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Pseudocheilinus tetrataenia Schultz 1960, take a guess, yes; the Fourline Wrasse. Like all members of the genus is best kept one to a tank. Western central Pacific. To three inches total length. French Polynesia 2018.
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Re: Hawaii Dive Collectors      6/19/18
Hey Bob,
I don’t collect Flame Wrasses, but you might have her check with Alika Garcia ( 808) 220-1964
Hope all is well
Dead horse ( my HHH given name)
<Hey Rand; thx much... will pass on to Bri. Hope to see you someday soon, above and below water. Dogfish, my HHH and Telex petfish name of long ago. Cheers.>
Re: Hawaii Dive Collectors      6/19/18

Thanks to Dead Horse for his recommendation and thank you for forwarding to me, Bob! I'll give Alika Garcia a call. Will let you know what develops from here!
<Thank you; appreciated>
Also, I'm not sure if my email resent the same message to you again, but guessing so since I received two separate responses from you. Sorry for that! Definitely not my intent to pester.
-Bri
<Never a bother. Am excited re your project. Am hoping that we will chat up Rising Tide as a source of help. Who knows? Bob Fenner>

Berghias - am I in an infinite Aiptasia loop?      6/19/18
Hi all,
<Hey Marcos>
I have a huge infestation of Aiptasia (by the thousands perhaps?) in my 250L tank, and decided to try the Berghias as all the other solutions didn't work (manually removing or killing the Aiptasia with shots of
anything is absolutely impossible at this point). I added 4 of them around mid-February, and for a while I thought they had just died, but recently I have been spotting lots of them, even with the lights on, also I've seen at least about 4 or 5 of these "egg spirals" as well in the last 2 weeks only, and I see the Berghias in a lot of different sizes (smallest being around 2-3 mm and the biggest being around 3cm,
<Wow!>
not sure if they'll get bigger), the population probably is over 30 of these if not more so far, I saw about
15 of them in daylight once and who knows how many are still hidden in the small orifices in the rocks or dead snail shells. It seems that they are probably eating very well, as they are reproducing relatively faster than I was expecting, but there are no actual visible signs of the Aiptasia population to be reducing, mostly the big ones, it probably is reducing but in a very slow rate so far (I think the Aiptasia at the bottom seem to be disappearing faster, maybe 10% are gone but those on the rocks are still there). I have some really huge Aiptasia (4cm or so or more) and even the biggest Berghias are a bit small compared to these. My Berghias aren't getting brown-ish as well (although they do have these darker spikes when they're past 1cm or so), which makes me think that they aren't overfeeding or something. They also seem to work in teams, I rarely see a single Berghia attacking a single Aiptasia but I've seen 4 or 5 Berghias around one once.
My question is... can the Berghias prefer to eat all the smallest Aiptasia first, leaving the big ones for later (if needed)
<Yes>
as they are probably harder to be eaten and can this make me to be stuck in a loop forever as the big Aiptasia aren't being eaten but at the same time these are also releasing new baby Aiptasia which is what the Berghias are actually eating, so the big Aiptasia will probably never disappear but will keep
making babies and just the baby Aiptasia are enough for keeping all my Berghias alive and thriving?
<Time will tell. I suspect the Nudis will get ahead of the curve at some point. I would bolster their efforts w/ Butterflyfish, Filefish addition/s>
Could this be just temporary, and as soon as the Berghias population really explodes in a couple more months (say, when they reach hundreds of them) they will eat most or all of the baby Aiptasia fast enough and will have to attack the big ones?
<I do think so; yes>
I'm not planning to add any other Aiptasia predator to make things go faster, I'll try to just let the Berghias do their job but it seems it will take a long time. Peppermint shrimps never worked fine here, and a
Copperband might be complicated to keep later when the Aiptasia are gone, the Berghias is just easier to keep.
TIA,
Marcos
<Thank you for sharing. One possible avenue to consider... selling the excess Berghia (over the Net, to stores, fellow hobbyists in clubs); and using the proceeds to replace all hard substrates, bleach, rinse, air dry the present and use as base. Bob Fenner>

Young Koran angel....brown spots on face.      6/18/18
Is this Ick or something else? What should I do?
<.... 7.5 megs.... Read... on WWM; re Pomacanthus semicirculatus, health, HLLE, nutrition...
Bob Fenner>

Hawaii Dive Collectors      6/18/18
Hi Bob!
<Hey Bri>
I am not sure if this is an email to be posted on WWM, since I haven't read anything there promoting specific individuals but I'm looking for dive contact(s) in Hawaii that could supply me with a harem of Cirrhilabrus jordani for captive breeding purposes in my high school science classroom.
<I'm still waiting on response from "Furry Slippers"/Fernley in HI>
I am so excited about the developments being made in captive-bred fish and would like to breed this species since it is endemic, under pressure from collection, and a good candidate for many aquarium setups. I'd also like to get my students involved, so they can see that we all play a part in conservation. I've done extensive research on how Halichoeres melanurus was bred, as well as several species of angelfish. I know that this is quite a challenge to take on, but I think it would be an amazing experience for my students that will provide them with so many learning opportunities. It help them understand how to use their failures as catalysts for improvement, understand how complex our world is, and see that they truly can make a difference.
It's becoming harder to find C. jordani (expiring collection permits that the state isn't renewing and possibly wrong time of year for collection?)
<Mmm; yes to the former, but this fish, all aquarium-used fish species are found in Hawaii year round>
Even when I do see them, they have been exposed to so many medications through the chain of custody that I am afraid their overall health and fertility are impacted.
<Likely>
I'd like to obtain my fish directly from a diver, so that I can receive them quickly and do my own quarantine procedure with minimal medication, no starvation period, and live cultured foods as well as prepared.
<Understood>
Want to go to Hawaii and catch some flame wrasses for me, sir?? I'll pay for your margaritas too!
-Lil Bri
<One never knows. BobF>

Problems with 20 gallon aquarium rack      6/18/18
Hello:
<Tim>
I am having some trouble with a 20 gallon aquarium rack that I built and I am looking for some advice.
I built the rack out of 2x4s following this video here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ffely-t4iw
<Have reviewed>
I used a circular saw for all of the cuts, but a lot of my cuts were not straight. I am very amateur
when it comes to woodworking and I did not do that great of a job. I tried my best using a carpenter's square and a miter square to get everything squared up as I was building it, but I seem to have failed that. The rack came together fine but when I bought it in the house to test out to see if it was level or not, it rocked.
<Best to use the level while assembling>
I checked the floor with a level and it was level. The rack is actually going in the garage so I was planning on putting some leveling feet on it, which I did. I was able to get it level to the garage floor, which is slightly sloped for drainage reasons.
Anyways, after I leveled it, I put an empty 20 gallon tank on the top of the rack and it rocked.
<Not good>
It seems that the back left corner and the front right corner are too high. As you can see from the attached picture, the gap created is quite large! I checked the middle and bottom and both of these have the same problem as the top. I was scratching my head trying to figure out what I could do to fix this, so I went and got some plywood cut to fit the rack to turn it into a shelf. After adding the plywood, the
tank still rocks! Why is this?
<The laterals are still not level...>
I am unsure what to do at this point. I see a lot of people using some type of foam under the tank to help with minor issues, but I feel like the gap is too big for this.
<I agree>
Is my best bet going to be to take down the corners with either sandpaper, a wood chisel, or a plane?
<Mmm; no... wedges under the ply that make the plywood itself level is best. If necessary for smaller gaps, you can put foam between the ply and tank>
I am worried that if I attempt this, I am going to end up taking too much wood off and end up needing to rebuild the whole rack, which I really don't want to do. I think I did a decent job for my first attempt at building such a rack, but obviously not good enough!
What do you recommend in this situation?
<Plastic wedging (you can buy in various sizes at Home Depot, Lowe's....)
as stated>
Thank you for your time,
Timothy Marinello
<Please write back if this is not clear, complete. Bob Fenner>

 

Green parrotfish (Scarus quoyi)      6/17/18
I am a member of the group SDMA and have read a lot of your books over the years. Thank you for those. Notice you post a lot of pictures about fish and information. I had a quick question about Green parrotfish (Scarus ) in captivity do they do better in pairs?
<This species I've rarely encountered in captivity, nor many of the genus Scarus... or Parrotfishes period; but the few I've run across did fine solitarily>
I have seen a few post with two in a tank. I plan on putting at least one in a large 280 gallon tank.
Tank is pretty much a blank canvas and is cycled and ready to go. Just need to start planning residents.
V/R
Terry Rickman
<I strongly advocate getting yours trained onto a good pelleted staple.
Have seen Parrots eat such in institutions and home captive systems. Bob Fenner>
Re: Green parrotfish (Scarus )      6/17/18
Are Scarus quoyi known for being territorial?
<Some Scarus are territorial amongst their own kind; particularly two males>
I have the opportunity to acquire two that have never been house together. They are both 5-6 inches.
<These should be fine. Will be sexually undifferentiated at this size (not yet females). Bob Fenner>

Re: Hawaii Dive Collectors      6/17/18
Property in Hawaii? That sounds wonderful! Sadly, I am not certified yet. It’s on my bucket list.
Yes, please do send my information to him!
<Ahh, will do. Have sent a note asking if he might know collectors who have this species>
The best way to get hold of me would be through text/phone call. My number is omitted. If he prefers email, we can correspond through omitted.
<I will send both along, and not post them to WWM>
Feel free to keep my contact info for yourself as well. Perhaps we will cross paths at some point and I can say hello in person.
<Ahh! That would be delightful. Many things to chat about, share. I too did some time as a (H.S. science) teacher. My number, omitted, and email: omitted>
If you do feel like collecting some of those wrasses for me, I’d be happy to purchase them from you. I am very serious about giving this breeding endeavor a try!
You seem very professional, so I’m sure you already plan on doing this, but please delete my contact information before posting this on WWM (if you intend to do so). Thank you very much! I’ll let you know if John Fernley decides to contact me.
<Ah, good. Will do>
Hope to be chatting again soon!
Bri
<And you, BobF>

Question about the Fire Eel      6/17/18
I have a young friend who had to re-home his Pacu because the fish was overwhelming his 75 gallon tank (it was the only fish in the tank, but had grown to about 18 inches over several years and kept launching itself against the tank lid).
<Indeed. Adult Pacu are massive, and not to be trifled with. They can become very aggressive (towards other fish) when confined, and probably have no business at all in the aquarium hobby. Strictly a species for public aquaria.>
He was looking for another fish for the tank and decided to buy a Fire Eel (he bought a juvenile, currently about 4 inches).
<A lovely fish. A bit delicate, but certainly possible for the experienced fishkeeper.>
I understand this species also gets very large, but my friend assures me he did his research and that this species is not very active, so even full grown his 75 gallon tank will work just fine (he has a canister filter - I'm not sure what size tank its rated for, but it handled the Pacu just fine).
<Your friend is a bit optimistic, I fear. Fire Eels reach something approaching a metre (3 feet) in length under aquarium conditions, possibly even bigger in the wild. Assuming you're speaking of US gallons, then 100 gallons would be absolutely minimum. For sure the 75-gallon system would do for 2-3 years, but if your friend was keeping the Fire Eel right, it's going to eat A LOT of food and grow VERY QUICKLY. A 'tiddler' a few inches long will double in size after the first year, and while growth rate may slow down somewhat by the time the fish is, say, about 12 inches in length, after then it'll still be putting on 3-4 inches a year. Bear in mind that these fish are deep bodied, so length doesn't by itself take into account the sheer bulk of the adult fish.>
I've known this young man since he was 12, watched him grow up, wrote to him during his military service in Afghanistan, and I firmly believe he will take the best possible care of the Fire Eel.
<I'm sure; he sounds a great guy -- certainly has good taste in fish!>
He understands the nitrogen cycle and what is necessary to properly maintain it, and I'm equally sure he will do an excellent job in that regard. But I'm not sure a 75 gallon tank will be big enough when this animal is full grown.
<The problem is that Fire Eels, like all Spiny Eels, are very prone to bacterial infections, and once sick, are almost impossible to medicate.
Prevention is 100% the name of the game when it comes to Spiny Eel healthcare. Soft substrates (to avoid scratches); a little salt in the water (1-2 gram/litre) does seem to help but probably isn't essential; a
varied and safe diet (so no feeder fish, EVER, and a range of invertebrates and fish meats that lack thiaminase); and above all excellent water quality (no ammonia and nitrite; nitrate as low as practical). Water chemistry isn't a big issue, luckily, so a big tank and ample water changes should help keep water quality good. One other thing: make sure the Fire Eel can't escape. If it can, it will.>
He knows I ask you a lot of questions and how much help you've been to me, but he doesn't have a home computer, so I'm asking for him. Is a 75 gallon tank sufficient for a full grown Fire Eel as the solitary fish in the tank?
<As above; will do for the first few years, but once the fish is above, say, 18 inches, I think something around the 100 gallon mark is surely necessary.>
Renee
<Hope this helps, and if your fine fishkeeping friend wants to discuss further, feel free to have him write in. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Question about the Fire Eel      6/17/18

Thank you!
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Good morning....flame Hawkfish has a lump just before his tail what could this be?      6/17/18
<Mmm; a cyst, tumor... bacterial, cancerous? Do you have a good pic of a few hundred Kbyte size?
Bob Fenner>

Re: Disease Identification    6/16/18
Hello Bob and crew!
<Li'l Bri>
I thought I'd give a follow-up email for our string (see below). My purple tang did not show any further signs of the white spots through quarantine. It is now living happily in my display tank and appears perfectly healthy! It appears to have been environmental, just as Bob predicted, and my guess is that it was due to sub-par water quality while doing the Tank Transfer Method in quarantine.
<Ahh!>
Thanks for the advice! Add one more happy fish to the list of all those that you have helped!
Lil Bri
<Thank you for your update. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Re: Angelfish dying - any advice is welcomed!    6/16/18
Thanks Neale - as far as plants, I did consider they may be a problem. I did not realize that about some plants having that ability to affect the water chemistry and I have reached out to many different people about this and you are the first one to mention this.
<Oh! It is not a well-known fact perhaps, but reasonably widely seen with hard water specialist aquatic plants. Egeria and Elodea are the classic species, precipitating a chalky deposit on their leaves (carbonate salts of some sort) as they absorb bicarbonate ions, take the CO2, and get rid of what they don't need. Vallisneria are not quite so effective, but I have seen them crash a tank once, in the sense the pH changes so much and so rapidly fish were visibly distressed. Not that they're not good plants --
they're great -- but I'd be careful about using them in soft water tanks (with minimal buffering) with high lighting levels. Basically, any plant known to be a hard water specialist probably does this sort of
decalcification, whereas soft water plants probably don't.>
There are Val.s in the tank and I do not use CO2,
<So guess where the Vallisneria are getting the CO2 they need, if lighting is so great they consume the dissolved CO2? Yep, from any bicarbonate salts in the water. Now, this may or may not be an issue, but I'd perhaps monitor pH across the day, comparing, say, before the lights went on to the pH level after 6-8 hours of photosynthesis. If the pH has risen a lot, then the Vallisneria may be part of the problem.>
I was doing a "low tech" tank....I just put a seachem ph monitor on the tank which seems to work well so I am going to start writing the levels down as I check it throughout the day - I have been through vials of test strips testing the water searching for answers. So Val.s should be avoided for me
<Only under intense light AND low buffering capacity. They're otherwise fine.>
- any other plants to avoid?
<See above.>
Sincerely, Lisa
<Hope this helps.>

Hawaii Dive Collectors    6/16/18
Hi Bob!
<Bri>
I am not sure if this is an email to be posted on WWM, since I haven't read anything there promoting specific individuals but I'm looking for dive contact(s) in Hawaii that could supply me with a harem of Cirrhilabrus jordani for captive breeding purposes in my high school science classroom.
<Mmm; I'd have you contact John Fernley... actually; I'd ask that I be allowed to send your contact info. to him for his (hopeful) response>
I am so excited about the developments being made in captive-bred fish and would like to breed this species since it is endemic, under pressure from collection, and a good candidate for many aquarium setups. I'd also like to get my students involved, so they can see that we all play a part in conservation. I've done extensive research on how Halichoeres melanurus was bred, as well as several species of angelfish. I know that this is quite a challenge to take on, but I think it would be an amazing experience for my students that will provide them with so many learning opportunities. It help them understand how to use their failures as catalysts for improvement, understand how complex our world is, and see that they truly can make a difference.
It's becoming harder to find C. jordani (expiring collection permits that the state isn't renewing and possibly wrong time of year for collection?)
<The species isn't all that common... on Kona (where I usually visit, dive, own property). I've only regularly encountered it on Molokini, out in Maui.>
Even when I do see them, they have been exposed to so many medications through the chain of custody that I am afraid their overall health and fertility are impacted.
I'd like to obtain my fish directly from a diver, so that I can receive them quickly and do my own quarantine procedure with minimal medication, no starvation period, and live cultured foods as well as prepared. Want to go to Hawaii and catch some flame wrasses for me, sir?? I'll pay for your margaritas too!
-Lil Bri
<I might well do so Bri. Not joking. You are scuba certified? Bob Fenner>

Betta has Bubble (Bob, please do review/expand as needed)<<Will do>>    6/16/18
Hello!
<Hello Shannon,>
I am writing about my Crown tail Betta "Mr. Spock" He has a reoccurring bubble that keeps appearing on his left side. He doesn't seem affected by it. It just appears. Then it pops. Then it usually takes a month or so for it to reappear. However this last time the bubble popped 3 days ago and now its already starting back up.
<Curious. Given that the abdomen is obviously stretched, and the skin and scales consequently distorted, I think we can rule out gas embolism. If you recall, gas embolism tends to occur in tanks with very high aeration levels, resulting in supersaturation of the water with oxygen. The gas eventually bubbles out of solution, potentially inside the fish, where it forms more or less transparent bubbles just below the skin. Such bubbles are very unlikely to form in a tank with minimal aeration and/or filtration, as is usually the case with Bettas. So this means that some type of bacterial disease is much more probable, causing the accumulation of fluids inside the tissues.>
I live in phoenix Arizona so I have very hard water.
<Not ideal for Bettas; do aim for soft to medium hardness water, 2-15 degrees dH, pH 6.5-7.5 is about right. Do try mixing the tap water with a certain amount of RO or rainwater; even replacing 25% of each bucket of water with RO/rainwater will make a huge difference.>
Mr. Spock lives in a 1 gallon (I tried having him in a 5 gallon and he almost died from stress)
<Honestly think your interpretation of events here makes no scientific sense at all. One gallon of water is much too small for 'easy' Betta maintenance. Do remember that breeders keeping them in jam jars are changing the water completely every day, and in the wild Bettas are living in sluggish streams, ponds, paddy fields, and so on. Contrary to myth, they aren't living hoof-prints of rainwater! Fish aren't afraid of being 'out of their depth' and even a 50 gallon tank is minuscule compared to what a wild Betta would be living in. So if your Betta looked stressed, the problem wasn't really the volume of water, but the other aspects of the environment. Bettas need to be able to access the surface easily, and strong water currents will prevent that, so ensure filtration is gentle.
Air-powered filters are the ideal. They also appreciate shelter and cover, floating vegetation being the ideal, because they don't really want to make use of caves or plants at the bottom of the tank.>
with a heater (80 degrees) and a filter.
<Do review water quality. As always with fish, nine times out of ten problems come down to water quality and chemistry problems, particularly the former. 0 ammonia and 0 nitrite are essential, even for Bettas, again, despite the myth that they live in fetid swaps and can therefore survive without filters.>
He has black aquarium sand, a live plant, and a log. I do half tank water changes every other day.
<Understood.>
Since this last bubble that popped I have given him an Epsom salt bath each day.
<Epsom salt will help with swelling, but I do think the underlying cause needs to be address. Environment the most likely cause; bacteria the most likely mechanism.>
Thank you so much for you valuable time!
Shannon
<Glad to help. Good luck, Neale.>

Help identifying my fish      6/13/18
Hi,
Could you please help me identify this fish? I’m thinking cichlid but what kind?
Any help is much appreciated!!
Veronika
<Hello Veronika. I thought it had a vaguely Neotropical, even Geophagine aspect to it, but when I showed your photo to cichlid expert Mary Bailey, she wasn't convinced! I think it's too young and generic-looking to be easily identifiable. Many cichlids have this sort of shape and colouration when small, and there's a lot of convergence, with cichlids from one part of the world looking a lot like cichlids from someplace else. On top of that, there are so many hybrids in the trade, some fish are truly un-identifiable -- at least, not without a DNA analysis. So yes, it's a cichlid, but beyond that, who knows? Sorry can't be more useful than that. Cheers, Neale.>

Lice - Solve      6/13/18
I used Lice – Solve last night on my happy active fish and this morning 16 of my fish are dead leaving only 5 left alive. I am heartbroken that despite using the correct amount and following instructions to the letter that I have inadvertently killed my beautiful fish with this product.
Jay
<Hello Jay. Lice-Solve is a product for killing off Argulus, Anchor Worms, and other (external) crustacean parasites. It's basically an insecticide, and should have low toxicity to vertebrates such as fish. Consequently the chemical inside Lice-Solve, Emamectin, has been used on fish farms where the food produced ends up on our dinner plates. With that said, insecticides can cause problems for fish if used at the wrong dosage (so double-check that) and can also cause problems to 'sensitive' fish species. If we're talking about pond fish, that's going to mean things like Orfe and Sturgeons, and possibly other species as well. Goldfish and Koi should be fine though. One problem with using any sort of poison is that if other things in the pond die as well, such as insects in the pond, and there's enough 'dying' going on to reduce water quality, then the fish may suffer as oxygen levels drop. It's often recommended that aeration be increased when medicating, which in a pond situation might include using a fountain or air bubbler. In a pond without filtration or aeration, it's entirely possible that even irritation to the gill membranes caused by the medication can be sufficient to stress, or even kill, your fish. I'd certainly reach out to the manufacturers to see if they can offer some insight, but I agree with you that this is a very unfortunate outcome. Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: African butterfly fish      6/13/18
Thank you
Luckily I have managed to get mine on flake, dry blood worms and small Cichlid pellets.
<Nice!>
When u mean wingless fruit flies is that catching them wild or bought from pet stores.
<Either. But sure, you can buy wingless fruit flies and (sparingly) very small crickets from pet stores that cater to owners of reptiles and frogs.
On the other hand, if you happen to have a lot of house flies or fruit flies in your home, there's probably no harm in catching these and feeding them to your African Butterflyfish now and again. House Flies are pretty mucky beasts for sure, but the chances of them carrying something likely to infect a tropical fish has to be close to zero. Fruit flies should be entirely safe, since they're not eating carrion but mostly nectar, decaying fruit, and other plant foods.>
Thank you
From Josh
<Most welcome, Neale.>

Id of worm/potential young sea cucumber      6/13/18
Hi,
Got a frag of sps of a fellow reefer and found a couple of worm like creatures that are very small on the bottom.
The guy i got the frags from has 2 cucumbers in his tank. To the best of his knowledge no bobbit/eunice worms.
Wondering if you might be able to id or help out.
The large one in pictures is about 4mm long.
<Wow! No wonder your pix aren't cropped, crisp (highly resolved)... Likely are Holothurians, but could be some type of worm. I wouldn't panic. Thanks for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: Id of worm/potential young sea cucumber      6/13/18
Hi Bob,
Yes was very hard to get pics. Those were the best i could get.
So you would say safe to let loose in display?
<Yes; I would>
I figure if they are small holothurians the sand would be a benefit.
Adam
<Agreed. Cheers Adam. BobF>

Can't get enough of that funky WWM stuff?
Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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