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Non-Vertebrate Marine Life 3 of 3 Worms, Crustaceans, Echinoderms and More!



Bryozoans (Ectoprocts), the Moss Animals by Bob Fenner
FAQs on:


Worms: Diversity by Bob Fenner
General FAQs on: Worms 1, Worms 2, Worms 3,
FAQs on: Marine Worm ID (see below), Worm Behavior, Worm Compatibility/Control, Worm Selection, Worm Systems, Worm Feeding, Worm Disease, Worm Reproduction,

Worm Identification FAQs:
Worm IDs 1, Worm IDs 2, Worm IDs 3, Worm IDs 4, Worm IDs 5, Worm IDs 6, Worm IDs 7, Worm IDs 8, Worm IDs 9, Worm IDs 10, Worm ID 11, Worm ID 12, Worm ID 13, Worm ID 14, Worm ID 15, Worm ID 16, Worm ID 17, Worm ID 18, Worm ID 19, Worm ID 20, Worm ID 21, Worm ID 22, Worm ID 23, Worm ID , &
Worm ID; FAQs by Group/Phylum: Flatworm Identifications, Nemertean, Proboscis, Ribbon Worms, Nematode, Roundworm ID,
Nematomorpha, Horsehair Worms, Acanthocephalans, Thorny-headed Worms, Polychaete Identification 1, Polychaete ID 2, Polychaete ID 3, Polychaete ID 4, Polychaete ID 5, Bristleworm ID 6, Bristleworm ID 7, Bristleworm ID 8, Bristleworm ID 9, Bristleworm ID 10, Bristleworm ID 11, Tubeworm ID, Hirudineans, Leeches, Pogonophora, Beard Worm ID, Sipunculids, Peanut Worms, Echiuran, Sausage Worms, Hemichordata, Acorn Worm ID, Chaetognaths, Arrow Worm ID,


Flatworms, Phylum Platyhelminthes (Tapeworms, Flukes, Turbellarians incl. Planaria) Part 1, (to Maiazoon)
Part 2, (to Pseudobiceros sp.)
Part 3, (to Pseudoceros gravieri)
Part 4, (to Pseudoceros sp. 5)
Part 5,
Part 6  Open
by Bob Fenner
Pest Flatworm Control by Anthony Calfo
FAQs on Flatworms/Planaria 1, Flatworms 2, Flatworms 3,
FAQs on: Flatworm Identification, Flatworm ID 2, Flatworm ID 3, Flatworm ID 4, Flatworm ID 5, Flatworm ID 6, Flatworm ID ,
FAQs on: Flatworm Behavior, Flatworm Compatibility, Flatworm Control, (& Predator Control, Chemical Control,) Flatworm Selection, Flatworm Systems, Flatworm Feeding, Flatworm Disease, Flatworm Reproduction,
FAQs on: Parasitic Flatworms: Flukes/Trematodes, Tapeworms/Cestodes,


Roundworms by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Roundworms, & Nematode, Roundworm ID,

--Bristle and Fire worms-

Free-Living Polychaete (Bristle-, Fire-) Worm Diversity: Errantiate Polychaetes, by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Polychaetes 1, Polychaetes 2, Polychaetes 3, Polychaetes 4,
FAQs on: Bristle Worm ID 1, Bristleworm ID 2, Bristleworm ID 3, Bristleworm ID 4, Bristleworm ID 5, Bristleworm ID 6, Bristleworm ID 7, Bristleworm ID 8, Bristleworm ID 9, Bristleworm ID 10, Bristleworm ID 11, Bristleworm ID ,
FAQs on: Polychaete Behavior, Polychaete Compatibility/Removal 1, Polychaete Compatibility/Control 2, & Polychaete Stocking/Selection, Polychaete System, Polychaete Feeding, Polychaete Disease, Polychaete Reproduction, Christmas Tree Worms, Spaghetti Worms, Eunice, Aphrodite, other Greek Goddesses?

--Featherduster and Tube worms--

Featherduster Worms: Natural History and Husbandry by Bob Fenner
Featherduster, Tubeworm, Spaghetti Worms: Sedentariate Polychaetes by Bob Fenner
part I, (Sabellids, to Megalomma)
part II, (Sabellastarte)
part III, (Serpulids, to Spirobranchus)
part IV (Spionids)
by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Featherdusters 1, Featherdusters 2, Tubeworms 3,
FAQs on: Tubeworm ID, Featherduster ID 2, Featherduster ID 3, Featherduster ID 4, & Tubeworm Behavior, Tubeworm Compatibility/Control, Tubeworm Stocking/Selection, Tubeworm System, Tubeworm Feeding, Tubeworm Health/Disease, Tubeworm Reproduction,
FAQs by sp./group: Xmas/Christmas Tree/Poritid-boring Worms, Protula,

--Parasitic worms--

Parasitic Marine Worm Diseases (Trematodes/Flukes, Nematodes, Turbellarians, Acanthocephalans...):
FAQs on: Marine Worm Parasites 1, Marine Worm Parasites 2Marine Worm Parasites 3, & FAQs on Marine Worm Parasites: Diagnosis/Symptomology, Etiology/Prevention, Cures That Don't Work, Cures That Do Work, Products/Manufacturers... Worm Diseases of Clownfishes

Brachiopods, Lamp Shells


Brachiopods & FAQs on: Brachiopods


Mollusk Diversity by Bob Fenner
Molluscs for Small Systems by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Mollusk Diversity,
Molluscs for Small Systems,

Chitons by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Chitons 1, Chitons 2,
FAQs on:  Chiton ID 1, Chiton ID 2, Chiton ID 3, Chiton ID 4, Chiton ID , Chiton Behavior, Chiton Compatibility, Control, Chiton Selection, Chiton Systems, Chiton Feeding, Chiton Disease, Chiton Reproduction

Gastropods (Snails, Seaslugs...):

Gastropod Mollusk (Snails, Slugs) Diversity by Bob Fenner

True Snails: Prosobranchs

Part 1,
(to Cowries, Cypraeids)
Part 2: (to Egg Cowries, Ovulids)
Part 3, (to Conches, Strombids)
Part 4, (to Helmets, Cassids)
Part 5, (to Cones, Conids)
Part 6, (to Tulips, Fasciolariids)
Part 7  (Nassariids, Olives, Harps)
by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Snails 1, Snails 2, Snails 3, Snails 4, Snails 5,
FAQs on Snail Identification: Snail ID 1, Snail ID 2, Snail ID 3,
Snail ID 4, Snail ID 5, Snail ID 6, Snail ID 7, Snail ID 8, Snail ID 9, Snail ID 10, Snail ID 11, Snail ID 12, Snail ID 13, Snail ID 14, Snail ID 15, Snail ID 16, Snail ID 17, Snail ID 18, Snail ID 19, Snail ID 20, Snail ID 21, Snail ID 22, Snail ID 23, Snail ID 24, Snail ID 25, Snail ID 26, Snail ID 28, Snail ID 29, Snail ID 30, Snail ID 31, Snail ID 32, Snail ID 33, Snail ID 34, Snail ID , &
FAQs on Snail Egg Identification: Snail Egg ID 1, Snail Egg ID 2, Snail Egg ID 3, Snail Egg ID , &
FAQs on: Snail Behavior, Snail Compatibility 1, Marine Snail Compatibility 2, Marine Snail Compatibility 3, Pest Snails (Pyramidellids, Heliacus, Murex...) Identification and Removal 1, Pest Snails 2, Pest Snails 3, Pest Snails 4, Pest Snails , & Snail Stocking/Selection, Snail Scavenger Stocking/Selection, Cool/Coldwater Snails, Snail Systems, Snail Feeding, Snail Health/Disease, Snail Reproduction, Snail Reproduction 2,


Abalones, Family Haliotidae by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Abalones,
FAQs on: Abalone Identification, Abalone Behavior, Abalone Compatibility, Abalone Stocking/Selection, Abalone Systems, Abalone Feeding, Abalone Disease, Abalone Reproduction,

Limpets, Incredible (Mr.) and Otherwise, Scutus, Stomatella...
FAQs on:
Limpets 1, Limpets 2, Limpets 3, Limpets 4,
FAQs on: Limpet Identification 1, Limpet ID 2, Limpet Behavior, Limpet Compatibility, Control, Limpet Stocking/Selection, Limpet Systems, Limpet Feeding, Limpet Disease, Limpet Reproduction,

Astrea, Turbo, Collonista et al. Snails of the Family Turbinidae, &
FAQs on
Astrea, Turbo...

Nerites are Neat! Family Neritidae &
FAQs on
: Nerites Snails,

Trochus, Tectus, Wavy Tops, Stomatella and other Trochid Snails, &
FAQs on

Ceriths, genus Cerithium, Family Cerithiidae, &
FAQs on:

Conch Yourself Out, Family Strombidae, including Fasciolariidae (which includes the Horse Conches, Spindle Shells, Tulip Snails...) &
FAQs on
: Conchs 1,
Conchs 2, Conchs 3, Conchs 4,

Cone Snails, Family Conidae, Some Nice/Naughty, &
FAQs on:
Cone Snails,

Cowries, Real Gems of the Sea, &
FAQs on:

Allied, Egg or False Cowries, Family Ovulidae, &
FAQs on
Egg Cowries,

Nassarius, Mud Snails, Dog Whelks... Family Nassariidae, &
FAQs on:

Olives, Olividae...

Whelks, Family Buccinidae, and I'm not meaning Lawrence! &
FAQs on

Tube Snails, Mostly Family Vermetidae by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Tube Snails, Tube Snail ID 1,

Opisthobranchs: Sea Slugs: (Bubble Snails & Headshield Slugs, Nudibranchs Sap-Sucking Slugs, Sea Hares/Aplysia, Side-Gill Slugs)

Opisthobranchs, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 (Sea Slugs: Headshield Slugs, Bubble Snails, Nudibranchs Sap-Sucking Slugs, Sea Hares/Aplysia, Side-Gill Slugs, (see below))
FAQs on: Seaslugs 1, Seaslugs 2,
FAQs on: Seaslug Identification 1, Seaslug ID 2, Seaslug ID 3, Seaslug ID 4, Seaslug ID , Seaslug Behavior, Seaslug Compatibility, Seaslug Stocking/Selection, Seaslug Systems, Seaslug Feeding, Seaslug Disease, Seaslug Reproduction,

--Bubble Snails--

Bubble Snails & Headshield Slugs, Cephalaspideans,
FAQs on: Bubble Snails & Headshield Slugs,


Nudibranchs Part 1 (Dorids, to Chromodoris kuniei)
Pt. 2, (to
Chromodoris pallida)
Pt. 3, (to
Glossodoris stellatus) 
Pt. 4, (to Goniobranchus reticulatus)
Pt. 5, (to
Nembrotha lineolata)
Pt. 6, (to
Mexichromis mariei)   
Pt. 7, (to
Family Gymnodorididae)
Pt. 8, (to
Notodoris serenae )
Pt. 9, (to
Phyllidia elegans)
Pt. 10, (to
Phyllidiella zeylanica)
Pt. 11, (to
Roboastra tigris)
Pt. 12, (to
Melibe mirifica)
Pt. 13, (Aeolids, to
Phyllodesmium longicirrum)
Pt. 14, (to
Flabellina exoptata)
Pt. 15, (to
Flabellina exoptata)
Pt. 16 (
Flabellina marcusorum on)
     by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Nudibranchs 1, Nudibranchs 2,
FAQs on: Nudibranch Identification, Nudibranch ID 2, Nudibranch ID 3, Nudibranch ID 4, Nudibranch ID 5, Nudibranch ID 6, Nudibranch ID 7, Nudi ID 8, Nudi ID 9, Nudi ID 10, Nudi ID 11, Nudi ID ,  & Nudibranch Behavior, Nudibranch Compatibility/Control, Nudibranch Stocking/Selection, Nudibranch Systems, Nudibranch Feeding, Nudibranch Disease, Nudibranch Reproduction,
Montipora Munching Nudibranchs,
FAQs on: Berghia Nudibranchs,

Aquarium Culture of the Aeolid Nudibranch Berghia, Predator on the nuisance anemone Aiptasia By Anthony Calfo
FAQs on: Berghia Nudibranchs,


Seahares, Anaspidea,
FAQs on: Seahares 1,
FAQs on: Seahare Identification, Seahare Behavior, Seahare Compatibility, Seahare Stocking/Selection, Seahare Systems, Seahare Feeding, Seahare Disease, Seahare Reproduction,

--Sap-Sucking Slugs--

Sap-Sucking Slugs, Sacoglossans, including Elysia... "Lettuce-eating Nudibranchs"
FAQs on: Sap-Sucking Slugs,

--Side-Gill Slugs--

Side-Gill Slugs, Notaspideans,
FAQs on: Side-Gill Slugs,


Bivalves... Clams, Mussels, Oysters... Pt. 1
Pt. 2, (Pteriidae on)
Pt. 3 (Penshells on) by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Bivalves 1, Bivalves 2,
FAQs on: Bivalve Identification, Bivalve Behavior, Bivalve Compatibility, Bivalve Stocking/Selection, Bivalve Systems, Bivalve Feeding, Bivalve Disease, Bivalve Reproduction,

Flame Scallops (Lima, Limaria)... Actually Mostly Doomed Pen Shells &
FAQs on:
Flame Scallops,

--Giant Clams--

Got Tridacna? A beginner's guide to keeping Tridacnid clams by Laurie Smith
Example Chapter from NMA Reef Invertebrates book, on Giant Clams by Anthony Calfo and Bob Fenner
Giant/Tridacnid Clams by Bob Fenner
A Brief Guide to the Selection and Placement of Tridacnid Clams by Barry Neigut
Top Tridacnids: Select the Right Clams for your Aquarium, and Provide The Right Setting For Them To Thrive by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Tridacnids 1, Tridacnids 2, Tridacnids 3, Tridacnids 4,
FAQs on: Tridacnid Identification, Tridacnid Behavior, Tridacnid Compatibility, &
FAQs on: Tridacnid Stocking/Selection,
Tridacnid System FAQs:
FAQs on:
Tridacnid Systems, Tridacnid Lighting 1 Tridacnid Lighting 2, Tridacnid Lighting: Science/Application, Design/Fixtures, Lamps/Bulbs, Duration, Quality and Intensity, Trouble/Fixing, Makes/Models/Manufacturers,
FAQs on: Tridacnid Placement, Tridacnid Feeding,

Tridacnid Health: Pinched Mantle Syndrome in Giant Clams by Dr. David Basti, Deborah Bouchard & Barry Neigut,
FAQs on Giant Clam Disease: Tridacnid Disease 1, Tridacnid Disease 2, Tridacnid Disease 3, Tridacnid Health 4, Tridacnid Health 5, Tridacnid Disease 6, Tridacnid Disease 7, Tridacnid Disease 8, Tridacnid Disease , & Pest Worms of All Kinds, Pest Snails (Pyramidellids...),
FAQs on Giant Clam Disease by Category: Diagnosis, Environmental, Nutritional, Social, Trauma, Pathogenic, Treatments

FAQs on: Tridacnid Reproduction, The Tridacnid Clam Business,


Octopus, Squid, Nautilus...Cephalopod Diversity and Husbandry
Part A, Octopodes,
Part 1, (to Amphioctopus)
Part 2, (to Octopus cyanea)
Part 3, (to Octopus macropus)
Part 4
Part B, Squids & Cuttlefishes, by Bob Fenner,
Part 1, (to Sepia sp.)
Part 2, (to Sepia latimanus)
Part 3

Don't Buy an Octopus Before Reading This by James Fatherree,
The Ballet of the Wonderpus by Richard Ross,
FAQs on: Cephalopods 1, Cephalopods 2,
FAQs on: Cephalopod Identification, Cephalopod Behavior, Cephalopod Compatibility, Cephalopod Stocking/Selection, Cephalopod Feeding, Cephalopod Systems, Cephalopod Disease,





















Arthropods: Crustaceans & Kin

Arthropods by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Jointed Legged Invertebrate Animals

Parasitic Crustacean Diseases by [to be written]
FAQs on: Crustacean Parasites,
FAQs on Diagnosis/Symptomology/Identification, Prevention, Cures That Don't Work, Cures That Do Work, Products/Manufacturers... Copepods, Lernaeids, Crustacean Diseases of Clownfishes


--Acari... Mites--

Saltwater Mites, Including "Red Bugs" (TBW)
FAQs on:
Marine Mites

--Sea Spiders... Pycnogonids--

Sea Spiders, Pycnogonida by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Sea Spiders,

--Horseshoe Crabs--

Horseshoe Crabs: Latter Day Trilobites for Some Systems by [to be written]
FAQs on: Horseshoe Crabs 1, Horseshoe Crabs 2,
FAQs on: Horseshoe Crab ID, Horseshoe Crab Behavior, Horseshoe Crab Compatibility, Horseshoe Crab Stocking/Selection, Horseshoe Crab Systems, Horseshoe Crab Feeding, Horseshoe Crab Disease, Horseshoe Crab Reproduction,


Crustacean Diversity by Bob Fenner
Crustaceans for Small Systems: To Be Limited by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Crustaceans, Crustaceans 2, Crustaceans 3, Crustaceans for Small Systems ,
FAQs on: Crustacean Identification 1, Crustacean ID 2, Crustacean ID 3, Crustacean ID 4, Crustacean ID , & Crustacean Stocking/Selection, Crustacean Behavior, Crustacean Compatibility/Control, Crustacean Systems, Crustacean Feeding, Crustacean Disease, Crustacean Reproduction,

--Artemia/Brine Shrimp--

Artemia salina, Brine Shrimp by [to be written]
FAQs on:
Brine Shrimp,

--Mantis Shrimp--

Mantis Shrimp/Stomatopods by Bob Fenner
FAQs on Mantis, Mantis 2,
FAQs on:
Mantis Identification, Mantis Behavior, Mantis Compatibility/Control, Mantis Stocking/Selection, Mantis Systems, Mantis Feeding, Mantis Disease, Mantis Reproduction,


Isopods, Pill-Bugs that aren't such a hoot by [to be written]
FAQs on: Isopods 1, Isopods 2,
FAQs on: Isopod Identification, Isopod Compatibility/Control, Isopod Reproduction...


Shrimps by Bob Fenner
A Few Common Shrimps for the Marine Aquarium by James W. Fatherree,
FAQs on: Shrimps 1, Shrimps 2, Shrimps 3,
FAQs on Shrimp Identification 1, Shrimp Identification 2,
Shrimp Identification 3, Shrimp Identification 4, Shrimp Identification , Shrimp Behavior, Shrimp Compatibility, Shrimp Compatibility 2, & Shrimp Stocking/Selection, Shrimp Scavenger Selection, Shrimp Systems, Shrimp Feeding, Shrimp Health/Disease, Shrimp Reproduction,

-Cleaner Families--

All Cleaner Shrimps by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Cleaner Shrimp 1, Cleaner Shrimp 2,
FAQs on:
Cleaner Shrimp Identification, Cleaner Shrimp Behavior, Cleaner Shrimp Compatibility, Cleaner Shrimp Stocking/Selection, Cleaner Shrimp Systems, Cleaner Shrimp Feeding, Cleaner Shrimp Disease, Cleaner Shrimp Reproduction,

Family Hippolytidae (Lysmata, Thor, Saron, Tozeuma...), Cleaner Shrimp by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Hippolytids, Hippolytids 2,
FAQs on: Hippolytid Identification, Hippolytid Behavior, Hippolytid Compatibility, Hippolytid Stocking/Selection, Hippolytid Systems, Hippolytid Feeding, Hippolytid Disease, Hippolytid Reproduction,
FAQs by species: Atlantic Cleaner Shrimp (L. grabhami), Blood/Scarlet/Fire/Debelius Shrimp (L. debelius), California Cleaner Shrimp (L. californica), Pacific/Skunk Cleaner Shrimp (L. amboinensis), Peppermint Shrimp (L. wurdemanni), Sexy Shrimp (T. amboinensis), Tozeuma Shrimps,

Saron Shrimp by Bob Fenner &
FAQs on:
Saron Shrimps,

Family Palaemonidae (Dasycaris, Hamopontonia, Periclimenes, Pontonides...), Part 1, (to Periclimenes imperator)
Part 2, (to Periclimenes soror)
Part 3,
by Bob Fenner
Two subfamilies: Pontiinae: Commensal, Anemone Shrimp, Rock Shrimp &
FAQs on:

Periclimenes holthuisi Pix

--Boxer Shrimp--

Family Stenopodid/Boxer Shrimp by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Boxer Shrimps 1, Boxer Shrimps 2
FAQs on: Stenopid ID, Stenopid Behavior, Stenopid Compatibility, Stenopid Stocking/Selection, Stenopid Systems, Stenopid Feeding, Stenopid Disease,
Stenopid Reproduction,

--Coral Banded Shrimp--

      Coral Banded Shrimp ("CBS"), Stenopus hispidus by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Boxer Shrimps 1, Boxer Shrimps 2 & CBS ID, CBS Behavior, CBS Compatibility, CBS Selection, CBS Systems, CBS Feeding, CBS Disease,
CBS Reproduction,

--Other Shrimp Families--

Dancing, Camel Shrimp, Family Rhynchocinetidae by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Dancing, Camel Shrimps,

The Family Gnathophylliidae, Hymenoceridae, Bumblebee and Harlequin Shrimp, Hymenocera spp. by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Harlequin Shrimps 1, Gnathophylliids 2,
FAQs on: Gnathophylliid Identification, Gnathophylliid Behavior, Gnathophylliid Compatibility, Gnathophylliid Selection, Gnathophylliid Systems, Gnathophylliid Feeding, Gnathophylliid Disease, Gnathophylliid Reproduction,

Pistol (Including Goby) Shrimp, Family Alpheidae by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Pistol Shrimps 1, Pistol Shrimps 2,
FAQs on: Alpheid ID, Alpheid Behavior, Alpheid Compatibility/Control, Alpheid Stocking/Selection, Alpheid Systems, Pistol Shrimp and Goby Biotopes, Alpheid Feeding, Alpheid Disease, Alpheid Reproduction,

Freshwater/Brackish/Marine Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815 &
FAQs on:
Ghost/Grass/Glass Shrimp,

Crabs: Decapods... Brachyurans, True Crabs

Marine Crabs, Part 1,
Part 2, (Majidae on)
Part 3, (Pilumnidae on)
by Bob Fenner,

Guidelines for ID Questions by Lynn Zurik,
ID Guide Flowchart by Lynn Zurik,
Marine Invertebrate Identification Source Books by Lynn Zurik,
FAQs on: Marine Crabs 1, Marine Crabs 2, Marine Crabs 3, Marine Crabs 4,
FAQs on: (See above re Guidelines/Questions for IDs, and LynnZ's ID Guide Flowchart): Marine Crab Identification 1, Crab Identification 2, SW Crab ID 3, SW Crab ID 4, SW Crab ID 5, SW Crab ID 6, SW Crab ID 7, SW Crab ID 8, SW Crab ID 9, Marine Crab ID 10, Marine Crab ID 11, Marine Crab ID 12, SW Crab ID 13, SW Crab ID 14, SW Crab ID 15, SW Crab ID 16, SW Crab ID 17, SW Crab ID 18, SW Crab ID 19,
SW Crab ID 20, SW Crab ID 21, SW Crab ID 22, SW Crab ID , & Crab Behavior, Crab Stocking/Selection, Crab Scavenger Selection, Marine Crab Compatibility/Control, Marine Crab Compatibility/Control 2, Marine Crab Compatibility/Control 3, & Marine Crab Systems, Marine Crab Feeding, Marine Crab Health/Disease, Marine Crab Reproduction,

Arrow Crabs, by Bob Fenner &
FAQs on:
Arrow Crabs,

Emerald Green, Mithrax/Mithraculus Crabs
FAQs on:
Emerald Green Crabs 1, Emerald Green Crabs 2,
FAQs on: Mithrax ID, Mithrax Behavior, Mithrax Compatibility, Mithrax Stocking/Selection, Mithrax Systems, Mithrax Feeding, Mithrax Disease, Mithrax Reproduction,

Decorator/Sponge Crabs &
FAQs on:
Decorator Crabs/Sponge Crabs, Dungeness/Cancer Crabs, Fiddler Crabs, Ghost/Marching Crabs,
Pea Crabs/Pinnotherids, Pom Pom/Boxer Crabs, Sally Lightfoots, Symbiotic (Commensal & not) Cnidarian/Coral Crabs,

Anomurans: False Crabs... Hermits, Sand/Mole & Porcelain Crabs, Squat, Rock and Real Lobsters

Hermit & Sand Crabs by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Hermits 1, Hermits 2, Hermits 3,
FAQs on: Hermit ID, Hermit IDs 2, Hermit IDs 3, Hermit IDs 4, & Hermit Behavior, Hermit Compatibility/Control, Hermit Stocking/Selection, Hermit Scavenger Selection, Hermit Systems, Hermit Feeding, Hermit Disease/Health, Hermit Reproduction,
FAQs: By species:
Calcinus elegans (Electric Blue Hermit), Calcinus laevimanus (Zebra, Left-handed Hermit), Clibanarius tricolor (Blue-Legs), Clibanarius vittatus (a common Gulf of Mexico hermit crab), Dardanus megistos (Shell-Breaking Reef, White-spot, Fuzzy Leg Hermit Crab), Paguristes cadenati (Scarlet, Red-Legged), Petrochirus diogenes (and other Giant Hermit Crabs), & Anemone Hermits, Sponge/Staghorn/Coral house Hermits, Unknown/Wild-collected,

Squat Lobsters, Porcelain/Anemone Crabs, Families Galatheidae & Porcellanidae by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Squat Lobsters, Porcelain Crabs, Galatheoids 2,
FAQs on: Squat Lobsters,
FAQs on: Porcelain/Anemone Crabs,

Lobsters, For Aquariums and Otherwise by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Lobsters,

The Selection and Care of Spiny Lobsters in Home Aquaria by Adam Jackson

The Slipper Lobsters by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Slipper Lobsters,

Small Crustaceans Groups:

Micro-(Small) Crustaceans ("Pods" and more) by [to be written]
FAQs on: Microcrustaceans, Microcrustaceans 2,
FAQs on: Microcrustacean Identification 1,
Small Crustacean ID 2, Small Crustacean ID 3, Small Crustacean ID 4, Small Crustacean ID , & Microcrustacean Behavior, Microcrustacean Compatibility, Microcrustacean Selection, Microcrustacean Systems, Microcrustacean Feeding, Microcrustacean Disease, Microcrustacean Reproduction/Culture,

Amphipods by [to be written]
FAQs on:
Gammarideans/Scuds, and
FAQs on
: Gammarideans, Caprellids/Skeleton Shrimps,

Copepods, 'Pods: Delicious and Nutritious by Adelaide Rhodes,
Copepod Mania! The Pros and Cons of Copepods for the Home Hobbyist by Dr. Adelaide Rhodes
FAQs on: Copepods,
FAQs on Copepod: Identification, Behavior, Compatibility, Selection/Sources, Systems, Feeding, Disease, Reproduction, Red/Black "Bugs" Acropora Munching Copepods,

Mysids by [to be written]
FAQs on: Mysids,
FAQs on Mysid: Identification, Behavior, Compatibility, Selection/Sources, Systems, Feeding, Disease, Reproduction

Barnacles: Cirripedians 
FAQs on:

Parasitic Crustacean Diseases  
FAQs on:
Crustacean Parasitic Disease,



The Spiny Skinned Animals, Phylum Echinodermata by Bob Fenner
Echinoderms for Small Systems by Bob Fenner
An Introduction to the Echinoderms: The Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers and More... by James W. Fatherree
FAQs on: Echinoderms,
Echinoderms for Small Systems,

Crinoids: Sea Lilies, Feather Stars by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Crinoids

Sea Cucumbers,
Part 1
(to Euapta sp.)
Part 2, (to Opheodesoma)
Part 3, (to Thelonota)
Part 4,
by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Sea Cucumbers, Sea Cucumbers 2,
FAQs on:
Cuke IDs 1, Cuke ID 2, Cuke ID 3, Cuke ID 4, Cuke ID 5, Cuke ID 6, Cuke ID 7, Cuke ID 8,
& Cuke Behavior, Cuke Compatibility, Cuke Stocking/Selection,
Cucumber Scavenger Selection, Cuke Systems, Cuke Feeding, Cuke Disease, Cuke Reproduction, By species: Colochirus,

     Sea Apples, From Indo. to Australia, They're BAD News,
FAQs on: Sea Apple Cucumbers,

Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars, the Echinoids (to Diadema sp.)
Part 1, (to Astropyga radiata)
Part 2, (to Diadema setosum)
Part 3, (to Family Echinometridae)
Part 4, (to Family Strongylocentridae)
Part 5, (to Tripneustes ventricosus)
Part 6 (
Sand Dollars and Heart Urchins)
by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Echinoids, Echinoids 2, Echinoids 3,
FAQs on: Urchin Identification 1, Urchin ID 2, Urchin ID 3, Urchin ID 4, Urchin ID , &
Urchin Behavior, Urchin Compatibility, Urchin Stocking/Selection, Sea Urchin Scavenger Selection, Urchin System, Urchin Feeding, Urchin Disease, Urchin Reproduction,

Dangerous Marine Animals Series:
Sea Urchins: Some Toxic, Some Spiky, Others.... by Robert Fenner

Sea Stars/Starfishes

Sea Stars/Starfishes,
Part 1, (Intro.; to Archaster )
Part 2, (
Genus Echinaster)
Part 3, (Genus Fromia on)
Part 4, (Fromia monilis on)
Part 5, (Gomophia egyptiaca on)
Part 6, (
Not So Spiffy Choices, But Often Seen)
Part 7, (cont.
Genus Culcita)
Part 8, (Linckia laevigata on)
Part 9, (
"Other" Asteroids One Sees From Time To Time)
Part 10, (
Genus Ophidiaster on)
Part 11 (
About Cool/Coldwater Seastars)
by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Starfishes 1, Starfishes 2 , Starfishes 3,
Starfishes 4, Starfishes 5,
Starfish Identification FAQs: Seastar ID 1, Seastar ID 2, Sea Star ID 3, Sea Star ID 4, Seastar ID 5, Seastar ID 6, Seastar ID 7, Seastar ID 8,
Seastar ID 9, Seastar ID ,
& ID By Genus:
Asterina ID, CC Star Identification, Fromia Identification, Linckia Identification, Sandsifting Star ID,

Starfish Behavior FAQs on: Seastar Behavior, Asterina Behavior, CC Star Behavior, Fromia Behavior, Linckia Behavior, Sandsifting Star Behavior,

Starfish Compatibility
FAQs on
: Seastar Compatibility,
& Asterina Compatibility, CC Star Compatibility, Fromia Compatibility, Linckia Compatibility, Sandsifting Star Compatibility,

Starfish Stocking/Selection:
All Star Asteroids; Choosing and keeping the best (and identifying and avoiding the worst) Seastars for marine aquarium use by Bob Fenner,
FAQs on: Seastar Stocking/Selection, Seastar Scavenger Stocking/Selection ,
& Asterina Stocking/Selection, CC Star Stocking/Selection, Fromia Stocking/Selection, Linckia Stocking/Selection, Sandsifting Star Stocking/Selection,

Starfish Systems
FAQs on
: Seastar Systems,
& Asterina Systems, CC Star Systems, Fromia Systems, Linckia Systems, Sandsifting Star Systems,

Starfish Feeding
FAQs on
: Seastar Feeding,
& Asterina Feeding, Fromia Feeding, CC Star Feeding, Linckia Feeding, Sandsifting Star Feeding,

Starfish Health/Disease
on Starfish Disease: Seastar Disease 1, Seastar Disease 2,
Seastar Disease 3, Star Disease 4, Star Disease 5, & Asterina Disease, CC Star Disease/Health, Fromia Disease, Linckia Disease, Sandsifting Star Disease,
FAQs on Starfish Disease by Category: Diagnosis, Environment, Nutrition, Genetic (poor species selection for captive use), Pathogenic Disease (Infectious, Parasitic), Predator/Pest, Trauma, Treatments

Starfish Reproduction
FAQs on
: Seastar Reproduction, & Asterina Reproduction, CC Star Reproduction, Fromia Reproduction, Linckia Reproduction, Sandsifting Star Reproduction,

Starfish Group/Genera/Species Accounts

Asterina (tiny, white) Stars by [to be written]
FAQs on: Asterinas 1, Asterinas 2, & Asterina ID, Asterina Behavior, Asterina Compatibility/Control, Asterina Stocking/Selection, Asterina Systems, Asterina Feeding, Asterina Disease, Asterina Reproduction,

The Chocolate Chip (CC) Seastar, Protoreastor nodosus by Marco Lichtenberger
FAQs on: CC Stars 1,
CC Stars 2,
FAQs on:
CC Star Identification, CC Star Behavior, CC Star Compatibility,
CC Star Stocking/Selection, CC Star Systems, CC Star Feeding, CC Star Disease/Health, CC Star Reproduction,

Crown of Thorns Sea Stars, Genus Acanthaster by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Crown of Thorns Stars,

Fromia Stars by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Fromias, Fromias 2,
FAQs on: Fromia Identification, Fromia Behavior, Fromia Compatibility, Fromia Stocking/Selection, Fromia Systems, Fromia Feeding, Fromia Disease, Fromia Reproduction,

Linckia Stars by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Linckia Stars 1, Linckia Stars 2,
FAQs on:
Linckia Identification, Linckia Behavior, Linckia Compatibility, Linckia Stocking/Selection, Linckia Systems, Linckia Feeding, Linckia Disease, Linckia Reproduction,

Red Knob/by Seastars
FAQs on: Red Knob/by Seastars

Sand-Sifting Stars by [to be written]
FAQs on: Sandsifting Stars 1,
Sandsifting Stars 2,
FAQs on: Sandsifting Star ID, Sandsifting Star Behavior, Sandsifting Star Compatibility, Sandsifting Star Stocking/Selection, Sandsifting Star Systems, Sandsifting Star Feeding, Sandsifting Star Disease, Sandsifting Star Reproduction,

Brittle & Basket Stars

Brittle and Basket Stars, Class Ophiuroidea by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Brittlestars 1, Brittlestars 2, Brittlestars 3,
FAQs on: Brittlestar ID, Brittlestar ID 2, Brittlestar ID 3 & Brittlestar Behavior, Brittlestar Compatibility/Control, Brittlestar Stocking/Selection, Serpent Star Scavenger Stocking/Selection, Brittlestar Systems, Brittlestar Feeding, Brittlestar Disease, Brittlestar Health 2, & Brittlestar Reproduction,

     Green Brittlestars, Ophiarachna incrassata... "The Butler Did It", &
FAQs on:
Green Brittlestars 1, Green Brittlestars 2, & Green Brittlestars Identification, Green Brittlestars Behavior, Green Brittlestars Compatibility, Green Brittlestars Stocking/Selection, Green Brittlestars Systems, Green Brittlestars Feeding, Green Brittlestars Disease, Green Brittlestars Reproduction,















Sea Squirts/Ascidians/Tunicates
Sea Squirts/Ascidians/Tunicates Part 1, (To Botryllus)
Part 2, (To Didemnum)
Part 3, (To Herdemania)
Part 4, (To Pycnoclavella)
Part 5,
Part 6, Part 7, Part 8
by Bob Fenner
FAQs on: Sea Squirts, Sea Squirts 2,
FAQs on: Ascidian ID 1, Sea Squirt ID 2, Sea Squirt ID 3, Sea Squirt ID 4, Sea Squirt ID 5, Sea Squirt ID 6, Sea Squirt ID 7, Sea Squirt ID 8, & Ascidian Behavior, Ascidian Compatibility, Ascidian Stocking/Selection, Ascidian Systems, Ascidian Feeding, Ascidian Disease, Ascidian Reproduction,

To: Marine Invertebrates 1, Invertebrates Index 2,

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