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Oxycheilinus unifasciatus (Streets 1877),
the Ring Tail or One-Banded Wrasse (2) is the widest ranging member
of the genus. Found across the Pacific's Oceania through the
Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and growing only to about a foot, it
still does poorly in captivity. Formerly placed in the genus
Cheilinus. An adult male profiled in Hawaii.|
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Wilberth Gamboa, Earl Clay
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Scorpionfishes: Lionfishes & Much More
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Goldfish growth 10/18/18
<Have to delete your msg. as you've crashed our mail server. See our
file size requirements>
My goldfish (Ronald) has a weird bump on his side. I've had him for about a year
and it just recently developed (first noticed maybe a month ago) It started out
small but it is getting bigger. And now it looks like he might be getting
another one. I cannot figure out what it is, nothing really seems to match
perfectly. If there is any change you might know? I would hate for him to be
sick and require treatment he's not getting. He is acting perfectly normal
Question Regarding African Clawed Frogs
Hi there, I was wondering if there are any sorts of
diseases/bacteria/etc. that are transmissible from ACFs to humans.
<As with any aquatic pet, the most common transferrable diseases are
Salmonella-type food poisonings. Not from the animal itself, but from
decomposing organic matter around the aquarium. Touch the tank, touch
your mouth, and boom, the bacteria can get inside you. Of course most
people are fine and never experience a problem, it's a good habit to
treat an aquarium as you'd treat raw meat, and after handling, wash your
About a week and a half ago, I ended up having some frog water splash
into my eye, not a huge amount, but enough that I decided to rinse the
eye out with eye wash once I had finished with the water change. Around
4 days ago my eye started becoming very bloodshot and hasn't cleared up
so far. Maybe I just hit my eye in my sleep and didn't notice or
something but just in case, it'd be nice to know if there's anything in
particular to keep an eye on. Thanks.
<Unlikely to be anything serious, but if bacteria-laded water or organic
material gets in the eye, it can trigger conjunctivitis. No different to
when you get soil in your eye, or anything else not completely clean.
Best to consult your GP or an optician, who'll likely suggest the use of
some sort of antibacterial eye drop. Cheers, Neale.>
Undecided about how to treat further
I originally added 7 peppered Corydoras to a filtered
and cycled quarantine tank. They have been in there for almost two weeks
(I plan on quarantining for 4 weeks).
I purchased them from a local chain fish store. They told me that they
had been treated with Quick Cure for about a day while in display tank.
<Mmm; the ingredients are too harsh (formalin, Malachite Green) for
Corydoras, most catfishes>
My tank parameters are 0 ppm ammonia and nitrite, 5 ppm nitrate, pH 6.8,
temp 76°F, Aquaclear filter and airstone, sand substrate, driftwood and
I lost two corys the second day after I added them to my quarantine
tank. I did carefully acclimate them and they didn't seem stressed
afterwards. I don't normally add medication to the tank unless I notice
a problem. The second morning one of the corys had severe pop eye in
both eyes. Eyes were not cloudy but were severely swollen, one eye had
<?! What happened here? Something/s very wrong... too much difference
twixt the waters? The fish too long in the bag, overheated...? Some
source of overt poisoning? I'd removed the driftwood, add activated
carbon to your filtration>
A second Cory had mild pop eye in both eyes and a third was on its side
breathing rapidly (no pop eye). The Cory with the severe pop eye died
that morning as did the one on its side with respiratory issues. I did a
small 15% water change (parameters were normal) and dosed the tank with
Kanaplex. I did a full three dose course of Kanaplex, then 48 hours
after the last dose did another water change (25%) and have basically
just been observing for further symptoms. The Cory with the mild case of
pop eye recovered completely and up until today everyone has been eating
and acting normal. I did have one that was away from the group quite a
bit and not as active but still coming out to eat.
This evening when I got home, one of my corys (I believe the less robust
Cory) was basically floating near the surface; still alive, he will swim
a bit when nudged, but not looking well. No sign of hemorrhage under
skin, body normal with good slime coat, fins and barbels normal,
respiration normal but extremely lethargic and just floating at surface.
Upon inspection he looks perfectly normal. The remaining 4 corys are
eating and acting normal.
I do have Metroplex on hand as well as General Cure. Do you think I
should try adding Metroplex to the water column or food?
<I would not. Metronidazole has specific uses. Unless you/I can detect
the organisms involved (if any; which considering the rapid onset...) I
would not treat>
I do a water change every 5 days (tomorrow is 5th day) but even though I
match pH and hardness and temp, I'm afraid a water change will push the
sick Cory over the edge. Although the antibiotic appeared to resolve the
original problem, I don't want to repeatedly dose the tank. I'm
wondering if there could be an underlying parasitic problem (gill
fluke?). None of the corys look emaciated and even the sickly one has a
normally rounded belly. Any suggestions?
<Corydoras paleatus is a hugely aquacultured species of long use; quite
labile in its placement, range of conditions. Again, I suspect either
trauma or toxicity at fault here. Would just remove the driftwood, add
carbon... Bob Fenner>
Re: Possible Betta Tumor?
Thank you for confirming what I thought - I really appreciate it!
Even when you think you know then knowing that you can’t do any more is
reassuring and to be fair most vets look puzzled when I ask them so it’s really
really appreciated. And thank you for all the fish guides! When I first got my
boys they were immensely helpful as I hadn’t had Bettas for about 15 years and
frankly I probably could have created better conditions for them last time
compared to the mansions they have these days ��.
Have a lovely evening!
<Wow! Thanks for these kinds words, and taking the time to write us. We do
appreciate that. Hopefully your Betta will live a happy life, if not perhaps
quite as long as it might have otherwise been. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Marine Velvet Dormancy
Thank You Wil!
<You´re welcome Anik!>
Love your teams’ advice. It definitely helps to quell much of my on
< Hahaha....there´s no need to be paranoid! just make wise, on impulsive
decisions...we are glad to be helpful…>
I’m secure and confident in my overall QT scheme and don’t plan on
adding anymore fish in the future...until I upgrade which is a near term
<That´s good to know>
Yes the Naso will get a larger home, gladly he’s only 2 inches right
<Yes, you still have time to plan the upgrading >
I won’t move the fish then. Thanks again for your advice!
Have a great night.
<Have a great night too!>
Press Release - Canadian Lake Okanagan Freshwater Mysis
Shrimp Cubes 10/16/18
Attached – please include in next issue or post
Hikari Sales USA, Inc.
Offering Hikari®, Bio-Pure®, Bio-Pure® FD, Aquarium Solutions®, Pond
Solutions®, Reptile Solutions® & Takara Products
2804 McCone Avenue
Hayward, CA 94545-1663
Possible Betta Tumor? 10/16/18
I’ve been reading your page for a while and have managed to so far keep my three
beloved Bettas happy and content... a few months ago one of my boys however
started developing a black growth as you can see in the photo that is definitely
I don’t know if this is a tumor or something treatable?
<Almost certainly not.>
He seems active and just as daft as always and the tank is testing normal,
regular changes and weekly tests etc all as they should be...
Is there anything I can treat him with or is it just a matter of letting him
carry on until his quality of life reduces and then letting him pass quickly?
<Precisely. Tumours and other sorts of growths, whether benign or malignant, are
not uncommon in Bettas. There's no obvious explanation beyond inbreeding, and
certainly no clear treatment. Often benign tumours cause no immediate problems,
and if your Betta is otherwise happy, I would not be overly concerned just yet.
GF ish, no data, reading...
Any ideas what is wrong with this fish? Dark spots and hanging out at the
<Mmm; appears to be septicemic... burnt... Water quality issue? What's your test
kits readings telling you? What re set up, maintenance, foods, feeding? Have you
read re on WWM? Do so. Bob Fenner>
Marine Velvet Dormancy 10/16/18
Hello Bob and Team!
<Hello Anik, Wil this morning>
Hope you are doing well. Like any reefer, I’m constantly reading about
preventing any disasters.
<Like any good/responsible reefer!>
The topic of my paranoia this week is Marine Velvet. Some facts about my
setup: my display tank is 100G mixed reef; shows no signs of marine
Velvet and never has. There’s been a sign of ich once, which made itself
visible on bullied fish but that cleared up on its own and everything
has been clear since. Btw I QT everything, and medicate every new fish
with PraziPro and Cupramine and observe after.
<Quarantine is fine but there´s no need to medicate if fish are not
sick, treating healthy fish just makes any pathogen more resistant to
medications and this could be a problem in the future if fish happens to
Typically I QT for 3-4 months.
<4-5 weeks is more than enough>
The one time I didn’t was when I added a mandarin to my DT, no QT :(.
Current roster, two ocellaris clowns, male Anthias, melanurus wrasse,
yellow Coris, yellow flanked fairy wrasse, flame angle and tiny blonde
<I hope you are aware that the Naso tang will need a bigger tank (a few
to several hundred gallons) to have a long, healthy life.>
Anyways, questions; is it possible to have marine Velvet present in a
tank but kept at bay from infestation by keeping water parameters in
check and general conditions clean/healthy/happy to hold the velvet in
<Actually that is how it works; velvet as well as other diseases are
always present in the system water but with good maintenance and feeding
practices, you can keep them away of your livestock indefinitely.>
What I am getting at is can a fish have velvet for months and not be
symptomatic until something triggers it?
<As I mentioned, disease is always present but only attacks your fish if
its immune system is compromised.>
Depending on your answer, I may go against your advice from a few months
ago regarding Ick in the DT (referring to that one fish mentioned
above); I may just move all my fish to QT and treat them and run the
tank fallow out of straight paranoia.
<I don´t see the need of treating your fish without been absolutely sure
they are sick, you are going to add unnecessary stress. I wouldn´t move
them to QT>
I have two wrasses and a flame hawk in QT right now and would like to
plan my next steps to add them to DT...but would like to avoid disaster.
<If you have quarantined/observed them for at least 4 weeks, you may
transfer them to the DT.>
Thanks Team! Anik
<You´re very welcome. Wil>
Royal Gramma Flashing 10/13/18
I am looking for some insight and/or recommendations regarding the recent
condition of my royal Gramma and Jawfish. This is my first tank, but I have
spent countless hours reading books and reviewing forum posts on the hobby.
There is just so much information out there and some of it is conflicting. Any
thoughts or suggestions you can provide on my situation would be greatly
- BioCube 32 LED FOWLR
- 3" of substrate
- Filter floss on top shelf of sump
<Hopefully rinsed VERY frequently>
- Large particle lignite carbon in bag on second shelf of sump
- Heater set to 78
- 1 powerhead w/ variable flow
- 20 lbs mix of live and dry rock (50/50)
- AccuraSea 1 Synthetic Seawater Mix - Two Little Fishies
- 2 turban snails
- 2 Astrea snails
- 1 Nassarius snail
- 1 cleaner shrimp
- 1 royal Gramma
- 1 yellow head Jawfish
- pH = 8.0 – 8.2
<Aim for 8.3 using a quality buffer>
- Ammonia = 0 ppm
- Nitrite = 0 ppm
- Nitrate = 10 – 15 ppm
- S.G. = 1.023
<A bit higher would be better,1025/35 ppm (natural sea water salinity>
Daily: Feed fish LRS Reef Frenzy; clean algae as needed; and monitor fish.
<A more varied diet would be better, have you try Spectrum pellets? "Thera +A"
helps treating parasites; a vitamin supplement is also needed, either added
directly to the tank water or by soaking the food.>
Weekly: Replace filter floss; check water parameters; vacuum substrate and
conduct 5 gallon water change.
Monthly: Replace carbon.
<Must be remove when medicating the tank>
I started the tank approximately 5 months ago. The initial cycle completed
approximately 3 months ago, (i.e., no ammonia detected for the past 3 months). I
purchased the royal Gramma from my LFS about 2 months ago without a quarantine.
<The root of the problem, ALL fish must be quarantine at least for 4 weeks>
The Gramma was initially skittish, but it calmed down after about 48 hours.
Gramma has been eating like a horse ever since and appears noticeably larger
then when we purchased it. I then added the above CUC (no quarantine) to deal
with some algae growth. I lost 2 Nassarius snails within the first week, but the
other snails looked fine.
<What about calcium levels?>
I attributed the snail loss to my failure to conduct a drip acclimation on the
The CUC has kept the algae in check. About 2 months ago, I purchased a yellow
head Jawfish (no quarantine) from my LFS. The Jawfish was extremely skittish for
about 24 hours, but he calmed down.
<Normal behaviour for new fish>
He has built some burrows for himself and has been eating well ever since.
A little over two weeks ago, I noticed the Gramma was flashing. Not much, but if
I watched for about 20 minutes, I would see the fish dart around and then swim
into the live rock or side of the tank multiple times in a row. The Gramma did
not have any small white spots (ich), but I did notice some slight discoloration
around the purple head and gill area. The Gramma was also hanging out a little
bit more in the back of the tank. However, the Jawfish seemed fine at this time.
My LFS examined pictures of the Gramma. They suspected some type of parasite,
but they did not think it was ich.
<I agree here with your LFS, not a visible parasite but an internal one, this is
why quarantine is a must, even if there is no noticeable illness.>
On the advice of the LFS, I did the following:
- Added cleaner shrimp (no quarantine)
<Not very helpful if parasites are internal>
- Increased thermostat to 81 degrees
- Lowered salinity with 2 gallon exchange of salt water for fresh water
- Dosed PraziPro for potential flukes
- Removed carbon from sump
- Attempted a fresh water dip for the Gramma, but he was too quick for me to
catch. I gave up trying to catch him after 3 failed nights of chasing him with
nets and bags. He is now terrified of the nets....
<Would be worthy to take out all the rocks so you can catch the Gramma Loreto
and treat it with copper on a separate tank>
The above modifications haven been in effect for the past two weeks. While I
have observed the cleaner shrimp briefly working on the Gramma (so cool), I have
not otherwise observed any improvements with the Gramma's condition. In fact, I
think the Gramma's discoloration may be even more pronounced now (see attached
pic), and the flashing has continued at about the same rate. He does seem to be
back in the front of the tank a little bit more now. In addition, I noticed the
Jawfish is now rubbing his head in the sand occasionally, which is a behavior I
have not previously observed.
<Disease is spreading>
I have only seen this a few times. The Jawfish otherwise looks and acts normal.
Both fish are still eating like champs.
One other note, I think the Gramma and Jawfish may have had a little tussle
about 3 weeks ago. I say this because I noticed the Gramma was occupying the
main burrow built by the Jawfish. They seemed to have sorted this out now,
because the Jawfish moved into a new home burrow. There have been no other signs
of aggression (jaws wide open/nipped fins/chasing/etc) between the two fish, but
I am not watching them 24/7.
<If aggression is taking place(even out of your sight),it could be an added
factor, since stress is a direct access to most diseases>
My original thought was to setup a quarantine tank to dose the Jawfish and
Gramma with copper and to let the display tank go fallow for 2 months. After
researching on this site and others, I think this may not be the best option.
<Not the easiest but certainly a wise option>
The quarantine tank and meds will certainly stress the fish out, and I am not
certain I am dealing with a parasite. My new plan was to reset the salinity and
temperature to my original points and wait and see. I will still go ahead with
purchasing the quarantine equipment for future fish/corals/invertebrates, but I
will hold off on adding anything to the tank until this situation is resolved.
<It won´t solve with the current treatment>
Do you have any questions, suggestions or advice regarding the Gramma/Jawfish?
Again, I am new to the hobby, and it is quite possible I am missing something
Separate/bonus question, would it be an overstock to have a 1 Jawfish, 1 Gramma,
and 2 ocellaris clownfish in the BioCube 32?
<Bioload is fine according to your tank´s capacity>
Thank you in advance!
<Same to you>
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?
Is there an antibiotic that you would recommend?
<Anything for Finrot worth a shot. Kanaplex is good, and the old Maracyn
1 and 2 combo is well regarded. Just avoid the "new age" medications
such as tea-tree oils that really aren't very effective. Salt isn't much
either. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation? 10/13/18
Is there an antibiotic that you would recommend?
<PS. Outside of the US, it may difficult to get antibiotics without a
prescription from a vet. Here in the UK, I favour a European product
called eSHa 2000 that's effective and tolerated well by even sensitive
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation? 10/13/18
Ok thank you very much
<Most welcome and good luck. Neale.>
ACF Tadpole Die-off 10/13/18
Over the last few months I decided to raise around 80 African Clawed Frog
tadpoles and for the most part, things have gone fine. 3 days ago, I was down to
my last 4 tadpoles, in the 10 gallon tank, within 2 days, 3 of the
last 4 had died off and my last tadpole looks like this (see attached image).
In the last day, the end of the tail went limp like the other 3 before they died
but in this case, the tadpole's tail end has essentially just rotted off, it's
the only occupant of the tank nothing could have bitten it. All of the water
parameters are normal, no ammonia, nitrites, nitrates,
<I doubt nitrates are zero. So if your test kits are offering these numbers, you
probably should distrust them. Zero ammonia and nitrite are certainly possible,
indeed, preferred; but since nitrate is the end product of filtration, it should
accumulate over time between water changes.>
the GH and KH are constant.
<Constant what? As a reminder, neutral, medium hardness water is the ideal.
Water temperature should be around room temperature, 18-20 degrees C being ideal
for the classic Xenopus laevis species most widely traded. Avoid excessively
high temperatures, and similarly, avoid chilling and/or exposure to cold air.
Xenopus tropicalis is less commonly traded, and requires warmer water (24-28 C)
and prefers softer water chemistry.>
About 2 weeks ago, when there were 7 left, I altered the water change schedule
to 50% every 3 days since the parameters were staying constant.
<Do remember water changes need to be more or less daily, and ideally twice
daily. Xenopus tadpoles, like baby fish, are very sensitive to 'old' water,
especially in small tanks. The easiest approach is to reduce the number of
tadpoles per tank, which puts less pressure on water quality, and in turn makes
it easier to rear them successfully. Trying to rear huge numbers can be an
overwhelming task. Do be ruthless about removing uneaten food and
dirt (turkey basters are ideal for spot cleaning) while also ensuring more,
small meals rather than 1-2 big meals.>
The only issue I've had was the heat going out in the house for 3-4 days but the
lowest the house dropped to was about mid 60s (F).
<Might be a bit cold, especially if there were cold draughts of air as well.>
As of 2 days, after the first tadpole had died and the others were acting
sluggish, I restarted daily 50% (looking back, I would've gone with 30% but I've
been a bit burnt-out these last two weeks) changes on the 10 gallon. My
thinking was that perhaps the water wasn't being properly oxygenated on the
every 2 days water change schedule but now with this tadpole's Finrot-like
symptom, I'm just baffled - each of the others had the same tail tip droop
but none of them lasted long enough for it to progress to more than a droop.
(Note: the final tadpole just died early this morning but I'd still like to
figure out what on earth happened to prevent anything like this in the future
should I decide to raise more tadpoles at a later date).
<While the tail-drooping is remarkable, it may be more a reflection of general
failure to thrive rather than some specific disease or problem.>
Additionally, I've fed them Xenopus express tadpole food daily for the past
160-odd days since the tadpoles hatched. Over the last few days, after the heat
went out, the last 4 tadpoles all became lethargic and stopped eating/actively
swimming. Each of them were receiving about 0.3ml of the tadpole suspension a
day in the week prior every afternoon, Xenopus Express' feeding instructions
assume you're raising the tadpoles in bulk and don't translate well to smaller
numbers. I had almost no issues while I was dealing with a large number of
tadpoles but once I was under 20, I found myself a bit uncertain of a good
feeding schedule/amount, I'd welcome any suggestions on how much to feed a
Thank you for any advice.
<Hope this helps. Neale.>
Press Release - Vibra-Bites 10/13/18
Attached – please include in next issue or post
Hikari Sales USA, Inc.
Offering Hikari®, Bio-Pure®, Bio-Pure® FD, Aquarium Solutions®, Pond Solutions®,
Reptile Solutions® & Takara Products
PRESS RELEASE – For immediate publication
Hikari® is please to introduce its newest addition to its extremely popular line
of tropical diets, Vibra-Bites™. Great for all types of tropical fish, this
flavorful nutrient mix offers many unique benefits. From the pellet design,
which mimics a blood worm moving through the water, to the incredible color
enhancing ability which will help your fish glow with a flood of color, to the
exacting nutrient balancing through extensive feeding trials that helps us offer
growth and form you won’t believe, this is truly a new generation aquatic diet.
The oxygen barrier package helps maintain the quality and perfection consumers
have come to expect from the leader in aquatic nutrition worldwide. For more
information contact us Hikari Sales USA, Inc. at firstname.lastname@example.org or (800)
621-5619. You can also see more information on this item at www.hikariusa.com
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation? 10/12/18
So far he is still fine. Still has a bit of prolapse, assuming it was a messy
bite. Hopefully it isn't as bad and it can heal naturally. I have cherry shrimp
in the tank so meds is off limits and catching him is somehow a pain, others I
can catch with my hands, but this guy is very evasive. So QTing is pretty much
impossible without destroying a bunch of plants just to catch him. Thank you
<Understood. Antibiotics should be safe, even with shrimps and snails, though
you could just watch and see what happens for now. Obviously yes, organic dyes,
formalin and copper compounds are not safe with invertebrates. Cheers, Neale.>
What is growing on and near my live rock?
I have been using your site for many years and it has always been a blessing and
answered every question I had!
<Glad to know it has helped you that much!>
I have a 90gal tank with quite a bit of live rock and very few inhabitants
currently (few small snails). Getting the tank ready to stock once again and
(outside of some unwanted algae), I have some things that started growing that I
have not experienced before. I can't seems to find exactly what these tree/twig
looking things are that are growing on and next to my live rock. Kind of remind
of Mangrove roots here in FL. Here is a pic of them in the tank and one that got
temporarily de-rooted as I was
cleaning tank and bedding while readying for next participants.
<This is some kind of calcareous algae, looks like Halimeda incrassata.>
<Have a nice day. Wilberth.>
Red Sea fish ID 10/12/18
Dear Mr. Bob,
I'm Mohammed Hassaan from Egypt. Please I need your help about this fish ID
I searched a lot on Fishbase.org and could not find it.
Thank you, Mohammed Hassaan
<This is a juvenile Parrotfish, Family Scaridae (Labridae for some); I believe
it's a Chlorurus gibbus.
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
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- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
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