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Abudefduf whitleyi Allen & Robertson 1974, Whitley's Sergeant. Western Pacific; Australia and New Caledonia. To a little under six inches in length. A beautiful and easier going member of the genus, which unfortunately rarely finds its way into ornamental markets. Image shot off Heron Island, Australia. 
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Updated 6/25/19
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Debate solving. Crypt Cu exposure sensitivity      6/25/19
Good evening Bob,
<Hey Bob>
I attended the reef a palooza show in New York (actually situated in NJ) , by to purchase anything but to gather some info and took first hand with the makers . (Or catchers if it’s pertaining to livestock)
I got into a friendly debate with two guys with tables adjacent to each other, one being an sps stick guy, another fish importer.
Discussing the usage of copper based medications, and length of time.
<A big topic; some decidedly divisive opinions and MUCH science here>
One thing they did agree on, like the literature says, is it kills the “free swimming stages” . But we couldn’t come to a consensus on what exactly the free swimming stage is.
<Temperature dependent, and again, scientifically described....>
We know when it’s on the fish, it’s not touchable , protected in the fishes body. We know it’s protected when it is encysted in the bottom , or in the substrate, waiting to hatch out.
<Yes; and can remain encysted at times for months>
We know the copper can kill during that phase when they hatch out and have to find a host.
<Mmm; not during encystment as far as I'm aware, unless Cu++ levels are VERY high>
But what about the time from when they “fall” off the fish, and have to swim to the bottom and begin encysting?
<THIS and when they're swarming, looking for a host IS the copper sensitive intervals>
During that time when they are going from the fish to the substrate, are they prone to or protected by copper at this time?
Thanks as always and appreciate your thoughts .
<Glad to proffer them. Cheers, BobF>

Algae ID     6/25/19
Good morning from Thailand,
<Hi Dirk from Thailand!>
I have attached some pictures of some algae I am getting very frustrated in and seem to be taking over this aquarium for the longest time now. Aquarium has no fish inside and only houses 2 seahorses which are only fed live brine shrimp and copepods. No food added ever to this tank for about 1year++Water tests show 0 Nitrates and 0 Phosphates. Top off is done with RO/DI water, I dont have silicate test kit so not sure if that's available. Have been putting phosphate remover in the aquarium added extra bacteria to try and out compete this algae but .....Shut of the lights for several days which seem to effect them slightly to just return in force as soon as light goes on. Tank has also a large toadstool, 2 elegances and some red ear and branch sponges.
<What are the dimensions of your system, water volume?... also, what type of filtration do you have, do you run a protein skimmer, ozonizer? These last two help by limiting nutrient availability which is used by BGA (blue-green algae) to reproduce.>
We have tried everything even at one point removing all stone cleaning them removing daily manually, phosphate remover......but this thing keep going and going.....added blue legged hermits, Turbos, Algae crabs, had a Seahare in it even for a while....
<Do you have a sump?... a DSB with macro algae in a reverse light cycle really helps on getting rid of this nuisance algae.>
Cant really seem to find any positive ID on the net either maybe you guys can help?
<This appears to be BGA (blue-green algae).>
thank you for any advice possible...
<You’re most welcome. Wil.>

Re: Algae ID     6/25/19
Hi Mister Will,
Blue green algae are they not to be Cyano bacteria rather then algae?
<Yes, that is how it is called and it is either blue, green, red or brown.>
Not sure if you noticed what I send on the pictures but what I am referring to what is taking over my tank is not a bacteria but rather a green looking plant....see again attached picture with marked what I referring to.
< Yep, it is BGA.>
As for the system yes a skimmer is present in the system though no extra space for a refugium is available.
<I suggest you to perform a large 30% water change, followed by weekly 10% until the problem is solved, please see the following link and related ones. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/cyanocontrolfaqs.htm . Wil.>

Patches on majestic angel      6/24/19
I have currently the following in the tank
1. 1 Yellow tang 2.4 inch
2. 1 Purple tang 2.5 inch
3. 1 Sailfin tang 3.5 inch
4. 1 Regal tang 1.25 inch
5. 1 Percula clown small (1 inch)
6. 1 Fox face 2.5 inch
7. 1 Pink Anthias small (1.5 inch)
8. 1 Banana wrasse 2 inch

<Wow; small starters>
9. 1 Star fish
10. 3 hermit crabs small (1-1.6 inch)
11. 1 Tomato Clown 1.25 inch
12. 1 Fire Clown

13. 1. Majestic angel ( picture enclosed)
Tank size 4 ft x 2 ft x 2ft.
<Mmm; will need a larger system...>

Water parameters are all ok . Ammonia 0 , Nitrite 0 , Nitrate between 0-4 ppm , PH between 7.8-8.0
<Should be a bit higher....>
Background : I noticed ick on my regal tang on 14th June 2019. I raised the tank temp from 28 deg cent slowly between 30-31 deg cent for 10 days. Now regal tank is without any ick and eating well. My Majestic angel has now spots near its mouth . I see that its not ick but slightly large white patches. I am worried as it is not eating. I suspect following :-
1. Ph is slightly low due to high temp.
2. High temperature is giving discomfort and stress.
3. Lastly it is infected with some other crypt.
Please advise. You have been extremely supporting always.
Bodh Raj,
<Well; could be (simply) body mucus due to stress as you hint at; might be later expression of trematodes (see WWM re, determination, treatment)... I want to state that Navarchus/Majestic Angels are not in general good/hardy aquarium specimens.
IF it were my fish, I'd do some sampling of the "gunk", look under a microscope... Maybe try a pH adjusted freshwater bath, or series of them, day/s apart... Moving this fish to another established system after if you have one. Bob Fenner>

Question about my albino African clawed frog     6/24/19
Could use some help. Included is a picture of my albino African clawed frog. As you can see it has a “blister” coming from it’s back end. It has been like this for the past 2 days.
<Medicate quickly; you have limited time here! Bacterial infections rarely fix themselves, and these frogs quickly sicken and die. I'm going to send you to some reading, here:
If you look at the Red Leg section, you'll see what you're dealing with, and the recommendation to try Maracyn II and Maracyn Plus. If antibiotics aren't available without prescription where you live, a vet may provide them if asked, or else you'll have to resort to a reliable antibacterial such as eSHa 2000.>
It is in a tank with one other frog who doesn’t have any issues.
<Yet! I'm a bit concerned by the substrate, which is much too coarse for these frogs, and could easily explain the damage. Standard operating procedure for these frogs is to use NO substrate at all, but alternatively, a very smooth, lime-free sand (such as smooth silica sand or pool filter sand) can be used. Avoid gravel because they can swallow it and that usually proves fatal if not quickly regurgitated.>
I have had them for 6 months now. I have tried google searching for possible diseases or fungus. Nothing appears to match my frogs symptoms. If you can please let me know what you think this could be and a possible solution to help it!
Thank you for your time,
<Hope this helps! Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Question about my albino African clawed frog     6/24/19
Thank you for getting back to me. I am going to change the gravel & try to find the antibiotics today.
<Glad to help and good luck! Neale.>

New fishkeeper advice; FW stkg.  6/23/19
Hello crew.
<Hello Phil!>
After extensive web trawling I have come across your site, its extensive forum discussions, and now your email address to see if you can help with a couple of issues we are facing as new fishkeepers .. parents helping 13 yr old. Rapidly finding mixed messages btw stuff we've read and our local store, a branch of Maidenhead Aquatics.
<Understood. The MA chain is generally excellent, but each 'branch' operates a bit more like a franchise, buying into the identity, and maintaining certain standard, but how the store is run in terms of
livestock, recruitment, etc. is very much up to the branch manager. So some branches will specialise in cichlids because that's what the branch manager likes, while others will be stronger than average in marines, yet others will regularly import oddballs like killifish rarely seen in other branches. Staff vary, from the average sort of store clerk through to dedicated hobbyists who know enough to write books. I've yet to see a genuinely bad branch, in the sense of a place with dead fish littering the tanks for example, so on the whole, I like to recommend the Maidenhead Aquatics chain as a basically safe bet for the casual hobbyist. But some branches are definitely exceptional and worth a trip, even compared against the more 'famous' independents like Wildwoods or Pier Aquatics.>
Around Easter established brand new 65 litre tank with live plants and rocks, filter and heater. 24 C. After 2 weeks added first fish, 6 Male guppies, 3 x dark blue and 3 x red fin and 2 orange shrimp (one died after couple of days, other one fine and has had baby, now back to 2). All went fine. Regular water changes happening. About 3 weeks later bought 10 neon tetra to join guppies.
<A questionable combination, and to be honest, I don't rate either Neons or Guppies as 'easy' fish. Let's begin by pointing out the fact Neons prefer relatively cool, soft water: 22-25 C, 2-10 degrees dH, pH 6-7.5. By contrast fancy Guppies at least appreciate warmth, 25-28 C, and despise soft water, requiring at least 10 and ideally 15-25 degrees dH. While not essential, the addition of a little salt can help tremendously, maybe 2-5 gram/litre. There's not much overlap between them, so they're unlikely to
thrive in the same tank. Now, the other reason to avoid both species is the generally poor quality of the specimens in the trade. Neons are just hopeless, and after trying a few times, I've just written them off as worthless. Possibly with soft water, suitable quarantining and ruthless removal of sickly specimens you might get lucky, but for the average aquarist they're very risk. Guppies vary, and specimens bred locally are normally fine. But the farmed specimens do seem prone to diseases, and I suspect that extensive use of antibiotics ensures they survive okay on fish farms and through the supply chain, but once in the home aquarium, a fair number of specimens seem to just waste away. Again, quarantining, perhaps alongside suitable use of antibiotics on a prophylactic basis, could do the trick, and certainly optimal water conditions help, but again, as fish for casual aquarists stocking ordinary community tanks, I'd write them off as too risky.>
Within 1 week slight signs of white spot on the tetra.
<Whitespot is not uncommon in new tanks, and medications like eSHa EXIT -- my favourite for this disease -- should work quickly and effectively. The old heat/salt method can work too.>
Back to store, given tank treatment, spots on tetras appeared to clear overnight but then lost about 2 a night over last 3 nights. 2 remaining but not very active. Probably only a matter of time ... During this time the most aggressive dark blue guppies taken to tail biting one of the red ones.
<Male Guppies can be mutually aggressive. Certainly, keep large numbers if they're just males, six or more, and the bigger the group, the safer they'll be. If mixed with females, which can help, outnumber the males with twice as many females.>
Significant chunk gone - see attachment. So trying to understand what has happened and move forward positively. Fear end of line for tetra, presume sick batch or tank shock? What do you think?
<See above.>
Is it worth trying again with another shoal style fish after a gap period?
<Certainly there are many better, easier species. For casual aquarists, schools of X-ray Tetras (also called Pristella tetras), Emperor Tetras, and False Penguin Tetras (widely sold as just plain old Penguin Tetras) are perhaps the three best picks. They handle hard water perfectly well, and in groups of at least 6 specimens, behave completely peacefully. Emperors are quirky in that males hold little territories, but given space they won't do any harm. Cherry Barbs are a good Asian alternative, with males and females
having different, but equally charming, colouration. They're especially fun to watch! So far as livebearers go, none of the common species are truly bombproof any more thanks to decades of inbreeding, but if you can get wild-caught or so-called 'Feeder' Guppies (essentially mutts or crossbreeds) then these can be good. Personally, I keep Limia species instead; these are similar to Guppies, not quite so colourful, but lively and hardy. Various species out there, the Humpback Limia and Blue Limia my two top picks.>
For guppies is it best to isolate aggressor or tail damaged one?
<See above; isolate the aggressive male in a breeding trap for a few days can help, but in a small group, the next male down the pecking order will likely become the bully instead.>
Have tried both approaches for about 24 hrs with little change in behaviour. If this aggressor removed, will another assume that role (pecking order style) or cannot say for sure.
Injured fish also now showing slightly swollen tummy (which have read could be stress response too)
<Possibly, but more likely sick; Epsom salt usage at 1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres can work a treat if the problem isn't a bacterial infection.>
Any help and guidance on above and best next steps would be appreciated.
Welcome to publish this on the site if it could help others, just wasn't sure how!
With thanks. Phil
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Carpet anemone question     6/22/19
Hi Bob,
<Hey Frank>
I hope all is well. I have a question for you regarding a carpet anemone I just received. To my knowledge, carpets reproduce through shooting eggs and sperm through their mouths
<Yes; sexually... they do asexually divide, leave bits behind as well>
(my rock anemones did this which I did record the action on video and I actually had little rock anemones show up months later).
This one I received had a little carpet growing on the underside of its column. Did you ever see something like this and do you have any knowledge of this as another way of reproducing like budding? Thank you as always!
<Have seen and wondered re... Is this "just" a bit of the capitulum (top) being extruded from the pedicle/stalk of this animal? Or... yet another means/example of asexual... fragging; if you will? Bob Fenner>
Re: Carpet anemone question     6/22/19

That can be interesting if does reproduce asexually as well. I didn't check for a small mouth. However, I will investigate and see. Thank you
<Please keep me/us "in the loop" Frank. BobF>

Re: Mycobacterial Infection     6/22/19
Wanted you to have these pictures as I think they are great for educational purposes. Been on antibiotics for 30 days and the M. marinum has cleared up pretty good.
<Yes; the emargination... looks good>
2 more months to go. Just an fyi all my sea life creatures are still doing okay as long as they dont jump out of the tank.
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Zoa Eating Nudis        6/21/19
<Hello Branko>
We are having an issue with Zoa Eating Nudis, we've used Aquaforest Dip after acclimation of corals on import. It does wonderful job and kills off adults, however after a while eggs hatch and they start re appearing. Then we redo dipping on all our corals... its very time consuming and Nudis eventually come back.
<Yep, they always return>
While looking for more permanent and easier to administer solution, I've come across posts suggesting use of Salifert Flatworms exit.
<Have worked for me>
Some swear by it, while others say multiple dosage is required, 4times recommended dose for flatworms. We tried that too, yet Im still seeing happy Nudis munching on my Zoas :( Is there any chemical way of killing them off while not harming corals, ideally putting solution into the frag tanks, or chemicals that we can dip in that will take care of the eggs too. If not what type of marine life would you suggest to use to fight this pest. I would prefer dealing with them with Chemicals / inverts rather than fish. I try to keep my frag tanks fishless, to ensure no type of protozoan parasite will be sold to customers along with the frags.
<Unfortunately, they are never completely eradicated by just adding chemicals or dipping, however, I suggest to dip/bath your Zoas for 5-10 minutes in a RO water/malachite green solution. Another “marine life” option could be the Yellow Coris Wrasse (Halichoeres chrysus), I know you don’t want to introduce fish to your frag tank but this one has proved effective.>
Thanks in advance, B.
<Please do keep us posted. Cheers. Wil.>

Fish handling        6/21/19
Hey guys hoping you can settle a dispute me and a few other stores are having so is it better to use your hands to move officially over into a tank and take a photo of it while it’s in your hand or better to do with the fish over by a net and take a photo of it in the tank at a later time?
<Mmm; in most cases okay to use both; the fish in the net, with your hand gingerly supporting underneath. Photo can be taken out of the water if this doesn't take much time.
Best by far (best) to use a specimen container dunked underwater and nets to just direct specimens into, and take their pix in their systems. Bob Fenner>
Re: Fish handling        6/21/19

You know what I do you like your last option personally I’m the best as it reduces all contact with anything that could affect the scales sadly we have 20 gallon long’s so it gets a little bit more challenging when we are bagging and packing the fish
<Ah yes... I do understand. Fish stores I worked in many years ago... started with 10 gallon systems! Went to 15s, finally 20s (not longs). Cheers Tom. Bob Fenner> 

100gal very first marine tank stocking/setup....      6/20/19
Hi WWM crew, as always thank you for the wealth of information and for helping to support not only my hobby but also my insomnia!
<Ahhh..you’re welcome!>
I'm receiving a 100gal tank in trade for creating a website and graphic design work for my LFS. It's the Nuvo INT100 the dimensions are 48x24x20 I will run an 11gal refugium and skimmer in a 31gal sump .
<Great deal !>
This will be my first time owning a saltwater system but I have extensive experience in freshwater.
<This will be very helpful>
I have clocked a little over 80 hours of research so far in marine fish and reef systems and I wish that meant I was close to a decision but it has left me more confused on what to do. My original intention was a "planted" marine tank with mud, dsb, seagrasses, and a variety of macroalgae in the display
while I still love this idea, I feel like I am going to have to have to have a fairly heavy bioload to produce enough nutrients to feed this system the problem is nearly all of the fish that I like need larger than 100gal tank. Don't get me wrong, small saltwater fish are beautiful, dwarf angels, wrasses, Anthias, gobies, Chromis, clowns, etc. but I just don't necessarily want to keep them.
My next idea was a seahorse setup with the seagrasses and dsb and was going to target feed and build the rockwork to provide areas of lower flow and lighting for them. But I don't think that the 20" height of the tank is sufficient for the larger species of greater seahorses that I like. Then I did about 16 hours of research into garden eel colonies and was willing to setup the tank with a laminar flow and provide very little rockwork to accommodate them but although I've seen some sources say 6" dsb is sufficient, I've seen better sources say 10"-12" and in a 20" tank that seems borderline absurd if it would even work at all. Of course I could do a reef but, although I think corals are beautiful, I don't really feel much of an affinity to them and don't have the kind of time needed for them. The last thing I've been reading has been about lionfish because I find them absolutely stunning. My concern is that the low lighting and just rock in the tank and the inability to keep hardly any inverts combined with low activity fish will leave me disappointed with the overall look of the tank (besides the lions) and being an artist aesthetics are important to me. Although the dwarf lions are cool I'm really in love with the Volitans I was thinking 3 in the 100gal with the fuge and skimmer and water change schedule as needed. I know there are numerous possibilities but then again it's seems like not that many with this tank. 100gal in freshwater would have so many possibilities but in marine it seems like a really awkward in-between size that could just house more of the same things a smaller tank could hold but not big enough for most of the fish I'd like to keep. Am I incorrect in my statement and missing some truly great opportunity that I'm not seeing? I think it's the lack of height in the tank that's throwing me off the most.
I know it's so subjective to ask someone else what they would do with a tank but I'd love some advice here. If I ever get a 180+ I'll know how to stock it for sure but I just don't know what to do with this 100. Any advice, however subjective, would be much appreciated!
<Well, all the above options are attractive but, personally, I’d go for the Volitans display; you may also add a few other fish compatible with your Volitans and give your tank a very pleasant view. Cheers. Wil.>

Re: Coral And Marbled Catsharks      6/20/19
What are you thoughts on closed lids and oxygen levels in shark tanks? I have a closed lid (heard sharks could jump, actually mine do during feeding) and open sump. Also a decent sized protein skimmer (rated 400+ gallons).
<Shark tanks should be completely covered at all times; with the protein skimmer and open sump you provide the needed oxygenation. Wil.>
Re: Coral And Marbled Catsharks      6/20/19

Also I've read too much supplementation is bad for the sharks (fish in general), I currently soak every meal of theirs in Selcon for ~5 minutes.
Should I lay back on the Selcon to maybe every other feeding?
<Actually I only add supplementation once a week, this way you don't overdose and is efficiently absorbed by sharks metabolism.>
Thank you again.
<Welcome. Wil.>

Re: Porcupine Puffer with Possible Lockjaw     6/19/19
Thank you for your quick and helpful response. One follow-up question, for the B1 in the tank water, does "water soluble" mean that as I put the supplement in the tank water, the B1 will dissolve and then not be bioavailable to the puffer?
<Mmm; no... B vitamins "float" intact for a period of time before breaking down. Put another way, the B1 will be bioavailable for hours after administering to the tank water. Bob Fenner>
Re: Porcupine Puffer with Possible Lockjaw     6/19/19

Wonderful, thank you!
<Welcome. BobF>

Re: Dictyota Algae - Rabbitfish     6/19/19
I added the Gold Spot to my tank about a month ago and it still hasn't settled in. It seems to hide between two caves and rarely venturing out except to eat, which it is doing a lot of, and has really filled out. It
just seems stressed overall though with rapid breathing, spikes up, and camo colors.
<Some specimens don't adapt well; and these are by and large social species; usually living in good sized schools/associations. Perhaps some ditherfish?>
I know these fish can be a bit skittish but how long is reasonable for the fish to start acting normal. I was thinking about possibly reaquascaping the tank to open things up a bit. Not sure if that would make a difference or not.
<It might. DO watch your hands around Siganids... very nasty puncture wounds can be gotten from their hard fin spines. Bob Fenner>
Re: Dictyota Algae - Rabbitfish     6/19/19

In terms of other fish have a few wrasses, Anthias, Chromis, and some assessors. I had a previous crypto infection that the fish were able to fend off on their own. Was thinking about maybe putting a yellow tang in the tank to help with the rabbit but am a bit concerned about the crypto rearing its head again. I know rabbits are a more hardier species. Was curious if you think a Foxface lo would work here instead or is there likely to be to much aggression?
<They (the family Siganidae) members/species are all about the same in terms of aggressiveness, territoriality. More of a consideration (functionally) is their likely large/r size by species. Bob Fenner>
Re: Dictyota Algae - Rabbitfish     6/19/19

Woke up this morning and the Rabbitfish was on the floor.
<Aye ya>
I forgot to put
the feed door back on my lid and it jumped though a 3 inch hole. Super bummed. I am going to try one of the smaller species possibly a S. Doliatus. Maybe I will have better luck.
<I do hope so. BobF>

Re: Turtle question; WWM donation button     6/18/19
Hi everyone!
I'm 6 days out of hip replacement surgery so I might be a little fuzzier than normal ...
<Am permanently fused so>
I just went to the web site and clicked the Donate button.
It took me to Pay Pal, where I donated $16,261,2121.28
<and I got the pop-up you would expect>
I then tried $10.00 and it asked all the right questions and thanked me.
Then it took me back to WWM and I got an email receipt
So -- can someone start from the beginning and tell me what does and does not work?
<I tried for just a sawbuck and got the same. Thank you, BobF>

Crab ID     6/18/19
<Hi Marie, could you please resize your pix to just a few hundred Kbs and resend? Wil.>
Crab ID     6/18/19

<Hi Marie, thanks for resizing your files.>
I have had a hitchhiker crab since set up and sent you a email a few months back for an ID but the pictures I had weren't great so didn't really get an ID.
I now have a fallow tank as I had to remove my fish due to white spot and the crab has come out of the rocks fully and I was able to get some better pictures. If I could get an ID on him if possible please that would be great and some advice to whether he can stay in the tank or whether I should remove and place in my sump.
<It appears to be a Gorilla crab, I wouldn't place it in the main tank.>
Thanks in advance,
<Cheers. Wil.>

Porcupine Puffer with Possible Lockjaw     6/18/19
My 15 year old, 10 inch, Porcupine, “Fugu”, appears to have gotten lockjaw. He exhibits all of the same signs as what I’ve read throughout forum posts online. He generally has good energy, normal behaviors, he tries to eat, he just can’t open his mouth enough to get a typical piece of food in. Historically, I’ve fed him defrosted Key West pink shrimp, since it comes without additives from Whole Foods. I am sorry to say that I didn’t realize this shrimp would create this problem, as posts on various forum focus on krill. I have now read the Wet Web Media post on Thiaminase in other foods.
<Ahh; yes. This issue and overgrowth of teeth are most common issues w/ this group of fishes>
The issue has gone on for two weeks now since it first started. I had fed him one large size shrimp, he was fine, two days later he tried but couldn’t open his mouth. It’s been that way since. He tries, just can’t seem to open his mouth and get it. There is what I believe is some good news: he is eating. I’ve been able to (at risks of my fingers!), hand feed him 3 or so baby size (about an inch) octopus tentacles every day. It’s a slow process taking many tries on both of our parts, but his mouth is open enough that i can just get an end in there, and he sucks it in. It’s not the belly filling food he’s used to getting, but i do believe it’s keeping his energy levels up.
Octopus appears to have significant vitamin benefits, but I’m not able to find any data online to show that it contains the B1 necessary. I have VitaChem supplement but he refuses to eat food soaked in vitamins.
<A good idea to add such (vitamins, nutritional supplements) directly to the water... Marine organisms drink their environment; unlike freshwater>
I’m considering injecting it into the small tentacles if i can. However, I’m trying to determine if that will be enough, or if I need to switch to the tube feed method described in an old post on the puffer forum. That post was a wonderful description of a cure of lockjaw through tube feeding. (https://www.thepufferforum.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=29156&hilit=Lockjaw ). It won’t be easy, but I’m all-in to get Fugu well.
<Worth trying>
I’ve tried to reach out to local marine biologists, but I was looking for any thoughts you have generally, and specifically with regard to whether the small tentacles a day are enough or if it’s time to jump to tube feed. And if tube feed, I’m assuming its ok to mix the food (Spirulina Brine and some drops to VitaChem) with tank water to inject in his stomach?
<Yes it is>
Finally, can dosing vita chem with B1 into the tank itself assist (I have read B1 dissolves in water?).
<It is one of the water-soluble vitamins>
Thanks so much for your thoughts. My parameters are below.
Scott G.
West Palm Beach
180 G. reef, pH 8.3, temp 77-79, phos .1, Nitrate 3, Nitrite .01, MG 1600, CA 450, KH 8, only 5 other small fish in tank, running for 5 years (Fugu has moved a lot with me)
<Thank you for sharing. Large puffers in initial good health can go w/o feeding for weeks... I do hope yours recovers. Bob Fenner>

Re: Fancy Goldfish question....White bumps on the Wen?        6/17/19
Will do!
<Cheers dear.>

Re: Replacing a gourami "show" fish        6/17/19
Thanks for your help!
I looked up your two suggestions and, as you noted, they are scarce and/or exorbitantly priced here... but cool to read about!
<Sorry they're not so available where you are. Ctenopoma acutirostre is relatively widely traded and inexpensive here in the UK, but very seasonal.>
I did find a medium sized Trichopodus leeri and decided to give him a shot, since my Trichopterus thrived for so long in this vertical tank format.
<Good choice.>
When the tank is full, he really does have quite a bit of room in the top half.
<Sounds fine.>
As a bonus, I found him at a LFS instead of a big box. I’ll keep you guys posted. Always appreciative of your attention and responses!
<Good luck! Neale.>

Black Tetra; breeding        6/17/19
Dear Crew. I am engaging in breeding aquarium fish. I saw some of your articles while searching for the internet and found them interesting. I though you may help me as I have some problems in black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi) breeding. If you don’t mind, I’d like to ask following questions.1. What the water values be when rearing black tetra brood stock? a. pHb. gHc. kh (should it be ?)d. Temperature. Photoperiod2. Do black tetras reproduces in the same way as neon tetra as they are from the same family? a. Do they reproduce without any problems during a certain period and face with insemination problems in remaining periods?3. During breeding: a. pH b. gh. kh (it is especially not preferred in breeding the characin group, is it also valid for black tetra?)d. lighting e. temperature. Should we set the breeding water as black water; If yes, do I need to use tannic acid or Catappa for this? Thank you in advance for your assistance.
<The Black Widow Tetra is relatively easy to breed. It's a classic egg-scattering species, so something like bushy floating plants such as Cabomba or killifish spawning mops can be used for them to scatter their sticky eggs, or you can go old school and place them in a tank with glass marbles across the substrate, and the eggs will roll into the cracks between the marbles. Either way, the aim is to minimise egg predation by the adults. Condition the fish beforehand, using a wide range of frozen or ideally live foods, ensuring the fish are healthy and sexually mature. Females when they come into breeding condition will be notably rounded, and the males will often seem to 'sniff' around them, chasing the females or displaying in front of them. Some people place pairs in the breeding tanks, others small groups. Keep the tank dark, with maybe a sliver of light from outdoors to help the fish recognise night and day. You can certainly add blackwater extract, Catappa leaves, etc. to condition the water and tint it brown if you want. Either way, spawning takes place when water temperature is maintained a couple degrees higher than normal for a couple days, and you do need to ensure the water is slightly soft and acidic (exact pH and hardness not too crucial, but around 5-10 degrees dH, pH 6.5 would be ideal). Really, your biggest problem is not so much spawning them (they'd like spawn in a soft water community, let alone breeding tank) but ensuring the eggs aren't eaten and, when the fry become free swimming, about 4-5 days after hatching, you have the tiny live foods the fry will need. As with most tetras, we're talking infusoria initially, and baby brine shrimp a few days (maybe a week) later. You may have some success with finely powdered flake foods and other baby fish foods (Hikari First Bites, Liquifry, etc.) but these tend to be a bit unreliable with tetras. Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: Skinny Narrow-Lined Puffer      6/16/19
Thank you so much! I will pick up those other foods today so we can start that. I really appreciate your advice.
<Glad to help you and your A. manilensis! BobF>

Re: Turtle question; donation button on WWM      6/16/19
Thanks you! I tried to contribute via PayPal but had no success. Can you give me an account to send you a donation?
Thanks again
<Thank you for this; not sure why the 'tip jar' isn't working, but will ask Bob F. In the meantime, glad to help! Neale.><<Is working now... RMF>>

Re: Fancy Goldfish question....White bumps on the Wen? GF book rec.s       6/16/19
Yes, I am too. I will think about it.
<Mmm; do see Neale's less expensive goldfish book suggestions here:
Thank you,
<Welcome. BobF>
Re: Fancy Goldfish question....White bumps on the Wen?      6/16/19

Yes, I see that. But none of those books are specifically about Fancy Goldfish. I just wish there was an updated book on them, that included the newest hybrids they have come up with. Maybe I'll ask the breeder of the ones I bought,....they might have a suggestion.
<I have a few. B>
Thanks Bob.
Re: Fancy Goldfish question....White bumps on the Wen?      6/16/19

Morning Bob,
Ok. What are they? Your suggestions.
<Please see the ends, bibliographies of pieces posted on WWM re Goldfish (the bibliographies). Bob Fenner>

Growth on rock       6/16/19
Hi its luke about the pest growth in my reef tank its slimy to the touch and comes of with ease im not dosing any carbon source ect
<... Umm; your files are too large Luke, but deleted in time so as not to crash our mail program. This is almost assuredly mainly BGA, Cyanobacteria. Don't see such cells in your micro-pic... but should be there. Sans nuclei, simple, single chromosome.... SEE, as in read on WWM re control:
and the linked files at top. Bob Fenner>
re: Cyano      6/16/19

Cant seem to open the link for file on that
<Try the search tool... on every page>
re: Growth on rock beetts post on fb

That is another picture took of it buddy
<Not enough magnification, or resolution. Keep reading! BobF>

Cyano... not a reader       6/16/19
Right time for me to raise no3 in my system then as im testing 0 and my po4 is 0.034 so there is a imbalance there then once i get my no3 up should disappear then
<Maybe... B>

Re: Desjardini tang in decline       6/16/19
Hi Wil,
<Hi Simon>
Thanks for the quick response,
<Not so quick now, ha-ha...sorry for the delay, was out of town >
looking at the water test results I think I need to still do another water change, nitrates at 10ppm, phosphates at 0.5 ppm.
I did see him swim mid water briefly yesterday when the lights were part off (blue only), I'd say he seems a bit more active but not much.
<Dim lights help in reducing stress>
Will do another 20% water change and see if he picks up.
It did occur to me that I had a feather duster that lost his quill and recently left his casing, I thought he was still recovering but could be that he passed and could have caused a spike in the water parameters.
Keeping my fingers crossed he recovers with better water, any other advice greatly appreciated.
<Water changes are always beneficial; I think you’ll see an improvement in your tang.>
<Welcome. Wil.>

Replacing a gourami "show" fish        6/15/19
Hi everyone... I just wrote you the other day about a suddenly picky Trichopodus trichopterus with respect to diet... sure enough, I found her dead this morning.
<Oh dear.>
4 years old, 3" (body) long, and recently slowing down a bit, I was not surprised, yet I kept the water clean etc. just in case. Sad. It was a good run for her.
Now, I have five mature cherry barbs (Puntius titteya) and two, year-old Synodontis nigriventris catfish in my vertical, 15-gallon tank.
<Both nice species, though 15 gallons is a mite small for Dwarf Synodontis.>
I would like to occupy the upper level of the tank with another gourami. I figure a (pair of?) Trichogaster labiosa could be a good choice, since I see your team recommends them often.
<They are certainly robust and undemanding.>
I'm worried, however, about the aggressiveness of the catfish.
<Can't imagine Synodontis upsetting Trichogaster labiosa, given space enough for both. >
Perhaps a Trichopodus leeri?
<Another excellent species, though that much bigger, so less obviously suitable for a 15 gallon system.>
Any ideas would be greatly appreciated... Thank you! --Matt
<Can you obtain Ctenopoma? Microctenopoma fasciolatum for example is a tough, attractive fish that places few demands on the fishkeeper, though it will need frozen/fresh food, not flake. Some of the large Betta species might also work, such as Betta pugnax. These are gentle fish, but should be fine with Cherry Barbs, and provided the Synodontis are well-fed, these latter shouldn't bother them much (they can be fin-nibblers if hungry).
Cheers, Neale.>

Turtle question        6/15/19
My turtle (yellow belly slider?) is floating butt up on the bottom of aquarium. Eats, suns and sleeps normally. Is it a bladder issue?
<No. Yellow Belly Sliders do not have swim bladders.>
<Will direct you here:
Turtles that lose their balance when swimming most often suffer from some type of bacterial infection. Since your chap is otherwise healthy, antibiotics should work quickly and effectively. A vet will help on this.
If not treated, such bacterial infections usually end up killing the

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