I have had no other illness or suspicious deaths in this tank (one ram got wedged and died behind the intake sponge on my HOB). I blamed the first ember death on stress or injury related to transfer between tanks. A few months later, I found another ember dead in the tank.
Everyone else seemed healthy, so I convinced myself this was just another 'fluke' death (pardon the pun). I was hoping there was no disease problem in my tank but these losses made me suspicious, so I have been keeping a close eye on it. I lost the third ember about 2 weeks ago.
<At this point I'd just give up with Ember Tetras for the time being. It might be that something about the tank, the water, or your maintenance regime isn't appropriate to the species. It might also be a 'bad batch' of them, and if you wait six months, or find another retailer, you might do better.>
It started when I noticed that the stomach on one of my embers looked slightly misshapen, distended, and her organs seemed darker in colour than the other embers. I wasn't sure if I was imagining things. The next day, she looked worse. The bulge on her stomach was larger and was sliiighly fuzzy and whitish at the apex. It looked to me like some sort of internal problem was finally pushing its way through her skin. She was swimming around normally - and I assume eating - with the other fish. I decided she was going into quarantine. After chasing her around the tank for awhile, I finally caught her in a net, BUT when I first caught her, she was pinned against the glass a little bit. I was VERY gentle but apparently this pinning, or just the act of scooping her into a net, was enough to rupture the bulge in her stomach. I could not find whatever had ruptured out of her. I put her into a glass jar and expected her to die pretty quickly - she had a gaping hole in her stomach cavity. She continued to live for probably an hour or two before I euthanized her. Thinking back on the previous deaths, I am convinced there is a pattern here. All three had something funny going on with their stomachs. I don't remember many details
from the first 2 deaths other than some fuzziness/tissue damage to the stomach area and dark areas inside the stomach cavity. I have done some searching on WWM and what I am experiencing sounds VERY similar to the posted email 'Mystery ember tetra illness' from Lea on 8/25/12.
<You might try deworming, using something like Prazi Pro.>
I am hoping you can help me figure out what is going on. I didn't get any pictures with this ember's stomach intact, but I took some after she died (first pic attached). I stored her in the fridge overnight and looked at her under a microscope the next day. Since I lost the majority of the 'growth', I wasn't sure what I would find, but I believe I have some images of whatever this pathogen is. The scale bars didn't export properly with the images when I saved them however, they are at 100x-200x magnification and the images have not been cropped, just resized.
<Nice pictures!>
The first microscope image is wet-mounted without a cover slip. The focus is poor but this pic lets you see how spherical the objects are, as well as the black 'filaments' covering their surfaces. The second microscope image is of a cluster of similar objects wet-mounted between slides. Prior to squishing them, they were spherical and clustered together kind of like grapes. These ones did not have the back material surrounding them as some others did. If you zoom in, you can see how some of these spheres seem to be dividing.
<Does sound like some sort of protozoan parasite. If that's the case, something along the lines of Metronidazole would be the better bet.
Together with an antibiotic such as a Nitrofuran, this combo tends to cover a wide range of non-worm parasites.>
The third microscope image is of the black speck that is visible toward the tail of the tetra in the first image. It was hard to tell if this speck was embedded in the muscle tissue or just pushed toward the far end of the gut cavity. I dissected it out of the fish and wet mounted it. Prior to mounting, it seemed spherical and was completely covered in the same back filaments as some of the other objects were. It easily squished flat between slides, it was not hard or difficult to flatten. I think this image might have been zoomed in a bit more than the others, but this object was noticeably larger than the others. I have several more images if you would like to see them. I just didn't want to bog down your server with all of
them at once. I scaled down the attached images as much as I could. Please let me know if the resolution is too low.
<They're fine.>
I would also like to note that my Ctenopoma likes to sneak up on the embers and Pencilfish occasionally and bite their tails, but they seem to recover from these bites very quickly. I am working on an alternate housing solution for my Ctenopoma (I really don't want to give him away - he's such a character) I realize that the tail nipping may be exacerbating the situation with the gut pathogen but I don't think the two are directly related. Just wanted to share this as a further detail.
<Microctenopoma ansorgii is a lovely fish, and has a fair sized appetite, so maybe offer a little more food? Should be fine with robust tetras, though Embers are probably a bit small.>
I am not sure how or with what I should treat this tank. I have posted to fish lore and got some educated suggestions. I have also talked to Andrea at Aquarium101 (my local fish store) and she recommended that I contact you for advice. She said you have been amazing help with their Flowerhorn, Jiana, and her swim bladder illness. I am dying to know what this pathogen is and if there is anything I can do to treat it. Also, if it is likely to spread to the other species in my tank. So far suggestions have been
Praziquantel and Metronidazole, both of which I have but I have not treated the tank with either yet. I would very much appreciate your expert feedback.
<Either or even both worth a shot. Metronidazole would be my first choice though.>
Thank you very much,
Amber
<Cheers, Neale.>

Just to say Thanks!      10/23/18
I contacted you all months ago as a newbie aquarium hobbyist with a couple questions, but I had many more that I could find answers to on your site.
I just wanted to thank you all for keeping this site and also for giving me specific answers to my questions.
<Ahh!>
My tank is up and running beautifully, with very little maintenance. I have a sand bottom (play sand that I rinsed about 20 times). You can see the pic with everything in it (I went with two aerators), but my numbers are always perfect - I tried not to overpopulate with fish, and, by using the info on your site I can go for two weeks and only have to do a partial change. No algae, no scum. Just (what appears to be.) happy fish! .and shrimp, and the one Pleco (had a pair but one I gave away - didn't want offspring and they appeared to be "getting it on" inside the cholla!).
Thanks, Neale and Bob and the rest of you guys and gals!
BTW, my Betta's name is . Boris. As in, Boris Bettanov. J (Anyone ever watch Moose and Squirrel?)
<Oh yes; and thank you for your upbeat note Barbara. BobF>

Ember tetra pathogen     10/22/18
Dear Crew,
<Amber>
I am hoping you can help me to diagnose what I believe to be a disease slowly killing off my ember tetras. I am wondering if it is Pleistophora, but all of the symptoms don't quite seem to match up with that. Anyway, before I get into it, here are the basics of the tank.
Planted 29g with Aqueon20 filter (with additional/better filtration media) and sponge filtration, kept at 78-80 degrees F. Water parameters are good and I do ~30% water changes once per week (sometimes it goes 2 weeks). I use soft, slightly acidic tap water that I treat with Seachem Prime. I have occasionally dosed the tank with Flourish Excel but generally don't add anything to the water except Prime for conditioning during water changes.
This tank has been set up for around 7 months.
The tank is currently stocked with:
9 ember tetras
3 Otocinclus
6 hockey stick Pencilfish
1 (Micro)Ctenopoma ansorgii
2 gold rams
1 large Amano shrimp
1 Nerite snail
I feed 1-2x per day. Most days they get a bit of Nutrafin Basix Staple Food and Nutrafin Bug Bites Cichlid Formula. Around 1-2x per week I feed them Hikari frozen brine shrimp and I also add about 1/2 of a Hikari algae wafer a few times per week (though I don't think the embers get much of that).
Over the past 7 months they have gotten Hikari frozen blood worms maybe 6x and freeze-dried blood worms maybe 20x (though they haven't gotten any blood worms in the past probably 1-2 months).
<Good>
The first fish I added to the tank were a few embers. Since then, I have added a few more, as well as the other listed occupants (more or less in the above listed order). Over the course of the past 7 months, I have lost 3 ember tetras but I have had no other illness or suspicious deaths in this tank (one ram got wedged and died behind the intake sponge on my HOB). I blamed the first ember death on stress or injury related to transfer between tanks. A few months later, I found another ember dead in the tank.
Everyone else seemed healthy, so I convinced myself this was just another 'fluke' death (pardon the pun). I was hoping there was no disease problem in my tank but these losses made me suspicious, so I have been keeping a close eye on it. I lost the third ember about 2 weeks ago. It started when I noticed that the stomach on one of my embers looked slightly misshapen, distended, and her organs seemed darker in colour than the other embers. I wasn't sure if I was imagining things. The next day, she looked worse. The bulge on her stomach was larger and was sliiighly fuzzy and whitish at the apex. It looked to me like some sort of internal problem was finally pushing its way through her skin. She was swimming around normally - and I assume eating - with the other fish. I decided she was going into quarantine. After chasing her around the tank for awhile, I finally caught her in a net, BUT when I first caught her, she was pinned against the glass a little bit. I was VERY gentle but apparently this pinning, or just the act of scooping her into a net, was enough to rupture the bulge in her stomach. I could not find whatever had ruptured out of her. I put her into a glass jar and expected her to die pretty quickly - she had a gaping hole in her stomach cavity. She continued to live for probably an hour or two before I euthanized her. Thinking back on the previous deaths, I am convinced there is a pattern here. All three had something funny going on with their stomachs. I don't remember many details from the first 2 deaths
other than some fuzziness/tissue damage to the stomach area and dark areas inside the stomach cavity. I have done some searching on WWM and what I am experiencing sounds VERY similar to the posted email 'Mystery ember tetra illness' from Lea on 8/25/12.
I am hoping you can help me figure out what is going on. I didn't get any pictures with this ember's stomach intact, but I took some after she died (first pic attached). I stored her in the fridge overnight and looked at her under a microscope the next day. Since I lost the majority of the 'growth', I wasn't sure what I would find, but I believe I have some images of whatever this pathogen is. The scale bars didn't export properly with the images when I saved them however, they are at 100x-200x magnification
and the images have not been cropped, just resized.
<Thank you for this useful info>
The first microscope image is wet-mounted without a cover slip. The focus is poor but this pic lets you see how spherical the objects are, as well as the black 'filaments' covering their surfaces. The second microscope image is of a cluster of similar objects wet-mounted between slides. Prior to squishing them, they were spherical and clustered together kind of like grapes. These ones did not have the back material surrounding them as some others did. If you zoom in, you can see how some of these spheres seem to be dividing. The third microscope image is of the black speck that is visible toward the tail of the tetra in the first image. It was hard to tell if this speck was embedded in the muscle tissue or just pushed toward the far end of the gut cavity. I dissected it out of the fish and wet mounted it. Prior to mounting, it seemed spherical and was completely covered in the same back filaments as some of the other objects were. It easily squished flat between slides, it was not hard or difficult to flatten. I think this image might have been zoomed in a bit more than the others, but this object was noticeably larger than the others. I have several more images if you would like to see them. I just didn't want to bog down your server with all of them at once. I scaled down the attached images as much as I could. Please let me know if the resolution is too low.
<A more highly resolved image would be useful>
I would also like to note that my Ctenopoma likes to sneak up on the embers and Pencilfish occasionally and bite their tails, but they seem to recover from these bites very quickly. I am working on an alternate housing solution for my Ctenopoma (I really don't want to give him away - he's such a character) I realize that the tail nipping may be exacerbating the situation with the gut pathogen but I don't think the two are directly related. Just wanted to share this as a further detail.
<African Leaffish, Ctenopoma species, will eat/inhale small-enough fishes>
I am not sure how or with what I should treat this tank. I have posted to fish lore and got some educated suggestions. I have also talked to Andrea at Aquarium101 (my local fish store) and she recommended that I contact you for advice. She said you have been amazing help with their Flowerhorn, Jiana, and her swim bladder illness.
I am dying to know what this pathogen is and if there is anything I can do to treat it. Also, if it is likely to spread to the other species in my tank. So far suggestions have been Praziquantel and Metronidazole, both of which I have but I have not treated the tank with either yet. I would very much appreciate your expert feedback.
Thank you very much,
Amber
<Have some ideas... but am going to ask Neale Monks here to respond first. Bob Fenner>

Undecided about how to treat further      10/21/18
Hi crew!
I originally added 7 peppered Corydoras to a filtered and cycled quarantine tank. They have been in there for almost two weeks (I plan on quarantining for 4 weeks).
I purchased them from a local chain fish store. They told me that they had been treated with Quick Cure for about a day while in display tank.
My tank parameters are 0 ppm ammonia and nitrite, 5 ppm nitrate, pH 6.8, temp 76°F, Aquaclear filter and airstone, sand substrate, driftwood and wood stone.
I lost two Corys the second day after I added them to my quarantine tank. I did carefully acclimate them and they didn't seem stressed afterwards. I don't normally add medication to the tank unless I notice a problem. The second morning one of the Corys had severe pop eye in both eyes. Eyes were not cloudy but were severely swollen, one eye had actually ruptured. A second Cory had mild pop eye in both eyes and a third was on its side breathing rapidly (no pop eye). The Cory with the severe pop eye died that morning as did the one on its side with respiratory issues. I did a small 15% water change (parameters were normal) and dosed the tank with Kanaplex. I did a full three dose course of Kanaplex, then 48 hours after the last dose did another water change (25%) and have basically just been observing for further symptoms. The Cory with the mild case of pop eye recovered completely and up until today everyone has been eating and acting normal. I did have one that was away from the group quite a bit and not as active but still coming out to eat.
This evening when I got home, one of my Corys (I believe the less robust Cory) was basically floating near the surface; still alive, he will swim a bit when nudged, but not looking well. No sign of hemorrhage under skin, body normal with good slime coat, fins and barbels normal, respiration normal but extremely lethargic and just floating at surface. Upon inspection he looks perfectly normal. The remaining 4 Corys are eating and acting normal.
I do have Metroplex on hand as well as General Cure. Do you think I should try adding Metroplex to the water column or food? I do a water change every 5 days (tomorrow is 5th day) but even though I match pH and hardness and temp, I'm afraid a water change will push the sick Cory over the edge. Although the antibiotic appeared to resolve the original problem, I don't want to repeatedly dose the tank. I'm wondering if there could be an underlying parasitic problem (gill fluke?). None of the Corys look emaciated and even the sickly one has a normally rounded belly. Any suggestions?
Thanks crew!
Sue
<Hello Sue. One possibility is your Corydoras have been struck by something called 'Red Blotch Disease', likely similar to your standard issue Aeromonas and Pseudomonas infections that cause Finrot. It seems to be related to the stress caused by shortcomings in the environment, so rather than catchy per se, it's something several catfish might exhibit because they've all been stressed. When Red Blotch Disease was first described, it was usually associated with imported catfish that had been shipped in less that perfect conditions or held in overstocked tanks. Today you're most likely to see farmed or tank-bred Corydoras, but it's still possible for catfish to be kept in ways that cause them stress. Now, while the problem is bacterial, if the underlying triggering factors in the environment aren't fixed, antibiotics won't help. So while something like Tetracycline or Minocycline should help, let's recap the fundamentals. Almost all Corydoras prefer cooler water with plenty of oxygen -- exceptions including Corydoras sterbai and the Brochis species -- but certainly your common species like Bronze, Peppered, Panda, and Leopard Corydoras will all be best kept between 22-25 C/72-77 F. Another key thing is that the substrate should be both clean and soft. What I mean here is that the surface should be regularly siphoned to remove organic muck, with the top 1 cm or so being stirred beforehand to remove anything buried inside it. The substrate should be soft sand, smooth silica sand being ideal. Sharp sand and coarse gravel abrade catfish as they try to dig, making Red Blotch Disease more probable. One sign the substrate is 'wrong' is to look at the whiskers -- if they're short and rounded, then the gravel or sand is too sharp or too dirty. Since your catfish are newly bought, the problems might have been in the retailer's tank. That being the case, a clean tank plus suitable antibiotic should fix things if that's possible. I wouldn't randomly treat for flukes, worms or some other type of parasite because the symptoms sound so generic that an opportunistic bacterial infection strikes me as more likely. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Undecided about how to treat further      10/21/18
Thanks Neale.
<You're welcome.>
I did lose the one Cory who was hanging out at the surface. Barbels and fins look good on remaining Corys.
<A good sign.>
The survivors are eating and acting normal.
<Likewise.>
I'm doing small water changes every few days.
<Wise.>
My substrate is sand and temp is around 76°F.
<Might lower the temperature a bit, certainly if these are Peppered Corydoras or one of the other cooler clime species. 22-24 C/72-75 F is probably optimal for most Corydoras, even if they tolerate water that's a little warmer. Certainly, adding extra oxygen can help, especially if your specimens are making frequent dashes to the surface for air -- a good sign the catfish are either heat-stressed or the bottom layer of water is oxygen poor.>
I think I have good surface agitation with AquaClear HOB and additional air stone.
<Good.>
You observation that it's stress related is the most likely cause of my losses. The LFS transfers them directly from shipping box to display tank and I found out that I had picked them up the same day that they came in. Poor fish!
<Ah, yes, this sounds like a bad situation.>
The remaining 4 (I lost three) are looking good and eating. I'll continue to keep their environment clean and stress free and keep my fingers crossed.
<Most Corydoras species are reasonably hardy, and some, like Peppered and Bronze Corydoras, a fair degree tougher than that. Good conditions, and perhaps suitable antibiotics, should help, given time enough for the fish to feed up and put on weight. Good luck! Neale.>

Female white molly lost activeness      10/21/18
I'm watching her for 3 to 4 days she lost her activeness. Then I think she is pregnant but here you can see a pic one green spot reflecting from her body.
<... Mollies are perennially (always) pregnant to degrees... What re your water quality? This fish/species needs hard, alkaline water, a modicum of salt... no ammonia or nitrite. I would not be especially, directly
concerned re this green spot. DO read on WWM:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/mollies.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Re: Female white molly lost activeness      10/21/18

Please help me out to make my white molly more healthy.
<Read on! BobF>


Re: some mudskipper questions      10/21/18
The tank is finished, I put in 4 Periophthalmus novemradiatus, I plan to get some Clithon snails for the water part at a fair that is happening in 2 months.
<Cool.>
Other than that I want to set up some live food cultures, do you have any suggestions?
<Only that there's no real need. Mudskippers feed on a range of foods, and will do very well on flake and frozen foods smeared on the sand or rocks.
River shrimp could be offered of course, and flies such as wingless Drosophila and even Houseflies will be readily taken while they're foraging on the land.>
And I wonder if Artemia nauplii are too small as food.
<Probably, yes, because Mudskippers aren't very effective hunters in the water. It's better to offer them terrestrial prey, such as small insects.
Cheers, Neale.>

Dendro Heads Separating      10/21/18
Hello WWM, Recently a handful of my Dendro frags have grown multiple heads.
I have noticed the tissue has been receding between the heads on all the frags. Other than the tissue receding the heads look good with full tentacle extension and eating normally. Is the tissue receding a normal characteristic when multiple heads grow?
<Not really... something is likely lacking; insufficient. Do you feed your stony corals? Light in balance? Enough alkaline earths in proportion, alkalinity....? A good clue might well be what else you have in the system that is doing well. Bob Fenner>
Eric

Goldfish growth     10/18/18
<Have to delete your msg. as you've crashed our mail server. See our file size requirements>
My goldfish (Ronald) has a weird bump on his side. I've had him for about a year and it just recently developed (first noticed maybe a month ago) It started out small but it is getting bigger. And now it looks like he might be getting another one. I cannot figure out what it is, nothing really seems to match perfectly. If there is any change you might know? I would hate for him to be sick and require treatment he's not getting. He is acting perfectly normal otherwise.
Thanks,
Brittany

Question Regarding African Clawed Frogs     10/18/18
Hi there, I was wondering if there are any sorts of diseases/bacteria/etc. that are transmissible from ACFs to humans.
<As with any aquatic pet, the most common transferrable diseases are Salmonella-type food poisonings. Not from the animal itself, but from decomposing organic matter around the aquarium. Touch the tank, touch your mouth, and boom, the bacteria can get inside you. Of course most people are fine and never experience a problem, it's a good habit to treat an aquarium as you'd treat raw meat, and after handling, wash your hands accordingly.>
About a week and a half ago, I ended up having some frog water splash into my eye, not a huge amount, but enough that I decided to rinse the eye out with eye wash once I had finished with the water change. Around 4 days ago my eye started becoming very bloodshot and hasn't cleared up so far. Maybe I just hit my eye in my sleep and didn't notice or something but just in case, it'd be nice to know if there's anything in particular to keep an eye on. Thanks.
<Unlikely to be anything serious, but if bacteria-laded water or organic material gets in the eye, it can trigger conjunctivitis. No different to when you get soil in your eye, or anything else not completely clean. Best to consult your GP or an optician, who'll likely suggest the use of some sort of antibacterial eye drop. Cheers, Neale.>

Undecided about how to treat further     10/18/18
Hi crew!
I originally added 7 peppered Corydoras to a filtered and cycled quarantine tank. They have been in there for almost two weeks (I plan on quarantining for 4 weeks).
I purchased them from a local chain fish store. They told me that they had been treated with Quick Cure for about a day while in display tank.
<Mmm; the ingredients are too harsh (formalin, Malachite Green) for Corydoras, most catfishes>
My tank parameters are 0 ppm ammonia and nitrite, 5 ppm nitrate, pH 6.8, temp 76°F, Aquaclear filter and airstone, sand substrate, driftwood and wood stone.
<Sounds good>
I lost two corys the second day after I added them to my quarantine tank. I did carefully acclimate them and they didn't seem stressed afterwards. I don't normally add medication to the tank unless I notice a problem. The second morning one of the corys had severe pop eye in both eyes. Eyes were not cloudy but were severely swollen, one eye had actually ruptured.
<?! What happened here? Something/s very wrong... too much difference twixt the waters? The fish too long in the bag, overheated...? Some source of overt poisoning? I'd removed the driftwood, add activated carbon to your filtration>
A second Cory had mild pop eye in both eyes and a third was on its side breathing rapidly (no pop eye). The Cory with the severe pop eye died that morning as did the one on its side with respiratory issues. I did a small 15% water change (parameters were normal) and dosed the tank with Kanaplex. I did a full three dose course of Kanaplex, then 48 hours after the last dose did another water change (25%) and have basically just been observing for further symptoms. The Cory with the mild case of pop eye recovered completely and up until today everyone has been eating and acting normal. I did have one that was away from the group quite a bit and not as active but still coming out to eat.
This evening when I got home, one of my corys (I believe the less robust Cory) was basically floating near the surface; still alive, he will swim a bit when nudged, but not looking well. No sign of hemorrhage under skin, body normal with good slime coat, fins and barbels normal, respiration normal but extremely lethargic and just floating at surface. Upon inspection he looks perfectly normal. The remaining 4 corys are eating and acting normal.
I do have Metroplex on hand as well as General Cure. Do you think I should try adding Metroplex to the water column or food?
<I would not. Metronidazole has specific uses. Unless you/I can detect the organisms involved (if any; which considering the rapid onset...) I would not treat>
I do a water change every 5 days (tomorrow is 5th day) but even though I match pH and hardness and temp, I'm afraid a water change will push the sick Cory over the edge. Although the antibiotic appeared to resolve the original problem, I don't want to repeatedly dose the tank. I'm wondering if there could be an underlying parasitic problem (gill fluke?). None of the corys look emaciated and even the sickly one has a normally rounded belly. Any suggestions?
Thanks crew!
Sue
<Corydoras paleatus is a hugely aquacultured species of long use; quite labile in its placement, range of conditions. Again, I suspect either trauma or toxicity at fault here. Would just remove the driftwood, add carbon... Bob Fenner>

Re: Possible Betta Tumor?
Thank you for confirming what I thought - I really appreciate it!
<Welcome.>
Even when you think you know then knowing that you can’t do any more is reassuring and to be fair most vets look puzzled when I ask them so it’s really really appreciated. And thank you for all the fish guides! When I first got my boys they were immensely helpful as I hadn’t had Bettas for about 15 years and frankly I probably could have created better conditions for them last time compared to the mansions they have these days ��.
Have a lovely evening!
Tinx
<Wow! Thanks for these kinds words, and taking the time to write us. We do appreciate that. Hopefully your Betta will live a happy life, if not perhaps quite as long as it might have otherwise been. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Marine Velvet Dormancy
Thank You Wil!
<You´re welcome Anik!>
Love your teams’ advice. It definitely helps to quell much of my on going paranoia.
< Hahaha....there´s no need to be paranoid! just make wise, on impulsive decisions...we are glad to be helpful…>
I’m secure and confident in my overall QT scheme and don’t plan on adding anymore fish in the future...until I upgrade which is a near term possibility.
<That´s good to know>
Yes the Naso will get a larger home, gladly he’s only 2 inches right now.
<Yes, you still have time to plan the upgrading >
I won’t move the fish then. Thanks again for your advice!
Have a great night.
<Have a great night too!>
Anik
<Wil.>

Press Release - Canadian Lake Okanagan Freshwater Mysis Shrimp Cubes      10/16/18
Attached – please include in next issue or post
Chris Clevers
President/COO
Hikari Sales USA, Inc.
Offering Hikari®, Bio-Pure®, Bio-Pure® FD, Aquarium Solutions®, Pond Solutions®, Reptile Solutions® & Takara Products
2804 McCone Avenue
Hayward, CA 94545-1663
www.hikariusa.com<http://www.hikariusa.com/>

Possible Betta Tumor?      10/16/18
Hi guys
<Hello,>
I’ve been reading your page for a while and have managed to so far keep my three beloved Bettas happy and content... a few months ago one of my boys however started developing a black growth as you can see in the photo that is definitely getting bigger...
I don’t know if this is a tumor or something treatable?
<Almost certainly not.>
He seems active and just as daft as always and the tank is testing normal, regular changes and weekly tests etc all as they should be...
Is there anything I can treat him with or is it just a matter of letting him carry on until his quality of life reduces and then letting him pass quickly?
<Precisely. Tumours and other sorts of growths, whether benign or malignant, are not uncommon in Bettas. There's no obvious explanation beyond inbreeding, and certainly no clear treatment. Often benign tumours cause no immediate problems, and if your Betta is otherwise happy, I would not be overly concerned just yet. Cheers, Neale.>

GF ish, no data, reading...       10/16/18
Any ideas what is wrong with this fish? Dark spots and hanging out at the bottom.
<Mmm; appears to be septicemic... burnt... Water quality issue? What's your test kits readings telling you? What re set up, maintenance, foods, feeding? Have you read re on WWM? Do so. Bob Fenner>

Marine Velvet Dormancy      10/16/18
Hello Bob and Team!
<Hello Anik, Wil this morning>
Hope you are doing well. Like any reefer, I’m constantly reading about preventing any disasters.
<Like any good/responsible reefer!>
The topic of my paranoia this week is Marine Velvet. Some facts about my setup: my display tank is 100G mixed reef; shows no signs of marine Velvet and never has. There’s been a sign of ich once, which made itself visible on bullied fish but that cleared up on its own and everything has been clear since. Btw I QT everything, and medicate every new fish with PraziPro and Cupramine and observe after.
<Quarantine is fine but there´s no need to medicate if fish are not sick, treating healthy fish just makes any pathogen more resistant to medications and this could be a problem in the future if fish happens to get sick.>
Typically I QT for 3-4 months.
<4-5 weeks is more than enough>
The one time I didn’t was when I added a mandarin to my DT, no QT :(.
Current roster, two ocellaris clowns, male Anthias, melanurus wrasse, yellow Coris, yellow flanked fairy wrasse, flame angle and tiny blonde Naso.
<I hope you are aware that the Naso tang will need a bigger tank (a few to several hundred gallons) to have a long, healthy life.>
Anyways, questions; is it possible to have marine Velvet present in a tank but kept at bay from infestation by keeping water parameters in check and general conditions clean/healthy/happy to hold the velvet in check?
<Actually that is how it works; velvet as well as other diseases are always present in the system water but with good maintenance and feeding practices, you can keep them away of your livestock indefinitely.>
What I am getting at is can a fish have velvet for months and not be symptomatic until something triggers it?
<As I mentioned, disease is always present but only attacks your fish if its immune system is compromised.>
Depending on your answer, I may go against your advice from a few months ago regarding Ick in the DT (referring to that one fish mentioned above); I may just move all my fish to QT and treat them and run the tank fallow out of straight paranoia.
<I don´t see the need of treating your fish without been absolutely sure they are sick, you are going to add unnecessary stress. I wouldn´t move them to QT>
I have two wrasses and a flame hawk in QT right now and would like to plan my next steps to add them to DT...but would like to avoid disaster.
<If you have quarantined/observed them for at least 4 weeks, you may transfer them to the DT.>
Thanks Team! Anik
<You´re very welcome. Wil>

Royal Gramma Flashing     10/13/18
Hello,
<Hello Tim>
I am looking for some insight and/or recommendations regarding the recent condition of my royal Gramma and Jawfish. This is my first tank, but I have spent countless hours reading books and reviewing forum posts on the hobby. There is just so much information out there and some of it is conflicting. Any thoughts or suggestions you can provide on my situation would be greatly appreciated.
<Let´s see>
Environment:
- BioCube 32 LED FOWLR
- 3" of substrate
- Filter floss on top shelf of sump
<Hopefully rinsed VERY frequently>
- Large particle lignite carbon in bag on second shelf of sump
- Heater set to 78
- 1 powerhead w/ variable flow
- 20 lbs mix of live and dry rock (50/50)
- AccuraSea 1 Synthetic Seawater Mix - Two Little Fishies
Current Occupants:

- 2 turban snails
- 2 Astrea snails
- 1 Nassarius snail
- 1 cleaner shrimp
- 1 royal Gramma
- 1 yellow head Jawfish
Parameters:

- pH = 8.0 – 8.2
<Aim for 8.3 using a quality buffer>
- Ammonia = 0 ppm
- Nitrite = 0 ppm
- Nitrate = 10 – 15 ppm
- S.G. = 1.023
<A bit higher would be better,1025/35 ppm (natural sea water salinity>
Maintenance:
Daily: Feed fish LRS Reef Frenzy; clean algae as needed; and monitor fish.
<A more varied diet would be better, have you try Spectrum pellets? "Thera +A" helps treating parasites; a vitamin supplement is also needed, either added directly to the tank water or by soaking the food.>
Weekly: Replace filter floss; check water parameters; vacuum substrate and conduct 5 gallon water change.
Monthly: Replace carbon.
<Must be remove when medicating the tank>
Situation:

I started the tank approximately 5 months ago. The initial cycle completed approximately 3 months ago, (i.e., no ammonia detected for the past 3 months). I purchased the royal Gramma from my LFS about 2 months ago without a quarantine.
<The root of the problem, ALL fish must be quarantine at least for 4 weeks>
The Gramma was initially skittish, but it calmed down after about 48 hours. Gramma has been eating like a horse ever since and appears noticeably larger then when we purchased it. I then added the above CUC (no quarantine) to deal with some algae growth. I lost 2 Nassarius snails within the first week, but the other snails looked fine.
<What about calcium levels?>
I attributed the snail loss to my failure to conduct a drip acclimation on the snails.
<Possibly>
The CUC has kept the algae in check. About 2 months ago, I purchased a yellow head Jawfish (no quarantine) from my LFS. The Jawfish was extremely skittish for about 24 hours, but he calmed down.
<Normal behaviour for new fish>
He has built some burrows for himself and has been eating well ever since.
A little over two weeks ago, I noticed the Gramma was flashing. Not much, but if I watched for about 20 minutes, I would see the fish dart around and then swim into the live rock or side of the tank multiple times in a row. The Gramma did not have any small white spots (ich), but I did notice some slight discoloration around the purple head and gill area. The Gramma was also hanging out a little bit more in the back of the tank. However, the Jawfish seemed fine at this time. My LFS examined pictures of the Gramma. They suspected some type of parasite, but they did not think it was ich.
<I agree here with your LFS, not a visible parasite but an internal one, this is why quarantine is a must, even if there is no noticeable illness.>
On the advice of the LFS, I did the following:
- Added cleaner shrimp (no quarantine)
<Not very helpful if parasites are internal>
- Increased thermostat to 81 degrees
- Lowered salinity with 2 gallon exchange of salt water for fresh water
- Dosed PraziPro for potential flukes
- Removed carbon from sump
- Attempted a fresh water dip for the Gramma, but he was too quick for me to catch. I gave up trying to catch him after 3 failed nights of chasing him with nets and bags. He is now terrified of the nets....
<Would be worthy to take out all the rocks so you can catch the Gramma Loreto and treat it with copper on a separate tank>
The above modifications haven been in effect for the past two weeks. While I have observed the cleaner shrimp briefly working on the Gramma (so cool), I have not otherwise observed any improvements with the Gramma's condition. In fact, I think the Gramma's discoloration may be even more pronounced now (see attached pic), and the flashing has continued at about the same rate. He does seem to be back in the front of the tank a little bit more now. In addition, I noticed the Jawfish is now rubbing his head in the sand occasionally, which is a behavior I have not previously observed.
<Disease is spreading>
I have only seen this a few times. The Jawfish otherwise looks and acts normal. Both fish are still eating like champs.
One other note, I think the Gramma and Jawfish may have had a little tussle about 3 weeks ago. I say this because I noticed the Gramma was occupying the main burrow built by the Jawfish. They seemed to have sorted this out now, because the Jawfish moved into a new home burrow. There have been no other signs of aggression (jaws wide open/nipped fins/chasing/etc) between the two fish, but I am not watching them 24/7.
<If aggression is taking place(even out of your sight),it could be an added factor, since stress is a direct access to most diseases>
Plan Forward:
My original thought was to setup a quarantine tank to dose the Jawfish and Gramma with copper and to let the display tank go fallow for 2 months. After researching on this site and others, I think this may not be the best option.
<Not the easiest but certainly a wise option>
The quarantine tank and meds will certainly stress the fish out, and I am not certain I am dealing with a parasite. My new plan was to reset the salinity and temperature to my original points and wait and see. I will still go ahead with purchasing the quarantine equipment for future fish/corals/invertebrates, but I will hold off on adding anything to the tank until this situation is resolved.
<It won´t solve with the current treatment>
Do you have any questions, suggestions or advice regarding the Gramma/Jawfish? Again, I am new to the hobby, and it is quite possible I am missing something basic here.
<Keep Reading...>
Separate/bonus question, would it be an overstock to have a 1 Jawfish, 1 Gramma, and 2 ocellaris clownfish in the BioCube 32?
<Bioload is fine according to your tank´s capacity>
Thank you in advance!
<Welcome Tim.>
Regards,
<Same to you>
Tim
<Wilberth>

Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/13/18
Is there an antibiotic that you would recommend?
<Anything for Finrot worth a shot. Kanaplex is good, and the old Maracyn 1 and 2 combo is well regarded. Just avoid the "new age" medications such as tea-tree oils that really aren't very effective. Salt isn't much use,
either. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/13/18

Is there an antibiotic that you would recommend?
<PS. Outside of the US, it may difficult to get antibiotics without a prescription from a vet. Here in the UK, I favour a European product called eSHa 2000 that's effective and tolerated well by even sensitive fish.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/13/18

Ok thank you very much
<Most welcome and good luck. Neale.>

ACF Tadpole Die-off     10/13/18
Over the last few months I decided to raise around 80 African Clawed Frog tadpoles and for the most part, things have gone fine. 3 days ago, I was down to my last 4 tadpoles, in the 10 gallon tank, within 2 days, 3 of the
last 4 had died off and my last tadpole looks like this (see attached image).
<I see.>
In the last day, the end of the tail went limp like the other 3 before they died but in this case, the tadpole's tail end has essentially just rotted off, it's the only occupant of the tank nothing could have bitten it. All of the water parameters are normal, no ammonia, nitrites, nitrates,
<I doubt nitrates are zero. So if your test kits are offering these numbers, you probably should distrust them. Zero ammonia and nitrite are certainly possible, indeed, preferred; but since nitrate is the end product of filtration, it should accumulate over time between water changes.>
the GH and KH are constant.
<Constant what? As a reminder, neutral, medium hardness water is the ideal.
Water temperature should be around room temperature, 18-20 degrees C being ideal for the classic Xenopus laevis species most widely traded. Avoid excessively high temperatures, and similarly, avoid chilling and/or exposure to cold air. Xenopus tropicalis is less commonly traded, and requires warmer water (24-28 C) and prefers softer water chemistry.>
About 2 weeks ago, when there were 7 left, I altered the water change schedule to 50% every 3 days since the parameters were staying constant.
<Do remember water changes need to be more or less daily, and ideally twice daily. Xenopus tadpoles, like baby fish, are very sensitive to 'old' water, especially in small tanks. The easiest approach is to reduce the number of
tadpoles per tank, which puts less pressure on water quality, and in turn makes it easier to rear them successfully. Trying to rear huge numbers can be an overwhelming task. Do be ruthless about removing uneaten food and
dirt (turkey basters are ideal for spot cleaning) while also ensuring more, small meals rather than 1-2 big meals.>
The only issue I've had was the heat going out in the house for 3-4 days but the lowest the house dropped to was about mid 60s (F).
<Might be a bit cold, especially if there were cold draughts of air as well.>
As of 2 days, after the first tadpole had died and the others were acting sluggish, I restarted daily 50% (looking back, I would've gone with 30% but I've been a bit burnt-out these last two weeks) changes on the 10 gallon. My
thinking was that perhaps the water wasn't being properly oxygenated on the every 2 days water change schedule but now with this tadpole's Finrot-like symptom, I'm just baffled - each of the others had the same tail tip droop
but none of them lasted long enough for it to progress to more than a droop. (Note: the final tadpole just died early this morning but I'd still like to figure out what on earth happened to prevent anything like this in the future should I decide to raise more tadpoles at a later date).
<While the tail-drooping is remarkable, it may be more a reflection of general failure to thrive rather than some specific disease or problem.>
Additionally, I've fed them Xenopus express tadpole food daily for the past 160-odd days since the tadpoles hatched. Over the last few days, after the heat went out, the last 4 tadpoles all became lethargic and stopped eating/actively swimming. Each of them were receiving about 0.3ml of the tadpole suspension a day in the week prior every afternoon, Xenopus Express' feeding instructions assume you're raising the tadpoles in bulk and don't translate well to smaller numbers. I had almost no issues while I was dealing with a large number of tadpoles but once I was under 20, I found myself a bit uncertain of a good feeding schedule/amount, I'd welcome any suggestions on how much to feed a single tadpole.
Thank you for any advice.
--A
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

 

Press Release - Vibra-Bites     10/13/18
Attached – please include in next issue or post
Chris Clevers
President/COO
Hikari Sales USA, Inc.
Offering Hikari®, Bio-Pure®, Bio-Pure® FD, Aquarium Solutions®, Pond Solutions®, Reptile Solutions® & Takara Products
www.hikariusa.com<http://www.hikariusa.com/>
www.facebook.com/hikariusa<http://www.facebook.com/hikariusa>
www.youtube.com/allfishlovehikari<http://www.youtube.com/allfishlovehikari>
www.google.com/+Hikariusa-aquatic-diets<http://www.google.com/+Hikariusa-aquatic-diets>
twitter.com/fishlovehikari<http://twitter.com/fishlovehikari>
PRESS RELEASE – For immediate publication
Hikari Vibra-Bites™

Hikari® is please to introduce its newest addition to its extremely popular line of tropical diets, Vibra-Bites™. Great for all types of tropical fish, this flavorful nutrient mix offers many unique benefits. From the pellet design, which mimics a blood worm moving through the water, to the incredible color enhancing ability which will help your fish glow with a flood of color, to the exacting nutrient balancing through extensive feeding trials that helps us offer growth and form you won’t believe, this is truly a new generation aquatic diet. The oxygen barrier package helps maintain the quality and perfection consumers have come to expect from the leader in aquatic nutrition worldwide. For more information contact us Hikari Sales USA, Inc. at fish@hikariusa.com or (800) 621-5619. You can also see more information on this item at www.hikariusa.com

Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/12/18
So far he is still fine. Still has a bit of prolapse, assuming it was a messy bite. Hopefully it isn't as bad and it can heal naturally. I have cherry shrimp in the tank so meds is off limits and catching him is somehow a pain, others I can catch with my hands, but this guy is very evasive. So QTing is pretty much impossible without destroying a bunch of plants just to catch him. Thank you very much.
<Understood. Antibiotics should be safe, even with shrimps and snails, though you could just watch and see what happens for now. Obviously yes, organic dyes, formalin and copper compounds are not safe with invertebrates. Cheers, Neale.>

What is growing on and near my live rock?     10/12/18
Hi folks,
<Hey Shawn>
I have been using your site for many years and it has always been a blessing and answered every question I had!
<Glad to know it has helped you that much!>
I have a 90gal tank with quite a bit of live rock and very few inhabitants currently (few small snails). Getting the tank ready to stock once again and (outside of some unwanted algae), I have some things that started growing that I have not experienced before. I can't seems to find exactly what these tree/twig looking things are that are growing on and next to my live rock. Kind of remind of Mangrove roots here in FL. Here is a pic of them in the tank and one that got temporarily de-rooted as I was
cleaning tank and bedding while readying for next participants.
<This is some kind of calcareous algae, looks like Halimeda incrassata.>
Regards, Shawn
<Have a nice day. Wilberth.>


Red Sea fish ID     10/12/18
Dear Mr. Bob,
<Hey Mohammed>
I'm Mohammed Hassaan from Egypt. Please I need your help about this fish ID
I searched a lot on Fishbase.org and could not find it.
Thank you, Mohammed Hassaan
<This is a juvenile Parrotfish, Family Scaridae (Labridae for some); I believe it's a Chlorurus gibbus. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/chlorurus.htm
Bob Fenner>

 

Bichir with spinal deformity      10/11/18
Greetings, most revered and knowledgeable WWM crew:
<Wowzah. Howdy Linda>
I have a fairly young (<1 year old) saddled bichir that appears to have developed a spinal deformity.
<I see this in your excellent pic>
I know it just looks like she’s propping herself up in the attached picture, but her tail is always ‘bent’ in that manner regardless of position.
<Have encountered this before in Polypterids (and other animals); often ascribed to trauma, genetics, nutritional, environmental factors>
She lives in a 180 gallon community aquarium along with a hodgepodge variety of 3” to 5" cichlids — acara, parrot, salvini, geophagus, striped pike and jewel — along with an 8 inch chocolate cichlid and a ~1 foot silver Arowana who is rapidly outgrowing the tank (he will soon be rehomed to a 6 foot long 125 gallon by himself).
<With a heavy, complete top assure me>
In all, there are 14 fish in the tank including the bichir, who is currently about 6 inches long. The tank has a pea gravel substrate and is decorated with quite a few of large pieces of Mopani wood planted and moderately planted with Anubias and Bolbitis fern, which are the only things the jewels can’t uproot and the parrots (mostly) won’t eat.
<Ah yes>
It gets a minimum of a 50% water change once per week with remineralized RO/DI water (my well water sucks unfortunately — 180 ppm nitrates right out of the tap)
<Wow; glad you filter this>
— since I have such a wide variety of fish in there, I try to shoot for moderate water parameters: kH ~6-8, pH 6.5-7.5, temp 76F. They get fed a variety of frozen (bloodworms, Mysis, Spirulina-gut-loaded brine), fresh (store-bought tilapia/sole, shrimp and occasionally mussels), Hikari pellet foods (bio gold, bio-gold excel and carnivore food sticks), and the occasional treat of earthworms. The bichir mostly ends up eating the tilapia and shrimp, although she will pretty much eat anything that makes it to the bottom of the tank that she can get her jaws on — she isn’t a picky eater at all, and will happily eat pellets if that’s all she can find.
<Ah, good>
I got her (at least I think she’s a her) as a wee thing at about 3” long, and at that time her spine looked normal; she's never had any difficulty swimming or eating and has otherwise always seemed healthy. I realize that it may simply be genetics, but I wanted to make sure that there was not some sort of environmental or nutritional factor that I overlooked.
<Nothing "jumps out" in your recounting; likely is either a non-obvious break/trauma or genetic issue. FWIW, have seen these fish/es live long lives w/ this tweak>
I do think I will eventually move her into a 120 gallon along with the geophagus and Acaras, so that I can give them the sand substrate that they prefer.
<A good idea/move>
As always, any insight or suggestions you might offer are appreciated.
Cheers, Linda A.
<Mmm; the only statement I'd add is that I've become dubious re the use of Bloodworms as fish food; would delete them from your fish's diet. Bob Fenner, who is going to ask Neale Monks here for his independent assessment>
Bichir with spinal deformity /Neale      10/11/18

Greetings, most revered and knowledgeable WWM crew:
I have a fairly young (<1 year old) saddled bichir that appears to have developed a spinal deformity. I know it just looks like she’s propping herself up in the attached picture, but her tail is always ‘bent’ in that manner regardless of position.
She lives in a 180 gallon community aquarium along with a hodgepodge variety of 3” to 5" cichlids — acara, parrot, salvini, geophagus, striped pike and jewel — along with an 8 inch chocolate cichlid and a ~1 foot silver Arowana who is rapidly outgrowing the tank (he will soon be rehomed to a 6 foot long 125 gallon by himself). In all, there are 14 fish in the tank including the bichir, who is currently about 6 inches long. The tank has a pea gravel substrate and is decorated with quite a few of large pieces of Mopani wood planted and moderately planted with Anubias and Bolbitis fern, which are the only things the jewels can’t uproot and the parrots (mostly) won’t eat. It gets a minimum of a 50% water change once per week with remineralized RO/DI water (my well water sucks unfortunately — 180 ppm nitrates right out of the tap) — since I have such a wide variety of fish in there, I try to shoot for moderate water parameters: kH ~6-8, pH 6.5-7.5, temp 76F. They get fed a variety of frozen (bloodworms, Mysis, Spirulina-gut-loaded brine), fresh (store-bought tilapia/sole, shrimp and occasionally mussels), Hikari pellet foods (bio gold, bio-gold excel and carnivore food sticks), and the occasional treat of earthworms. The bichir mostly ends up eating the tilapia and shrimp, although she will pretty much eat anything that makes it to the bottom of the tank that she can get her jaws on — she isn’t a picky eater at all, and will happily eat pellets if that’s all she can find.
I got her (at least I think she’s a her) as a wee thing at about 3” long, and at that time her spine looked normal; she's never had any difficulty swimming or eating and has otherwise always seemed healthy. I realize that it may simply be genetics, but I wanted to make sure that there was not some sort of environmental or nutritional factor that I overlooked. I do think I will eventually move her into a 120 gallon along with the geophagus and Acaras, so that I can give them the sand substrate that they prefer.
As always, any insight or suggestions you might offer are appreciated.
Cheers, Linda A.
<<Hello Linda. As BobF said, this sort of thing isn't uncommon, and when seen in tank-bred or farmed fish, is usually down to a genetic or developmental flaw. However, Polypterus endlicheri isn't commonly bred, and isn't one of the farmed species as far as I know, so that is perhaps less likely here. Diet is another possible factor, though your specimen would seem to be getting a very varied diet that should have all the essential vitamins and minerals often lacking in the diets of predatory fish that only take one or two food types. I would make the observation that potentially very large fish are prone to skeletal deformities if they don't have enough space, and given that Polypterus endlicheri can reach well over 70 cm in length, that's always going to be a risk when keeping this species in home aquaria. Indeed, it's arguably not a home aquarium species given its size and predatory nature. In any event, there is no cure for crooked spine, but it's unlikely to cause any serious harm to the fish either, so long as its able to swim to the surface to gulp air easily. Cheers, Neale.>>


Re: Unidentified "bug" on Betta Fish - Ich/velvet/???      10/11/18
Wanted to send an update:
<Thank you for this>
After testing ALL my available island water sources, I am back original the RO. The spring water stressed him out so much he bit parts of his tail off even with only 10% WC and a drip over 5 hours.
<Yikes; my usual admonitions re using "bottled/spring... water"... A highly variable product around the world, w/in a country at times>
It’s been a week back on old RO and he is doing better. Most of the ich s now gone too. I ordered Equilibrium and will be adding that to his RO from now on.
<Tres bien!>
Right now all the water tests great - adding Indian almond leaves from our tree sporadically also. So far other than the hiccup when I changed the water he’s doing great. Still eats like a horse.
<Great as well>
I’ve been doing 30-50% WCs re-dosing Ich-X in new water
20 min baths in Betta revive while I do the WC
Temp at 82-84
<All sounds/reads as good Ad. BobF>

Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?      10/11/18
Turns out it was a prolapse and it got ruptured by another male, he pretty much bit it off. Is it detrimental to the fish?
<Potentially; I would observe, ideally medicate as per Finrot. The issue isn't so much digestion as secondary infection by bacteria. With luck he'll recover, but losing part of your colon is pretty serious.>
He still seems to be fine.
<Fish are astonishingly resilient sometimes! Neale.>

Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/10/18
Hello, my peacock gudgeon has some sort of parasite I think. He eats everything, but he has some sort of translucent bubble sticking out of the anus (looks like a fish egg, but it’s a male). He has had it for the past few days. What could that be? Thank you.
<Do start by reading here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/gldfshmalnut.htm
You might also have a peruse here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/nematodesfwf.htm
Without a photo hard to be sure what the issue is here. I'd certainly offer a high fibre diet (Daphnia probably most likely to be eaten) but treating for worms with Flubendazole or similar won't be a bad idea at all. Tateurndina ocellicauda are sensitive fish, so checking water chemistry as well as quality are important. Hard, alkaline water causes health problems, as you probably know -- they need neutral, reasonably soft water to thrive. Metronidazole is a useful medication where unknown gut parasites are concerned, and can be used alongside anti-worm medications if needed. Cheers, Neale.>

White growth on escaped crayfish     10/10/18
I moved my crayfish into a 10 gallon tank and she escaped.
I'm not sure how long she actually out of water; she was in the tank when I went to bed and when I got up the next morning had to look for her. She was still moving when I found her so I can't imagine that she was out of the tank through the night. I rinsed off dust and fuzz from her under the tap and then put her back in her new tank.
It's been a little over a week now and she has not wanted to come out of her hide. I flash the light in and I could see a peek of some white growths
under her tail I have no idea what they are, I've been looking around on the internet trying to find some answers and I found nothing helpful.
I'm really hoping you can help me, is it an injury from the fall that's been infected?
How do I treat her? Thank you for any help you can offer....
Um. Trying to get a photo just now she... also has eggs.. ok.. Maybe they are eggs that are rotting and gathering fungus?
Oh my.
<Going to ask you to go visit this collection of FAQs, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/CrayDis5.htm
Epistylis is a common external 'growth' on crayfish. Doesn't really do any harm so far as I know. Difficult to control directly without putting the crayfish at risk. Will also remind you that besides calcium in some form such as unshelled shrimp, iodine is also needed for successful moulting.
Hope this helps, Neale.>

Treating a new Porcupine Puffer with Ich; rdg., using WWM     10/8/18
Hi all,
I have a new 3 1/2 inch Porcupine Puffer in my 29 gal quarantine tank. I bought him from my friend who owns a local fish store, and the fish had been there for about 3 weeks and was eating well. He's been in my QT tank for about 4 days now, is eating fairly well (clams on the half shell and spirulina brine shrimp thus far), but has come down with a bad case of marine white spot disease (Crypt, Ich, etc).
Being a scaleless fish, I'm wondering if Cupramine would be too harsh to treat the Ich, even at half a dose (which is the min recommended therapeutic level for treatment by the manufacturer).
<This is one of the better copper-based medications. Persistent, consistent in concentration>
Freshwater dips won't be effective if the fish is put back into QT with Ich still in the system.
<Correct; the fish would have to be serially moved to a sterilized system>
Would you use a half dose of copper and see how the fish responds?
<Mmm; no; only a physiological dose will work>
Would a full dose spread over 48 hours likely kill the puffer?
<Highly unlikely... if the fish is healthy otherwise>
Any help you could provide would be appreciated.
Thanks,
Dan
<DO read on WWM re treating Diodontids, puffers for Crypt, the use of chelated copper products. Bob Fenner>

Anubias Melt      10/6/18
Hi Guys,
<Hello Ted,>
I have followed you for a long time. I wanted to ask about Anubias melt. It seems that searching on the internet there are very few hard leads to the cause. I have noticed it mostly in plants that were grown emersed in fiber glass.
<Which may be a clue. Not all Anubias species grow well, if at all, underwater. They are, after all, amphibious plants rather than true aquatics, often with their roots attached to wood or rocks that are
underwater some of the time, but the stems and leaves well above the waterline. Your standard issue Anubias barteri and its various varieties should adapt well though, and have been among the best aquarium plants for years, but other species seem a bit hit-and-miss. I'd also make the point that similar looking, but definitely not aquatic, plant species might be substituted by some retailers and eBay sellers. When I was a kid, it was fairly common for houseplants such as Spathiphyllum 'peace lilies' to be
offered as aquatics, and while some might last a few weeks or months, inevitably the leaves would soften and rot, and then the plant would die.>
There are few major outward signs which plants that suddenly turn to mush.
A few very green leaves might drop but little else. The plants are shaded by a large piece of drift wood and placed between rocks.
<Good; Anubias seem to dislike directly overhead lighting.>
The melt occurs in the first 2 weeks of being in the tank.
<This does sound like typical plant 'shock' rather than some specific disease. If possible, remove the dead leaves carefully, but leave the stolon in place. Do ensure the stolon is absolutely clear of the substrate or any sort of fibre glass wool. It should be placed on a rock or bogwood root somewhere that it is able to get some light so it can photosynthesise (that's why it's green) and after a few weeks you should see some new leaves. I find Anubias recover from damage rather well, all else being equal. Do review water chemistry, though Anubias barteri at least will adapt to a very broad range, from blackwater conditions through to slightly brackish. Other species might be more picky. Finally, do try removing one of the plants (or a cutting from a stolon) to another tank if possible.
Why? Because if you have some sort of allelopathy between plant species, you might find that the separated plant thrives, while the ones left in the tank do not.>
No other additions melt or lose leaves including my crypts.
<Anubias do enjoy similar conditions, and I've not observed allelopathy between Cryptocoryne and Anubias. Usually, they thrive when grown together.
Of course, that assumes the Cryptocoryne are placed in the substrate while the Anubias are not.>
Where else would you have me look to discover an answer?
<There are a number of good aquatic plant forums out there, such as ukaps.org, and these might be able to offer some extra help.>
Thanks
Ted
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

Request suggestion on water conditioners       10/5/18
Dear Bob/Neale, I hope you guys are doing well. My question is regards to the water conditioners that one gets and those who claim to remove heavy metals from tap water. Now I know; that dechlorinator is something that everyone needs to add in tap water .
<Actually; I don't add unless am changing out more than a quarter or so volume of water for new. Sanitizers et al. in new/mains water appear to be "complexed" with materials/biota in the system>
now we have municipal water and we dont use RO systems or distilled water.
I have read that even though municipal water is well filtered but at times because it comes through cemented and copper pipes it may get leeched with metals like iron And copper which are deadly for fishes. so do u recommend use of the above mentioned water conditioners or maybe activated carbon ?
<Either, both can be useful>
Also over here fish shop guys have huge turn over of water and they dont use any water conditioners other than dechlorinator neither do they have any RO units so should I assume that its okay not to use water conditioners other then dechlorinators?
<In many places in the world this appears to be the case. Storing water for a week ahead of use will allow most chlorine based biocides and metals to dissipate. Short term water use is better done with the use of dechlorinator/dechloraminator, and/or activated carbon use.>
Kindly advise Thanking you Raj
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated       10/5/18
Thanks Bob, after 7 days of clean water should I try another round of Kanaplex with furan 2?
<I would not treat this fish further; no>
I do not understand where to find "WWM trouble” in your search box and not Google's search box.
<"Our" search box IS Google's... they provide the plug-in. They are the same>
So, what should to help him now?
Thanks!
<Return to once weekly water changes, and eliminated the bloodworms from the diet. BobF>
Fwd: Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated       10/5/18

Hi Bob, Again, when I put TROUBLE in your search box I get this page but I don’t see anything about how to help him today: <http://www.wetwebmedia.com/before/index.htm?h=trouble>
Other than clean water for 7 days (in-progress), should I do another round of Kanaplex with furan2? And you are saying NO blood worms … can I feed him just the garlic food now? He has fasted for 3 days.
<Not the garlic food alone. Some staple (pellets are best) and frozen/defrosted brine shrimp is what I'd use>
Thanks a million.
<As many welcomes>
Re: Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated       10/5/18

Thanks Bob, He’s dying today. Appreciate your help.
<Ahh; thank you. BobF>

Re: Please help AGAIN       10/4/18
Thank you for getting back to me, he is in a box I called hospital tank, a Interpet mini filter, without carbon foam, in operation, nothing inside, Nitrate and nitrite higher than normal,
<? What are the levels, values?>
can’t change much water as JUST finished Interpet anti internal bacterial 7 days course treatment, a little bit complicated, treatments as follow
About one week after the rescued, found this poor guy slightly bloat with white waste, so I set up a hospital tank and start with:
Treatment 1. API General Cure- Not success and condition stay the same.
Treatment 2. Interpet Anti internal bacterial - Not success and bloat a bit more.
Treatment 3. Waterlife (Hole in the head and bloat) tablets - Not success
Treatment 4. Repeat Waterlife medicine, nearly kill her, health condition much worsen (I blamed myself for listening to the Reviews from customer suggested 5 times more dosage.) now, whole body covered with black marks.
Treatment 5. Back to Treatment no.2, (Interpet) this time better, 80% marks gone as seen in previous photo I sent you, but his tail bends.
I think it is Malawi Bloat not Dropsy because he bloat with white waste, swims well and eat normal, but once again, I do not have any experience, I really rely on Google search.
Please help this poor soul, I just rescued him from an extremely poor water quality pond
<THIS is the cause of this fish's troubles. NEED good care, water quality, nutrition for weeks, months to recover, NOT treatments/medicines>
and the rescuing process broken my heart although I don’t really a fish person, I beg god he deserves a better life after all.
Kind regards
Natalie
<Need data, useful information... as previously requested. BobF>
Re: Please help AGAIN... 13 megs of pix....        10/4/18

Sorry but what is nutrition? I really don’t know.
<Foods, feeding Nat. What are you using?>
Tank water is 35 litre, water depth about 6 inches.
I am going to change 100 %water as the NO 2 is at 1 and NO 3 at 5 according to API Test stripe result.
<I would skip feeding period if ammonia or nitrite are present>
Could you kindly tell me how to add nutrition in the tank?
<A low protein staple is best here. Pellets or sticks of small size. You can/could read about this on WWM>
As you can see there is another one behind it, it has black marks and cotton mouth, been treating with API PIMAFIX AND MELAFIX together for a month already, symptoms still exist.
Regarding to the tank, it has 50 litres water, I change 25% water every other day.
Also for both tanks, I put Interpret first aid salt + and API Stress Coat in the water.
Apart from the one being murdered by the heron that are the only two trouble ones amongst 60 of them.
Kind regards
Natalie
<This fish simply needs good conditions, no treatments. I'd return it to the system the other goldfish are in. Being kept in a small volume, too much water changing... is not helping. Bob Fenner>

Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated. Betta        10/4/18
Hi Bob,
<Kristy>
Hope you are doing really well! I’ve missed talking with you … but luckily, haven’t had any issues with my Betta who is now 4 years old up until now.
<This IS an olde specimen>
He has developed bad fin rot and swim bladder although he eats everything and is not constipated. Fin rot caused by a month of 100% water changes every 4-5 days instead of my normal 100% water changes every 3-4 days. 2.5 gallon tank, sponge filtration, tap water/prime, heater (78 degrees) and aerator. I apologize I’ve read your website for 2 days now and can never find any specific cases that apply to my scenario although common. I simply do not understand your web search feature!
<It's not ours but Google's... but GIGO; the arrangement of files is mine... key word/search terms should bring up all/anything that is relevant though>
The longer water changes caused the fin rot which advanced very quickly and to swim bladder because his tail is really short now.
<? Don't know re the water change influence here. Shouldn't be a factor>
Treatment over last month: 100% water changes 2X’s/week, 1/2 teaspoon aquarium salt (per gallon), Kanaplex (2 rounds per directions), seachem Paraguard dips during water changes, and Paraguard in tank during non-Kanaplex times, eats like a horse (frozen bloodworms
<Cut these out entirely. DO search on WWM re. Trouble>
alternated with spectrum A+ with garlic and never constipated. Current Treatment this week: 100% daily water changes no medication to give him a 7-day break. Stopped food for 3 days even though he’s not constipated which resulted in very slight improvement on swim bladder. What do you recommend I do now?
<As stated, drop the sewer fly larvae>
I felt that he was overmedicated/oversalted. Nothing is working so I opted for clean water only. Can I start feeding him the garlic food again? We are doomed. Thanks so much, Kristy
<... Bob Fenner>

Re: Tetra stocking-too many choices       10/4/18
Hi Mr. Fenner,
So the update on the process is this: I have most of the shrimp moved over thanks to the help of my 11 year old daughter, who has taken the task on due to the $3 paycheck upon completion.
<Ah, the ole profit motive eh?>
And so most are doing well, I have lost a few, not sure why, maybe just the stress of the move since all parameters have remained steady.
I went to the fish farm and purchased 10 ember tetras and 10 gold tetras. They have been acclimated and are all doing well and tend to school as one big group. I was at first concerned about adding 20 fish at once however I am keepers by a close eye and parameters are holding steady.
So as I’m getting ready to leave the fish farm the owner approaches me to show me the fish he just got in and he shows me the most beautiful Galaxy Rasbora.
<Neat animals>
So my question is this: what are the chances I can add them to my tank?
<Likely very good; as long as they're not much smaller than the new Tetras>
If I bump the temp slowly down to 77? He says they are locally raised so that wouldn’t be an issue but if I bump the temp down to 77 will this mix work?
<Again; probably so>
Also if I that is a possibility is 6 enough or is more better?
<Six or more; yes>
Thanks again!!!!
Marya
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Unknown roundworm in aquarium     10/3/18
Hi,
<Hey Cath>
Thanks for getting back to me so quickly.
<Sure>
Sorry for the broken link. The video was uploaded as private, rather than unlisted.
<Ahh!>
Here's the new link: https://youtu.be/wd_PdDDcxLA
Please let me know if there are any problems with it.
<Oh yes; this is a Leech (yeah, yuck); possibly parasitic on your livestock. Remove it (w/ extreme prejudice)>
Thanks,
Cat
<Welcome! BobF>
Re: Unknown roundworm in aquarium     10/3/18

Thank you for the id.
<Welcome>
So, if I'm looking at it correctly, the leech is moving backwards? It searches with the tapered end and uses the blunt end as an anchor.
<Hirudineans have "haptors" on both ends, and can move backwards and forwards using them and extending their bodies>
Thank you again.
<Certainly welcome. B>

Is Flex Seal safe for fish?     10/3/18
Hi
I've purchased an 8 ft. round galvanized steel stock tank to use as a fish pond. I want to coat the inside of the tank. Is it safe for fish to use Flex Seal rubberized paint? The product description says for use in
ponds and fountains, but doesn't say whether it's safe for fish!
<Mmm; they state so on their site:
https://www.flexsealproducts.com/product/liquid-gallon/
But I would make sure it's well-cured and try a few test fish for a couple weeks>
I had originally planned to spray the inside with Rust-Oleum, but it says that it's not for use on galvanized metal. Would another paint be better than Flex Seal? Maybe Krylon?
<Don't think Krylon would hold up... there are other CR paints, applications, but the Flex Seal looks to be the real thing>
Thanks for your help! I really enjoy this website.
Sue Solomon
<Ahh, thank you Sue. Bob Fenner>

Re: Please help... GF hlth, no data     10/3/18
Could you please tell me he still have chance.
[image1.jpeg]
His tail suddenly gone bend
Kind regards
Natalie
<... something/s wrong w/ this fish's world. What re water quality (tests) and nutrition?
Bob Fenner>

Re: Rosy tetra with hole in the belly     10/2/18
Hi,
I hope you're well. I'm just writing to thank you I've followed your advice of what medicine give to my fish and it looks like she is now healed.
<Great news!>
She's left with the scar in the area but other than that she's absolutely fine. We will look to move them in a bigger tank soon too.
Thank you so much.
Best regards, Anda
<Glad this worked out, and thanks for letting us know. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: de-worming puffers     10/2/18
Thanks Neale - I’ll give it a try!
<Good luck, Nathaniel!>

Please help. GF trauma     10/2/18
Can you tell me whether this is caused by disease or attacked by a heron?
My finned friend was fine and found him died suddenly.
<Mmm; appears to be a trauma caused by something... Perhaps a predatory bird or mammal. See WWM re guarding against such losses. Bob Fenner>

 

 (Back to: Today's FAQs Page)

Become a Sponsor Features:
Daily FAQs FW Daily FAQs SW Pix of the Day FW Pix of the Day New On WWM
Helpful Links Hobbyist Forum Calendars Admin Index Cover Images
Featured Sponsors: