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FAQs on the Freshwater Hatchetfishes 

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a taste of sugar?        12/22/14
Hello Crew,
I have many years of fish keeping and this is the second time I am experiencing this in one of my tanks.
I have a new 90 gallon fw tank community tank. It has angels, tetras, cories and some marble hatchets. I quarantine everyone for two weeks before moving them to the display tank. A few weeks ago I picked up 8 marble hatchets from a reputable fish store. I set the guys up in the quarantine tank and started the observation process. The tank has gravel,
a piece of wood and a plastic plant with a very dim light. I know the qt tank doesn't have to be dressed so nice, but it looks so much better.
Everyone looked fine, was eating well, swimming fine so I moved them over to my big tank. Yesterday I noticed that three of them have white on their mouths. It isn't fuzzy like a fungus. It looks like they licked their lips and stuck them into a sugar bowl. I'm not sure how I didn't catch this before I moved them. Maybe it was the dim light or the fact that the qt tank is in the spare bedroom and I didn't spend a ton of time observing them.
Anyway, I can't find anything out there on fish diseases that cause white "sugar lips". The fish are still acting normal. Swimming, active, eating, schooling. What are your thoughts? My water parameters are pH 7.2, ammonia 0, nitrite 0, nitrate between 10-40. I do weekly 50% water changes. The water temp is 77.7 degrees. I am thinking I will be pulling these guys out and putting them back in the qt tank; just not sure what I should treat them with.
I appreciate your help.
Merry Christmas!
<Would have you check photos online of Columnaris, the so-called Mouth Fungus (despite being bacterial in nature). It's moderately common in aquaria, though usually associated with physical damage and/or poor water quality. Hatchetfish are semi-delicate to begin with, but they're also prone to throwing themselves into the glass or hood when alarmed. Soft water is practically essential for Marble Hatchets (to some degree the larger Silver Hatchets are more adaptable) and it's crucial they're not kept with anything that will harass them. Mouth Fungus is fairly easy to treat if caught early, typically using antibiotics as per Finrot. Cheers, Neale.>
Marble Hatchetfish (was - re: a taste of sugar?)        12/22/14

Thanks Neal! I fished the two offenders out a couple days ago and started them on Furan 2 (the only thing I have in house). I spent a good two days scouring the net for "columnaris", "white mouth" and many other terms.
The reason I was so doubtful: most people said if left untreated, fish with columnaris would be dead in 72 hours. It had been more than 3 days (more like a week) while I did my research and contemplated moving them to a hospital tank. I hope they recover. I really like these odd little fish (we call them dork fish at our house). They are rather boring and really don't do much.
<Possibly not, if not in the right tank. All Hatchetfish have huge appetites and often starve in aquaria. They need a lot of food! They also need company. I'd consider 10 the smallest number to be honest. Certainly the more the merrier. Soft water is important, as is warmth. They do really well in Discus tanks. Around 28 C/82 F is probably the ideal. Floating plants are a plus. They dislike bright lights. They seem to feed most readily in shade, and some argue they're dusk/dawn feeders anyway, and offer meals at those times. Similar species of Hatchet seem to mix well, provided sizes aren't too different. They do get harassed by hyperactive surface dwellers such as Danios. They don't like strong currents. Indeed, they prefer pond-like situations where the water barely moves at all.
There's a really nice article about these fish over at PFK:
Lots of ideas there.>
I am getting ready to plant my 90 gallon community. Maybe that will make them a little happier. Cheers!
<Cheers indeed, Neale.>

Feeding medicated food to quarantined hatchet fish? (RMF, please comment)<<>>    1/30/12
Dear WetWebMedia Crew;
Thank you for the work you put into making the WWM website so informative and helpful.  I am fairly new to freshwater fishkeeping, and I have quickly learned that your reference materials are the best available online. 
My question involves silver hatchet fish.  I am considering adding them to a 27 gallon tank (20' wide, 20' deep, 18' front-to-back).  The other inhabitants are 6 albino Corys, 8 von rio tetras, and 8 black neon tetras. 
In searching WWM for information on the hatchet fish, I found the following information written by Mr. Fenner several years ago.  He was answering a question from someone who had experienced several hatchet deaths soon after purchase.  Because hatchet fish are wild-caught, he emphasized the necessity of quarantining them because of 'internal parasite fauna,' and then wrote:  'If you and I had a 'Hatchetfish farm' and were in dead earnest re keeping our herd alive, I would lace their food with Metronidazole/Flagyl AND a broad spectrum antibiotic (Tetra and HBH used to sell foods pre-made with these... but I don't know if they're still about), and feed the new arrivals for about a month once a day with same... in an effort to rid them of problems... '
<Bob may well be right here; however'¦><<Haven't "heard" as many problems/incidences in recent years concerning Gastropelecids... but... IF an importer of large numbers of Hatchets, I would treat prophylactically... AS a hobbyist not likely so>>
So, here is my question:  While quarantining hatchet fish, is it wise to feed them antibiotic-laced food as a 'preemptive' measure, or is it best to wait and see if the fish are essentially healthy?  I am hesitant to give the fish antibiotics until I have reason to believe they really need them, but if the health of wild-caught hatchets (in general) is that tenuous, I can understand the need to treat them preemptively. 
<My personal experience with Silver Hatchets, Gasteropelecus spp., is that they are not especially delicate, no more so than the average wild-caught South American characin, and considerably less disease-prone than farmed Neons. Given the right water chemistry (2-10 degrees dH, pH 6-7.5) and lots of oxygen, they can do very well in captivity if kept alongside very peaceful, very quiet tankmates. HOWEVER, they do seem to need huge amounts of food to stay healthy, at least by comparison to other fish of similar size. Perhaps they're less efficient swimmer? Or maybe because they actively swim into the current? Whatever the case, they need regular meals, 2-3 per day, at least. Starvation is, I would suggest, a major cause of mortality. Intestinal parasites may also be a factor, or even a cause of starvation in some instances. Consider both, and act accordingly.>
I'm sorry to reference such an old question (I believe it was from 2005?), but I have looked through the other WWM postings on hatchet fish and not found other references related to this issue.  I wasn't sure how serious Mr. Fenner was with this advice.  (Ah, one of the dangers of online communication--not being able to distinguish a writer's nonverbal communication!)
<Have asked Bob to add his comments here.>
Again, I truly appreciate the WWM website, although my husband thinks I'm a little addicted to reading it.  I just keep thinking of interesting topics to research! 
Thanks for your time,
<Most welcome, Neale.>

Hatchetfish with ich? - 02/08/09 OK...we bought three silver hatchetfish 5 days ago, they've been in our quarantine tank which only has a few cherry shrimp and snails in it. They seem vigorous and as of this morning are still hearty eaters. But two days ago I noticed a few white spots on the fins of one of the hatchetfish, now he's got about 7-8 spots and one of the other fish has 2 spots. They look like grains of salt and I'm pretty sure it's ich. Glad they are in the quarantine tank. I've read your faqs about ich and the consensus seems to be that the heat/salt combination is less abrasive and works best, is that correct? Will my cherry shrimp and snails be ok with the heat and salinity? I have read snails and shrimp are not susceptible to ich, but they can carry it on them, correct? What would be the best way to handle my ich problem given the snails/shrimp are in the tank? Should I give them a salt dip and move them? Leave them with the hatchetfish and do salt/heat? Or use something like Ich-X or Rid-Ich? I am hesitant to use chemicals as they seem very harsh? Thanks, Melissa <Hello Melissa. Hatchetfish are very prone to Ick/Whitespot, which is why I recommend quarantining them for at least two weeks before putting them into a community tank. As you correctly suspect, copper-based medications that will treat the Ick will also kill shrimps and snails, so can't be used. (This is, by the way, why you don't add other livestock to a quarantine tank: doing so defeats the whole object of the exercise.) But you are where you are, so let's deal with things as they stand. Salt/heat won't harm shrimps or snails. Snails and shrimps can indeed carry the free living parasites on the water "stuck" to their bodies if moved from one tank to another. The parasites can't live on them shrimps or snails, so you can QT both by putting them in another tank for a few weeks. This will break the life cycle as the free living (= juvenile) parasites die if they cannot find a host within a set period of time (around 24 hours, but depends on temperature and other factors). Salt dips won't work: you MUST expose fish, shrimps and snails to the salt/heat combo for the requisite period of time. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Hatchetfish with ich? 02/09/09
Hi Neale, <Unfortunately "out"> Thanks for your reply. Hatchetfish don't have any more (or less) spots and are still eating well. <Ah, good> They are tolerating the salt dosed as recommended but I am having trouble getting the temp about 82, I guess I need a stronger heater because it's been turned up to max temp and it doesn't get any hotter. <Ahh, perhaps another heater of similar wattage in tandem> I took the shrimp and snails out and put them in a old tank we had from a Betta long ago, it's only 2.5 gallons but has a heat/light they seem fine. <Good> Our local fish specialty store said salt doesn't work, heat is fine but recommended ParaGuard by SeaChem, they said it is less abrasive and works well. I hate that I get different advice everywhere, I never know what is best. Have you heard of it? <I have, and this is a good product. However, the heat alone should effect a cure here> Or in your opinion should we just stick with the heat/salt? <This last is what I would do. Bob Fenner> Melissa

Hatchet fish deaths in 55 gallon  11/14/08
 Hi Crew-- I (and my fish) appreciate all the time and work you put into this site. I'd like to know if any of you can answer a question I have about my 55 gallon tank. I just put it back up (was on the porch after its previous inhabitants outgrew it and moved on to a larger tank). I wanted to try an Amazon biotope, so I used "play" sand for my substrate, planted some Amazon swords, and put some wood (bought from fish store) in it. I cycled it with BioZyme and some minnows (I QT minnows for my gars, so I was fairly sure nothing icky was getting introduced to the tank). Filtration is an Aqua Clear 110 with carbon removed and extra media in its place. There's also a Coralia air circulation pump that doesn't produce a really strong current; it just ruffles some of the leaves of the plants. The tank cycled pretty quickly, in about two weeks, and after my levels all returned to zero, I purchased 18 Cardinal Tetras, 8 Swartz's Cory Cats, and 12 Marbled Hatchets. The minnows were removed right before the new fish were done acclimating and added to the tank, so I know the cycle wasn't interrupted. I thought I was safe adding fish since the tank was cycled and the fish were all an inch or smaller --maybe this was my mistake. Since putting the fish in the tank, I have lost one Cory and five hatchets. All the fish have died at night, and we find them the next morning. My levels are: Ammonia - 0, Nitrites - .5, Nitrates - 10, and pH - 6.5. The temperature is 78 degrees, and the light runs on a timer for twelve hours a day. I ordered my fish online, and I expected to lose one or two, but these numbers have me worried. As you can see, my levels went up slightly upon introducing the fish, but nothing has ever gotten higher than the figures I mention above, other than nitrates, which are coming down from 20. The fish never "look" sick, though my Hatchets have never really been the "top swimmers" I expected them to be. They stay more in the middle with the Tetras. I'd really appreciate your opinion on what could be going on here, so that I might save the rest of them in time. If I've missed something on the FAQ's regarding this problem, please direct me to it. Thanks again for all you do. --Melinda <Hello Melinda. A few things may be relevant here. To start with, you probably didn't cycle the new tank properly: two weeks is an awfully short period of time to cycle a new aquarium. BioZyme (and indeed most every "bacteria in a bottle" product") is not nearly as effective as the marketing suggests. In the case of that particular product, my understanding is that it isn't meant to mature filters but to help with nitrate reduction. In any case, a good rule of thumb with bacteria cultures is this: if it isn't kept in a fridge and doesn't have a short shelf life, it's probably useless. Plants have no real effect on the speed at which cycling occurs, though fast growing plants (as opposed to Amazon swords) can consume ammonia directly fast enough that a well planted tank can support a small number of fish without the filter being fully mature. Next up, while the minnows will produce ammonia and are hardy enough to tolerate the cycling process, if the tank was being filtered with these fish, I'd expect cycling to take at least four weeks, perhaps six weeks. Regardless of how long cycling takes to finish, there's a danger period afterwards during which the tank is not completely stable. So delicate fish -- such as Hatchets -- should not be added to the tank for a good two or three months after cycling has finished. What you're concerned about are things like pH instability and short-term spikes in ammonia or nitrite. Since you have a nitrite level of 0.5 mg/l, I'm pretty confident that your filter hasn't completely matured and may well be in the "shaky" post-cycling phase where ammonia and nitrite levels can fluctuate. Now, the next thing I'd be worried about is pH. You mention having a low pH of 6.5, which is great for tetras and Hatchetfish, but you say nothing about hardness. One of the very common mistakes people make is to change the pH (e.g., by adding pH buffers bought from the pet store) without changing water hardness first. Be clear about this: pH doesn't matter, except insofar as it is stable. What fish care about is hardness. Marble Hatchetfish need very soft water to do well, and to be honest they're pretty finicky fish at the best of times, so if you aren't 100% sure about how to soften water and how to stabilise pH in low hardness environments, they're best avoided in favour of the much sturdier Silver Hatchetfish. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebindex/fwsoftness.htm Finally, let me make the point that your shouldn't be feeding minnows to Gar (by which I'm assuming you mean Lepisosteus). Minnows (and Goldfish) are very fatty and contain a chemical called Thiaminase that breaks down vitamin B1. So even putting aside the animal cruelty issue, it's just not a very clever way to keep your fish. Gar will eat just about anything, dead or alive. They will readily take chunky seafood. Frozen foods are good because they're safer: anything sold for human consumption will be safe for your fish. Squid is particularly good because it contains no thiaminase at all, and is not very fatty either. Crustaceans (prawns, etc.) do contain some thiaminase so should be used sparingly. My Gar loved oily fish like mackerel, but these make a complete mess of the tank, so while highly nutritious, use such fish meats sparingly and just before doing a big water change! Among the thiaminase-free white fish are flatfish and gadids (cod, pollack, etc.). If you must use live feeder fish, grow your own livebearers, and gut-load them beforehand with algae-based flake food. These are the ONLY safe feeder fish. Goldfish, minnows and "feeder guppies" from the pet store are nothing other than parasite time bombs. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Hatchet fish deaths in 55 gallon  11/14/08
Hi Neale--
Thanks for your reply. So, I had no fish deaths overnight. If the problem was indeed that I cycled too quickly, and not completely, hopefully this is a sign that I'm on my way. The "danger period" was something I wasn't aware of, but in the future, I'll wait longer to make sure it's passed before adding sensitive fish. I had no idea that one hatchet was hardier than another; thanks for that information. If I replace the ones I lost, I'll look into silver hatchets instead. Also, I'll look into water hardness. We have tested for it before, but not recently. It was my understanding that since that we have trouble keeping pH up in our other tanks, it meant our water is soft, but now that I'm reading about water hardness, I see that other things could cause drop in pH as well. I completely understand your concern for my feeding the gars minnows, but we've tried squid and night crawlers (which our catfish eats) and the gars aren't interested. One of them does, however, eat algae disks placed in the tank for the snails, which is fun to watch. I will continue to try to move them onto non-live food; it would eliminate the time (and tank space) I expend to QT minnows. Thanks again for all of your help.
<Hello Melinda. Yep, there is this indistinct phase post-cycling during which environmental conditions can vary. I'm not sure about the science, but whatever the reasons, it's best to wait a few months before adding anything delicate. Marbled Hatchets are indeed notoriously sensitive. The relationship between pH and hardness is not quite as simple as people sometimes think, which is why measuring pH (or buffering to a certain pH) isn't the same thing as changing water chemistry. By default, it's always best to go with medium hard water because this tends to buffer the pH quite well by itself (usually around 7.5) without being so hard and basic softwater fish get unhappy. Ironically, it's easier to lose fish in a softwater aquarium than in a hardwater aquarium, despite the fact most tropical fish come from softwater areas! As for feeding gars: hunger is the key! These fish can go weeks without food. My specimen, Lepisosteus oculatus (the Spotted Gar) loved Hikari Cichlid Gold pellets. These are excellent staple foods for carnivorous fish. There's really no point at all using Minnows or Goldfish because of the long-term problems the fats and thiaminase cause. This has been discussed over and over in the fishkeeping press. Bob Fenner has made the point that the #1 cause of mortality among Lionfish is the use of Goldfish as feeders. Nutritionally, Goldfish and Rosy Red Minnows are essentially the same: high-fat, high-thiaminase animals. Anyway, if predatory fish *think* they're going to get live food, they'll ignore other foods. Leave them without food a week or two, and they should eat just about anything. Cheers, Neale.>
Mysterious repeated hatchet fish death II -- 10/18/07
Hi, I hope you can have an answer. <We'll try.> We have a 10 gallon tank with live plants, 3 platys and 3 hatchet fish. two day after we introduced the hatchets, we found one of them dead. Went to the store bought another one, next day dead. <Hatchets aren't the easiest of fish. Which species are we talking about here? There are two common types, Marble hatchets and Silver hatchets. The Marble hatchet is Carnegiella strigata and it is small, mottled brown, and quite delicate. It needs to be in groups of 6 or more to have any chance of surviving. In ones and twos they just die. Not recommended for your tank simply because they will feel trapped and get stressed. When stressed, they jump at the glass lid or lamps, and damage themselves. The Silver hatchet is Gasteropelecus sternicula. It is larger, silver, with a blue horizontal band on the flanks. It is basically hardy once settled in, but mortality during the first few weeks can be very high. Given its adult size and high activity level, not really an option for a 10 gallon tank.> The water is fine, Ph between 7 and 7.2 temperature around 76-78. The community is fine and the plant are thriving. We are feeding them with Spectrum the small fish formula. We thought they might be jumping and hurting themselves on the hood. <Happens.> The deaths happened during the day. Thanks a lot Emanuela <Give up with Hatchets. Your tank is not really suited to hatchets. While lovely fish (I keep Silver hatchets) they are far from easy fish and best suited to expert fishkeepers or aquarists prepared to set aside a large, quiet, thickly planted tank where they can be kept in large numbers. If you want a surface dweller of some type, look at something like Sparkling gouramis (Trichopsis pumila) which are hardy, colourful, and do well in small tanks. Cheers, Neale.>

Just A Thanks (Oh, and a question) - 10/06/2007 Hello y'all! I just wanted to drop a quick "thank you" note to you for (generally) having a wonderful site and (specifically) for helping me out with an issue I was having.  I have as my centerpiece tank a 60 gallon hex (FW). I really wanted to have angelfish, so after cycling the filter on my established 55, I purchased 6 angels and 4 Cory cats. The cories (Corys?) behaved properly, but the 6 young angels wouldn't come out from their hiding spot behind the driftwood.  They wouldn't even come up to eat. This is my first time with cichlids, but I knew that when they aren't going for food, something's wrong. I was getting more and more concerned... so I went to work with the searcher. Dither fish do work, it seems. Three hatchet fish, and now my little angel school is all over the tank, and swimming hungrily to the top, constantly telling me they're starving, and basically brightening my room (and life) for the past week. Thanks again, John <John, thanks for taking the time to write. It's appreciated. The use of dither fish is very useful with dwarf cichlids as you've discovered, and yes, they do help. Hatchetfish are lovely animals, though they seem to have a constant appetite, and perhaps need a little more food than you'd imagine to stay healthy. I find a mix of Spirulina flake and small carnivore pellets does the trick admirably, but once in a while I hand-feed mine with small earthworms and the like. Hatchets are skittish at first, but settle down quickly. But always keep the tank covered, as they love to jump! Cheers, Neale>

Getting hatchetfish to stay at the top  9/26/06 Hello Crew <<Hi, Tim. Tom>> I got some hatchetfish primarily to make use of the top area of tank. However, it seems that mine prefer the middle of the tank, where traffic is already quite dense. <<Just what you need. More traffic congestion.>> Any idea on how to improve this situation and actually get them to stay at the top. They do go to the top for feeding and when the lights are out. I presume it's a matter of the amount of light it is comfortable with, is this correct? <<I think you've hit on the answer to your own question, Tim.>> How have others handled this situation, e.g. floating plants (which doesn't seem to have helped), etc. <<Floating plants may help diffuse the light, Tim, but they'll also block the "clear shot" that Hatchetfish want when they hang out near the surface. (Little buggers don't wait for insects to hit the water, they jump out after them. No patience, I suppose.) If possible, lower the lighting levels, which I might assume you've already attempted. I would also feed them foods that don't readily sink such as Daphnia. Floating foods might condition them to stay near the top. Beyond that, I'm at a loss, like you, to offer much of a solution to this. Honestly, I've not heard of Hatchetfish "not" staying at the top of the tank. A new on me.>> Thanks Tim  

Hatchet Fish Question 30 Jun 2005 Hi Mr. Fenner, <Patty> I was hoping you'd be able to help me with this fish question.  My hatchet fish is doing something very strange.  For the past few weeks, it has been swimming vertically and looks almost like it's doing a River dance jig.   Do you know if it is suffering some kind of ailment? <Possibly... damage to its gas bladder... from a parasite? Maybe from too much dry food...> Once in a blue moon, it'll flop down at the bottom of the tank.  The first time, I thought it was dead or dying and was about to scope him up when it flipped back up and started doing it's jig again.   It has been eating and seems to be aware of it's surroundings.  I personally think it might have hit it's head trying to jump out of the tank or something. <Another possibility, yes> Unfortunately, I think it's freaked out the other two hatchets in the tank, who are swimming normally. Appreciate any thoughts about this.   <You might want to add another specimen or two... these are social animals. Keep your tank covered! Bob Fenner> Thank you, Patty

Hatchet Fish Hey to all, Got a Q about some hatchetfish, but first a little background. I bought 4 panda Corys 8 days ago and dropped them into my quarantine tank. Three died pretty promptly (2-3 days), and #4 is still alive and well.  Yesterday, I went back to the store and cashed in my credit for the corpses. I got one more panda and 4 marbled hatchets. The pandas are friends and two hatchets are doing their normal hover-just-below-the-surface thing. This leads to my question: the other two hatchets are hovering about 3/4 of the way down the tank (about a 10-inch tall tank). Is this normal acclimation behavior, or should I be concerned? Data dump: 10 gallon QT, well cycled by adding water from my display. Temp 77-78F, ammonia and nitrite zero, nitrate << 10ppm. pH ~6.8. Sponge filter. 50w heater. Plastic plants and decorations. No substrate, just a little scattered gravel, covers ~10% of the bottom. I've left half of the plastic plants floating for the hatchets, and half weighed down for the Corys. Thanks a lot, Chad <Hatchetfish are schooling fish and like to be left in groups of at least 6 or more. When kept in smaller groups they fight among themselves to establish a pecking order. In the wild their food comes from the surface, so the ones closer to the top are more dominant and probably keeping the others down. In larger schools they get tired of chasing the other fish and give up so you see them all at the surface.-Chuck> 
Hatchetfish II
Ahhhh, that makes sense. So let me ask -- should I: (1) See if there are more of them in stock somewhere in town, and try to get a couple more, at the risk of overloading my QT tank's biofilter, (Already 4 hatchets and 2 Corys in a 10 gal QT) -or- (2) Wait until the first four come out of QT and then get 4-6 more? (This was my original plan.) Thanks again, Chad  < (2)-Chuck> 

Mysterious repeated hatchet fish death I have an ongoing mysterious death problem with common (silver) hatchet fish.  They are in a  24 gallon 5year old community tank with congenial tank mates. Temperature is 79 degrees, good top water agitation, chemistry is consistently within specs (PH between 6.5-7).  I buy them from a local store with an excellent reputation with fish maniacs. <Hee heee! Good so far> The problem: One by one they just quit working.  They show no signs of damage or disease and everybody else is doing just fine. If I introduce 4 of them,  1 will die within a week or two, a month or so later another will go down and so on, leaving 1 survivor. This process has repeated over years (for a while I just gave up on them entirely) Obviously I'm missing something they need. Thanks for your time! Peter <Might be a lack of nutrition... for such seemingly small, inactive fish/es "gastropelecids" are pretty high metabolic animals... that eat a lot of insect larvae in the wild... need a good deal of high protein food, frequent feedings to do well in captivity... Otherwise, I fully suspect that their internal parasite fauna (all are wild-collected) are showing themselves in your mysterious losses... If you and I had a "hatchetfish farm" and were in dead earnest re keeping our herd alive, I would lace their food with Metronidazole/Flagyl AND a broad spectrum antibiotic (Tetra and HBH used to sell foods pre-made with these... but I don't know if they're still about), and feed the new arrivals for about a month once a day with same... in an effort to rid them of problems... BTW, this is a not-so-uncommon source of anomalous mortality in quite a few groups of non-cultured fish stocks... e.g. "wild" angels, dwarf South American Cichlids, Discus... Bob Fenner>

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