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Here's a pic by Miguel (MikeK) looking across Waipio Valley on HI's Big Island...

Zoas and mushrooms - 02/04/19
Hello Wet Web Media,
<Hello Davy>
I would just like to know these few questions:
1. are zoanthids and actino/ricordeas corals? or are they anemones or some call colonial anemones? Are anemones corals too?
<I'm not sure what an "actino" is, but these other organisms are all Cnidarians (in the Phylum Cnidaria) and are within the class Anthozoa. Sea anemones are within the subclass Actinaria. Ricordea are within the subclass Corallimorpharia. Zoanthids are within the subclass Zoantharia.
The term "coral" is not scientifically defined per se. However, generally speaking, "corals" are all marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa, except for anemones. Now that I've given you the subclass names, I trust you can search either WWM or Google to learn more.>
2. regarding the questions above, please let me know the reference or where I can view the description of these two. I am not sure if I can trust Wikipedia or google. I need like some sort of a very solid scientific study on what class the zoanthids and mushrooms belong to.
<In my experience, Wikipedia is fairly trust worthy on these sorts of topics. It's monitored constantly by geeks such as myself who are always eager to correct an error or update a page with the latest scientific developments. However, if you are writing a report for school and need a more traditional source, I suggest you visit to your local library and look for books on marine invertebrates. If that is not an option for you, I would try going to the websites of respected marine conservation organizations. These websites often have educational pieces on corals which might help you. Here's one offered by good old NOAA: https://coralreef.noaa.gov/education/coralfacts.html>
Thank you and regards,
<Cheers, Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms      /RMF       2/5/19

To make the long story short. I just need to make them believe that Zoas and mushrooms like Ricordea and Discosomas are not corals at all. They are anemones.
<They; Zoanthids and Corallimorpharians are NOT corals OR anemones. READ here:
Im not making any thesis. I have a case with the government and im trying to prove to them by researching because i know that Zoas and Shrooms are not classified as corals.
Disregarding the classes and subclasses, they are more of anemones rather than corals right? Sorry if i am repeating myself and you.
<In some ways, yes>
There is only 1 country in the whole world where coral possession is illegal haha even soft corals is illegal here.
<Read on! Bob Fenner>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms    /Back to Sara        2/5/19
Thank you for the information. It is a big help. Sorry, actinos are Discosomas.
Actually, i just need to prove that Zoas and mushrooms are not corals but are classified more on anemones or colonial anemones and I need a concrete evidence to prove it. It will be a big help on my case.
<Again, "coral" is a somewhat ambiguous term. What exactly is your thesis?
Are you trying to make the argument that Corallimorphs, zoanthids and Actinaria should all be one subclass?>
Funny thing is, im being detained for culturing and producing these in my country as possession of corals is illegal here. Sad life.
<Oh! Yikes! Where are you?
Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms       2/5/19

To make the long story short. I just need to make them believe that Zoas and mushrooms like Ricordea and Discosomas are not corals at all. They are anemones.
Im not making any thesis. I have a case with the government and im trying to prove to them by researching because i know that Zoas and Shrooms are not classified as corals.
Disregarding the classes and subclasses, they are more of anemones rather than corals right? Sorry if i am repeating myself and you.
There is only 1 country in the whole world where coral possession is illegal haha even soft corals is illegal here.
<I'm not sure we can help you here. You need a lawyer, not a pet fish enthusiast. Ok, granted, I happen to be both, but I'm not the kind of lawyer you need. If you can't get a lawyer, read the applicable law and try to find records of cases similar to yours. See if you can figure out how the authoritative powers and decision makers there decide what is and is not a coral.
Good luck,
Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms -        2/5/19

Thanks you have been a big help. I have a lawyer but i think it is up to me to research on these to also help him in case we go technical.
The fisheries here dont know a lot of things and us hobbyists know a lot more. I don't know when they will wake up and realize that aquaculture is the main solution to the issue of coral bleaching due to global warming. Global warming is the highest percentage why corals are dying, not because of humans taking frags from the ocean.
<Generally speaking, I tend to agree with you. However, people taking "frags" from the reef can cause a lot of damage if such activities are not controlled. Just look at the damage groups of inexperienced divers can do even when they're trying not to touch anything.
Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms - 02/05/2019

Government people here are so dumb and lazy
<No way! I don't believe it! ;-)>
that they dont want to think of rules and regulations to restrict people.
They just ban everything. People tend to do illegal stuff and will cause more damage than if they will legalize and control it.
I wanted to tell them its like farming. Will farmers harvest all of their crops and not leave anything for future harvests? Common sense.
<We had a president here once, a long time ago, who was quoted as saying something to the effect of, "common sense is not all that common.">
Just like corals. They just have to make these rules so people wont abuse them so much. Without these governing rules, people would just harvest them all.
<Such is the nature of man, and most all dominant predators. Have you heard/read the story of Lyall's cat and the Stephens Island Wren? Very sad.
Sara L.>

ADE; share on web      11/11/17
Hi Bob,
Would I be out of place asking you to share this on WWM?
Both letter and link?
<Sure Walt>
The video is very well done, I think you will agree.
Walt Smith
<Ah yes. Will do on the morrow. BobF>

Re: Conscientious Marine Aquarist. Now Coral husbandry books    9/9/10
Thank you for your quick reply.
<Welcome Brent>
Is another book in the works for you?
<Mmm, always working on some... currently one on small marine systems...
Writing it in segments, presenting, selling as articles... in Ultramarine Magazine/UK>
Could you please recommend a good book on how to care for LPS corals?
Specifically torch, hammer, bubble and frogspawn.
<Mmm, yes... Either Eric Borneman's "Coral" book by Microcosm, or Anthony Calfo's "Coral Propagation" would be good for you>
I have Googled it many times and posed the question on reef central and have found mixed reviews on good recommendation for books. I figure a man with your knowledge might be able to point me in the right direction.
Thanks again,
<Glad to assist your knowledge and skills in our interest. BobF>

New saltwater breakthrough, coral care sheets  1/19/09 Dear Mr Fenner (and team) <David> Breaking news! As it turns out, the book "The Conscientious Marine Aquarist" also works great for reading and learning. Just kidding of course, however I do wonder how slow the site might be if people spent a little more time figuring out what they are doing by reading, and a little less hoping someone will give them a cheap/quick answer. <Heee, ahhh, and who really knows... Am grateful for this platform, but do agree... that a/the "reading experience" is far more satisfying, of greater, enduring learning than "this"> I am on my second time through the book and really wanted to tell you what a pleasure it is to read, your love, respect and wealth of knowledge in the marine world is truly amazing and inspirational. I am in the process of starting my own saltwater coral business with a small amount of farming and a bit of reselling of other aquacultured corals to local enthusiasts and pet stores. <Ah, outstanding> I am planning to send an insert with every package of coral I sell that will give a general understanding on acclimation, proper environment, care etc. I have a few that are already written up, however while rereading your book again I find that it is near impossible to word parts of it any better, or easier to understand then the ways that you have written them yourself. With that said I was wondering if I may pull small quotes from your book for use on my care sheet. <Yes... also do see the excellent in-print works of ASIRA and Coralidea (.com)... downloadable, royalty free> All proper acknowledgements would of course be made. I would also like to refer them to your books directly for future reference (a successful marine aquarist is a happy one). Bottom line is, I don't want to infringe on any copyrights or step on any toes. <You are wise here> Thank you and the team for all the great work, I know that I personally would have been lost without your guidance on a few different occasions. Dave <Thank you for your efforts. Bob Fenner>

Book Recommendation for Corals  01/01/09 I'm looking for a good beginner book about corals... any suggestions? <I would recommend "Aquarium Corals" by Eric Borneman as good all around book on corals. Happy New Year, Mich>

Medicinal Use for Aquacultured corals   7/25/08 Does anyone know of any practical/profitable medicinal uses for aquacultured corals? I can find many links on medicinal uses of coral, but it does not seem like there are any uses as of yet that show potential to be profitable to try and fill via aquacultured specimens. <Depends. Is this for a High School project, or are you thinking of going into business? If the latter, I'd have thought Wet Web Media would expect a commission if we're doing your market research for you! Good luck, Neale.>

Re: Plumbing questions. And books on coral husbandry  - 04/12/08 Dear Mr Fenner. Thanks for your response. I really like the aquarium itself, an having removed the useless corner box, drilled two 1.5 overflows <Ah, good sized, am glad to see/read> and installed a 35 gallon sump with 1100 GPH and an ASM G2 I will hope that I have overcome these shortcomings. <I do believe you are correct> If I may ask one more question. Having enjoyed your book greatly I was hoping you could recommend your favorite book on coral husbandry. <Oh! The very best one currently (that I'm aware of, of course) is friend Anthony Calfo's re-done "Book of Coral Propagation"... there is a huge amount of material (though less profitably found) one can glean from other works... V.2 of The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium by friends Fossa and Nilsen for instance... and the usual ra experience of attending hobby functions... Cheers, Bob Fenner> Respectfully John

Read Read Read… Recommended Book on Corals is "Aquarium Corals" by Eric Borneman 10/2/07 Good afternoon crew!! <Early AM now, Mich here.> Can't tell you how much your site has helped in the past. <Glad to hear!? I'm still new to the hobby, just over a year into it and my reef tank is doing great!! <Wonderful!> Some credit should go your way for the help! <Thanks!> I have become ok with my tank husbandry but really want to extend my knowledge further. <Always a good thing.> I have read "The Conscientious Marine Aquarist" and just ordered Mr. Fenner's invert book. <You will enjoy it.> I really like the writing style <Me too!> and great info in "The Conscientious Marine Aquarist" <Yes there is!> but cannot seem to find anything written by him/them regarding corals. <He's more of a fish geek, if you will.> I did find one written by Anthony Calfo but its 199 bucks <Really? US dollars?> and I'm not really looking to propagate or frag mine. Can you recommend a good book on Corals? <Yes. The best book out there on corals is "Aquarium Corals" by Eric Borneman. I'm sure you'll be able to find it for less than $50!> Much appreciated <Welcome! Mich>

<sic> Soft Coral Tank... misnaming, mis-mixing, time to read...   4/12/07 Hello,   I would first like to say that you for all of your help.   I currently have a 55 gal tank that has LR, LS, some fish and a couple of corals. Everything seems to be going great, however the button polyps I bought not to long ago seem to be slowly diminishing as time goes on. <They're losing... who is winning here?> The rock was covered when I bought it and now in the middle they seem to have died off.       I have a 260 watt lighting system on there.   Right now I have a rock of brown star polyps, green star polyps, 2 mushrooms, devils hand leather, yellow polyps pulsing xenia, green buttons, brown buttons, and silver xenia. <Ah, yes>      I have been adding B- Ionic part 1 and 2, along with iodine, and have also been dosing with purple up to get the coralline algae going. <Okay>      I have not been adding any coral food though. is that a problem? <Mmm, possibly a contributing cause... depending on what you're feeding these cnidarians incidentally... by way of the fish foods...> should I be adding some type of food or any thing else to the tank. What about any other supplements? Do you suggest. <All posted...>      If I do add coral food, what kind for these corals? Like PhytoPlex? Coral- Vite? What about Coral Life Liquid Gold? <Read on my friend, read on...>      Thank you. <Here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marine/inverts/index.htm The articles on the groups of organisms you list, their Compatibility and Feeding mostly... Bob Fenner> Recommendation of a coral atlas   6/16/06 Hi Crew! Thanks for your hard work and the excellent help you give to all of us.  I took a week off from work to read Anthony's coral propagation book and the NMA: Reef Invert books.... Ok the truth is it was the family vacation to the beach, but I was reading the whole time.  Both are invaluable!  I have just recently relapsed into Salt Water Dependency Disorder <<Heee! RMF would have named this Saltwater Aquarium Dependency Disorder for the sake of the acronym>>  and so much has changed since the trickle filter system I had in the late 80's.  My LR is finally cured, but after my information overload week at the beach I am going to add a refuge and let things mature a bit before adding any specimens.  (skimmer, ozone, Ca reactor, weekly water change routine all in place) My question is in regard to the ONLY thing lacking in Anthony's book... purty pictures.  I have read everything up to the sections on the individual coral families and held there for my lack of being able to identify in my mind what critter I'm reading about.  I need an atlas or something that I can have open next to the book to make the connections.  I guess I could find pics of most on the web site(?) but would like something bound that would travel.  I am betting NMA: Corals will be all that in one cover but for now I need a recommendation, that or a time machine to go snatch the book from the future.  I didn't see anything in the book review section that looked like a match.  Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.  I have a couple of good marine fish atlas type books but nothing with corals. I really enjoyed Anthony's humor throughout both books,  so I have an appointment with a psychiatrist soon and will let you know if there is anything to help that.   Serum Salinity dropping. Will have to sign off now and snort some Instant Ocean to stave off withdrawal. Ron Barton  Knoxville, Tennessee. <<Ron:  The definitive atlas with pretty pictures is Veron's Corals of the World http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/coralsworld/cotw-01.html  It is a 3 volume set.  You can also buy a CD with the pictures and most of the CD is available online as a database.  There are many books with pretty pictures.  Veron's book is great for coral identification once you have a lot of experience.  Borneman's Aquarium Corals is the best all around book for how to take care of corals. Best of luck,  Roy>>   Rhyzophilia (Gem of the Sea)   3/10/06 I found your website a couple of weeks ago. I have been reading it every day since. I am trying to find some information about the following coral Rhyzophilia (Gem of the Sea). I was able to acquire one from a local fish store. It is doing very well in my tank but I would like to find out more about it. I have searched the web and checked in several book but have found very little information. Do you have any information about this coral or can you point me in a direction to find out more. Jeff. <Mmm, have no personal experience with the genus. You have scanned Fossa and Nilsen's works (esp. v. 2 MCRA)? I would try the various specialized BB's (Reef Central, Reefs.org, Aquarium Frontiers...) for actual experienced input. Bob Fenner> http://hercules.kgs.ku.edu/hexacoral/anemone2/refine_by_order.cfm?RequestTimeout=1000 Coral article   1/30/06 900-1000 words on coral What a great article, thanks! <You're welcome and thanks for reading.> I have just set up a 65 gallon tank (with an overflow kit) that is going to be a coral tank. It has 10 gallon sump underneath with a protein skimmer, and I have two power heads (maxi-jet 1200) in the tank. I have an AquaLight pro lighting system with two 65 watt actinic bulbs and a 150watt metal halide light - and moon lights.  I think I am going to hook up the power heads to a timing wavemaker powerstrip. <Great idea.> I also have a 180 gallon saltwater tank, and I took about 60lbs of live rock from that, and two large bags of live sand into the new tank. What do you think of this set up? <Sounds good so far.> And given the very healthy and "alive" live rock I added, I thought maybe I could add a few really hardy corals in a few weeks. Do you agree? <Yes, just be sure water parameters are good.>I am also going to add a longnose hawk and a pair of pink skunk clown fish and the appropriate anemone. <Do not mix corals with an anemone.  Anemones can move and will/can sting the corals in the process.> Your article was great in helping me figure out where to begin with corals. Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated! <Thank you.>  Although I know you must be very busy answering e-mails -<Do continue searching our site and learn more about corals.> thanks again - <You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)> Jennifer

Info on Growing Coral for Reef Restoration Hi, I am looking for information about growing coral in labs to have it eventually transplanted back on the ocean for reef recovery? Do you know where I can find information about this? <Mmm, there are plenty of such schemes, folks involved in such plans, only a few actually doing something re. Walt Smith is one of these latter> Do you have anyone on your website in the academic community that may know about reef restoration? <Mmm, likely Anthony Calfo is a good place to ask here> Thank you for your help. ~Melody White <Will Bcc both in hopes they will contact you. Bob Fenner>  << See Google search here.  Look for CORL (Coalition Of Reef Lovers), a non-prof. organization that supplies areas in need with concrete "cages" upon which to grow corals.  They use coral plugs from the area, not lab-grown specimens.  Also, ArtificialReefs.org, makes "reefballs".  The AMDA is another avenue of exploration.  Marina >> Finally the New IKAN-Volume! Corals -- Indo-Pacific Field Guide Appeared and I attach the cover as a jpeg. <No jpeg attached> This is another unique volume in my identification series, which includes from the Class Anthozoa: Octocorallians (gorgonians, stoloniferans, leather and soft corals, blue coral and sea pens). Hexacorallians (stony corals, sea anemones, corallimorphs, zoanthid polyps). Cerianthid anemones, black corals, and from the class Hydrozoa filigree and fire corals. There are coral ID books on the market, but only specialized on single groups of the above mentioned classes, whereas this volume includes all coral groups as listed. For the first time the difficult identification of corals was solved, often even down to the species: one of the authors collected parts of the coral directly after photography to forward them to several scientists for correct identification. Please expect another useful ID-book and spread the news..... Greetings from Germany, Helmut Debelius (author & publisher) <Congratulations Helmut. Will post on our sites... Where can folks hope to order this work? Bob Fenner> 

IKAN Book <Congratulations Helmut. Will post on our sites... Where can folks hope to order this work? Bob Fenner> Easy, Bob.  Since the book has already been delivered to David Behrens of SeaChallengers: dave@seachallengers.com (mailto: dave@seachallengers.com)  dbehrens@schaferlabs.com (mailto: dbehrens@schaferlabs.com) And to Eric Riesch of New World Publications in Florida: eric@fishid.com (mailto: eric@fishid.com) I shall attach the cover of the book as a jpeg and ask you to spread the news, Bob, Please! Thank you very much Helmut <Guten tag, Her Debelius, ich spreche Deutsches nicht. My name is Marina, I am one of Bob's "minions". He has left for the Galapagos, but I will post this message, along with the lovely book cover you sent, on the site this morning. Thank you.>

Corals for Medical Research 3/10/05 Hi, I recently heard that many corals were used in bio-medical research... <quite true> ...and was curious as to what types of corals... <Gorgonians, zoanthids, Acroporids, Sarcophyton... and so much more> ...and what types of research is done.  <cosmetics, anti-fouling agents (boats), blood research, bone grafts and cancer treatments for starters> Could you point me in the right direction? < http://scholar.google.com. Do some strategic key word searches, my friend... and do consider selling the paper or article you write to us on the subject <G>> Lawrence <Anthony> 

Mushroom polyps? I was given some live sand, some algae ( that had bristle worms and small star fish - looks like small brittle stars) and a small piece of rock to help my coralline algae grow. On this small rock the lady pointed out that their were some ( 2) mushroom polyps on it. These polyps are so small that you'd miss them if you didn't know they were there. What is the best water, lighting and nutrients parameters to encourage these to grow and reproduce? I haven't upgraded my lighting yet. <Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marine/inverts/index.htm Scroll down... to Mushrooms... help yourself.  Bob Fenner>

Medusa Sting in Mexico Hello, My 80 year old father was stung 2 days ago in Santiago, Mexico. The Jellyfish was described as "small, stringy and black with 'legs'". A doctor in town said "medusa", gave my father an antidote shot as well as a shot for the pain. He sent him home with prescription to take for 2 days that was something like an antihistamine and some pills for pain. As soon as shot wore off, Dad had an all- nighter in pain which only hot packs would relieve. He now feels fine.  Can you tell me the likely identity of this jellyfish, the antidote and whether there is any remaining threat to my Dad's health. He was stung in the ankle. Much Thanks, JM <Cannot tell either... but am surprised at the availability of an "antidote"... antihistamines, analgesics are standard treatment for such stings... with more treatment for shock in some folks. Some medusoids are very dangerous indeed. Bob Fenner>

Polyps, Open Brain Coral & Blue Mushrooms <Hello Helena> I had a few basic questions, only because I'm noticing a few things and the aquarium store never mentioned them.  I've noticed a couple of polyps on the sand floor, that I guess fell off.<They are more than likely new polyps that have budded off from the parent coral.>  I've also noticed some of my (20 or so) crabs on the rock where the polyps grow.  They tend to knock the stalks over.  Can't this harm the polyps? <No, don't worry about that.> I've been pulling them off when I see them on, but it's getting tedious.  Also, some of the polyp heads look a bit dark in color. almost like they're burnt, is this normal? <Is your lighting more intense than the store where they came from.  This may cause a change in color.> I also introduced an open brain and blue mushrooms coral because I was told they are relatively hardy and easy to keep.  However, when reading about them online, it mentioned feeding iodine to the open brain.  The store said the PhytoPlex was enough once a week.  Is that true? <Phytoplex (Kent Marine) does not contain iodine.  Most people dose with iodine.  I personally do not.  I do 10% water changes weekly with Reef Crystals and my corals are doing fine. No problem using it, though I would recommend a iodine test kit to make sure levels don't get too high.> Lastly, my tank tends to get high levels of nitrate by the end of the week, I still can't figure out why, so  I do water changes once a week, clockwork.  Could the high nitrates be too much for coral.<What readings do you get for a "high"?>  My fish and inhabitants seem unaffected, but are hardy fish.  I'm just concerned, being that I just spent a bundle on these 3 types of coral.  I've learned in the past that stores give little if any info. unless problems occur and then the info. starts piling. Yes, fish are not affected by nitrate levels unless they get really high.  Really, the biggest reason to control nitrates/phosphates is to prevent an explosion of undesirable hair algae. James (Salty Dog)> Thanks for your time!

Polyps, Open Brain Coral & Blue Mushrooms Hi Salty Dog,<Hello Helena> Nitrates that are high are usually turning the color dark orange to almost red in the beaker--it reads at around 80.  But, everything else seems fine. My light wattage is 28 watts on 10 hours a day (timer).  I have another 10 watt light that came with the tank, but that's not on a timer, so as soon as I'm home, I turn that on as well.<Helena, that is nowhere near enough light for corals unless the 28 watts you mention is a typo.>  I believe the lights are less than what is in the store, but they told me the lights would be fine for the corals I have, as long as I keep the 28 wattage on a 10 hour timer per day.  Also, I read that nitrates affected the ability for livestock to breathe, and could kill them if it got too high? <I don't recall you mentioning the use of a protein skimmer.  If you do not have one, they are an excellent investment, and will help lower your nitrates.  James (Salty Dog)> Muchas gracias for your continued advice! Polyps, Open Brain Coral, & Blue Mushrooms I just did a water change on wed. 1/12, about 8 gal. change on a 30 gal. Tank. My nitrates are back up again between 40 and 80 only 4 days later. How do I keep them down?<Do not overfeed, feed only what the fish will actually consume. Do a 10% water change weekly and the use of a protein skimmer will help to lower the nitrates.>  The store game me Kent Marine nitrate sponge about 1 and a half months ago to put 2 bags of it in the sump.  However, it doesn't seem to be lowering my nitrates.<You have to attack the cause of the nitrates.  All these things are band aids, temporary cures.  Without removing the source of dissolved organics etc, the nitrates will just return.  The use of Chemi Pure or Bio Chem Sorb absorbs a lot of dissolved organics also.>  Could the water test kit be off? If so, is there a more accurate way of testing the water?<You could take a water sample to your LFS and have him test it and see if he gets the same readings> Or should I just not worry about it...???<Getting the nitrates down is important for a healthy looking tank. Thanks, James (Salty Dog)>

Re: Open Brain Coral, & Blue Mushrooms <Hello Helana> I do have a protein skimmer....Prizm...and it wasn't a typo...it's 28 watts. They told me that these type of corals would be okay with the 28 watts plus the other 10 watts.  Are they wrong? <Sounds to me like they just want to sell>  All corals need to photosynthesize to stay alive since they produce much of their own food.  Without the correct intensity and Kelvin rating, this will not happen.  They will eventually shrivel up and die.> Why are there so many discrepancies when it comes for salt water tanks?<You do need to be informed, but correctly.  Can I suggest the book "Reef Invertebrates" by Anthony Calfo and Robert Fenner.  You will learn all you need to know about keeping corals alive and healthy.> And why am I being misinformed like this...? If 38 is not enough, what do you suggest as minimum...? < Four to five watts per gallon would be a minimum.>It's like you ask a rabbi, a priest, and a monk, and you get ten different answers...aaaah <Do not ask rabbis, priests or monks.  Hope things work out better for you.  James (Salty Dog)> Rock Anemone and Clownfish Question Hi,          I have Rock Anemone that have grown on my LR and are reproducing well. These Anemones appear to have come naturally on the LR. Most are brownish but others are a pretty pearl color but are all definitely the same type. How big do these Anemones get and could they host Clownfish or Damsels at all? <Mmm, could be true anemones (actinarians), but I'm guessing these are "coral anemones", aka Mushrooms... Please read through WetWebMedia.com re for identification and care> I want to get a couple clownfish but am unsure what kind of Anemone to get from my LFS due to the fact that I am unsure what kind of lighting I have. <Uhh, study here... you likely are not ready for this...> Under the lighting I have now I have several good patches of sponge coral, featherdusters, and an unusual semi-hard coral that occasionally will turn white, grow and then becomes its normal fuzzy purplish color, all of the above came naturally upon the LR and are all doing well. <Due to your good water quality, husbandry> Aside from these I have three types of snails, a reef crab of some sort, and a spiny legged starfish that lives inside one of the LR. Thanks for reading and I hope to hear from you soon. Sincerely, Krista Mouw <Kita, do research here... your answers and more are archived on our site. Bob Fenner>

Big and little anemones Hello, I have another question, thanks again for the quick response to the last one.  I have a 50-gallon main tank (36"X18"X 18").  I have a large (17") ritteri (H. magnifica), a H. aurora ~ 8" across the oral disc, an ocellaris that lives in the ritteri, and a bicolor blenny.  I also have a rock covered with green starburst polyps and a rock with a few mushrooms.  I've read repeatedly on WetWebMedia about the dangers of allelopathy, and I'm worried.  The anemones look great, but the polyps and the mushrooms aren't looking as full or growing as fast as they used to.  << Well most anemones are high light animals, and most mushrooms are low light, so that is my first concern. >> What are the symptoms of allelopathy?  The animals have been living together for two years now.  I have a protein skimmer (Pro Prism) attached to the 29 gallon sump which has a deep sand bed.  I use Chemipure or carbon most of the time.  Do I have to take the polyps and mushrooms out?  With skimming and Chemipure can I keep the two anemones together, at opposite ends of the tank? << Yes, and after two years I'd say you must be doing things right. >> Again, the anemones look to be in perfect condition- both eat voraciously, really beautiful.  The H. aurora I've had for over 4 years now--two years in the same tank as the ritteri. Also, I read about the necessity of MH with H. magnifica, but I have two 96-watt 10,000K power compact bulbs and two 55-watt 10,000K bulbs and the anemone has tripled in size in the past two years--with regular feedings, as well. << Well that is great to hear.  Keep in mind that regular feeding is basically like adding more light. >> It lives in the top half of an already relatively shallow (18") tank, maybe that accounts for the success.  Would I be better off with MH lighting? << If it is growing so well, then don't change anything. >> I love the PC's, but I'll do what I have to make my babies happy. << The PC's are better for the mushrooms anyway, so if the anemones are doing well then just keep doing what you're doing. >> Tank parameters: temp:  81F SG:  1.025 Nitrates:  0 ph:  8.1-8.2 Thanks, Gary    <<  Blundell  >>

Corals to keep Hey don't worry about the lateness <I do, I hate to make people wait. but thanks> I have a question you mentioned that I couldn't keep stony corals can you give me a quick list of the corals I could keep I want anemones, fans, brain corals, sponges... would this be possible, I bought the 155 gallon tank what else can I have <I just think that you are going to have to be careful with what you put into your tank unless you go to halides and a high wattage.> <Let me give you some guiding sites here real quick.  Start here Alejandro you'll be reading some great information http://www.wetwebmedia.com/stonycor.htm, good luck MacL> thanks a  to Alejandro

Super Green Star Polyps! Good Day - <Hiay! Scott F. here today!> OK - I've searched but cannot find the answer among your previously answered questions so here goes; I have an established tank 2+ years and have had little to no problems. It is a 45 tall (I know tall isn't the best but it's what I'm stuck with) LR/LS set-up and I have it stocked mostly with octocorallians and fish. I purchased some star polyps about a year ago and they are growing out of control - stinging my Xenia and Colt corals to death. Is there any way to stop/slow the growth of the Star polyps? I have tried to redirect them only to have them grow over anything I put in their path and onto the adjacent corals. I have tried to "peel" them off of the rock with no success. They are a very bright green and look like moss or grass during the day but they are growing out of control. If I leave it alone, they will eventually cover everything in the tank. Any suggestions? <This is a problem that many hobbyists would like to have! I have always liked GSPs, but they can become a problem if left unchecked. I would have tried many of the same tactics that you did. In particular, I like to "passively propagate" actively growing corals like GSPs and Xenia by simply putting some rubble in the "path" of the Star Polyps, letting them "overgrow" the rubble, then removing the rubble and replacing it with a new piece or pieces (and, this will help you supply our fellow hobbyists with their own GSP starter colonies!). If you are impatient, then more radical methods are necessary, such as removing the rock or rocks on which the GSPs have set up shop, or regularly excising them with a razor blade (a tedious process, but seemingly the best way to go in your case). You really might consider propagating this beautiful coral and supplying fellow hobbyists and fish stores! When life gives you lemons, as they say....!> Thank you. J.T. Craddock

Opening a saltwater/coral store 7/1/04 hi, I am trying to find a trade magazine or shows on purchasing equipment  to open a store.  I also need the most local fish and coral suppliers  around the Jupiter, fl area.  thank you very much. Deborah <do look for Pet Business, Pet Age and Pet Supplies marketing magazines online (Google search). Also, membership in the trade organization PIJAC for demographic info and support on writing and revisiting your business plan as the years go by, market data, info, warnings, etc. HH Backer puts on trade shows along that have been popular for years although not very focused on fishes/marines. The MACNA hobby conference is also on of your very best places to network with other retailers and manufacturers along with advance aquarists from across the nation. Start with these leads and delve into our archives here at WetWebMedia.Com with FAQs and info collected through the years (you'll see a link on the index page for "business" info. Best of luck, Anthony>

Mushroom ID 6/30/04 Good morning,  I recently purchased a rock that houses two varieties of polyps and a rock anemone, but one of the other "inverts" I can not identify.  (I would have included a photo, but it is not in a "photo reachable" spot in the aquarium.)  There is just one of whatever it is.  It looks, if you can imagine, like the top of a single branch of a trumpet coral - fleshy and full - but just sticking out of the rock with no base (as a mushroom would).  It feels just like a trumpet coral, as well - soft and gushy.  If I touch it, it might shrink a little, but it does not close up.  It's color  is a neon red with a neon green center, and it's about 3/4 inch wide.  It's beautiful, and I've never seen anything close to it in appearance to help me identify it.  Any ideas???  I'm just really curious. Thanks so much, Bess <Hi Bess.  You have me stumped.  These kinds of ID's are very hard to make from a verbal description.  If it is possible to move the animal to a place to photo, that would be ideal.  Either way, please describe the following:  Does it have an internal skeleton?  Does it have obvious tentacles?  Are the tentacles only around the edges or distributed all across the surface?  When disturbed, does the animal pull back into itself or just sort of shrivel.  Even with all of the above inform, ID may not be certain.  Best Regards.  Adam>

Bicolor Buccaneer Bites 'em!! >WWM crew, >>Aye, matey, hallo thar! >Are there any Corals that I can keep with a Bi-color angel? I removed all my Xenia because he started eating it. He does not touch the Zoanthids and Polyps. Are there any other corals I can keep that he will not nip at? Thanks, Chris >>Bicolors are a touchy lot, me laddy.  Nay, I must say, there are none proven to be nip-proof whence under the lips of angels.  Lo!  There are those that be better than others - SPS corals shall refuse to walk the plank unless prodded forth, whilst LPS corals will turn tail and head for the briny deep as fast as we turn flags, arrgh.  Ye can expect your wee angel to give all sorts a try, a nip, and a taste.  Clam, brain, any and all may come under scrutiny, only a few may pass muster.  Arrgh!  Marina, the Salty Maiden of the Seven Seas.

Bicolor Buc - Did he Have a Go? >Thanks for the feedback Captain Hook! >>Argh, matey, that's CAPTAIN-ETTE!  Hee, thanks for putting up with my fun.  I've had my fish for the night, so my swashbuckling is over for the evening, as my belly is quite full. >I suppose the Zoanthids which [are] all over my rocks are poisonous, and that's why he never nips at them? >>Zoos can indeed be poisonous, and that isn't to say that he may not have *already* had himself a taste or two.  It'll be a process of elimination, and confirmation that fish can't smell, seeing as how he went to town on those Xenia.  Marina

-Strange Polyp ID- Hey Guys, I just bought some plants for my Refugium. <Excellent> And my son pointed out something that looks like a polyp.  It is Rose color looks like a yellow polyp when retracted except it has a clear pink body. It has long tentacles that are conical shaped not flat like my Yellow Polyp, and they are not just on the edge when open, like a button.  Then it's behavior is very strange.  Like I said it was attached to a Caulerpa racemosa, so I took out the plant and placed it on a live rock and placed a small piece on the plant  so it would not float around.  The next morning it was gone.  Ah man it had floated away, I searched all over my 75 gal tank and found it under the little rock. <Wow, what luck!> So I turned the rock over because it was attached to the underside.  When I got home from work it was back under the rock.  So, I move the rock thinking the current was to much.  Two hours later it was back under the rock.  The LFS where it came from it was housed in a low lighted tank full of plant and algae.  Could it be just sensitive to the bright light of my tank? <Likely. I think we can definitely rule out the possibility of it being a any type of zoanthid. It sounds to me like an Aiptasia, although Aiptasia are brown (could possibly be seen as pink under some circumstances I suppose). This critter is moving around fast enough to not be a polyp, and Aiptasia can definitely travel so I think that's what we have here. If you notice more and more, start nuking them (refer to the many pages of Aiptasia FAQ). If possible, get a picture, maybe I'm way off, but I doubt it. -Kevin> Or is this not a Polyp but an anemone? Thanks again, Kevin

Corals are adapting hello all, just thought I'd point out a cool thing in case none of you saw this.  On Sunday on Yahoo scientists report that the coral reefs are making some comeback, after years of higher than normal temps. Awesome, just awesome......looks life are stony friends are  stubborn to extinction as long as we stay involved.  Adapting to higher temps to survive...NICE!!!  check it out , pass it on....later. http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&cid=570&ncid=753&e=1&u=/nm/20040502/sc_nm/environment_maldives_coral_dc <Good news indeed... makes sense that organisms that have been around for hundreds of millions of years, through ice ages, reversals of poles, whatever undid the dinosaurs... would be able to put up with the current affair. Bob Fenner> Gaggle of Anemones 4/28/04 I have a 125 gallon tank with a pretty big long tentacle anemone a rose, and a Sebae and two little Condys and a carpet. <yikes... what an unnatural mix!> They aren't near each other except the Condy and long tentacle <that means little in such a small volume of water and with motile stinging animals like your anemones against the sensation of "chemical warfare" conducted against each other. They will seem to get along for some months... maybe even a couple of years. But statistically your chances of making this work are near zero for the long term. Please do reconsider> but I was wondering if they do touch what exactly happens and what about touching other corals such as my hammer? <oh, no... corals too. Ahh... please do read more in the WetWebMedia.Com archives about stocking, compatibility and allelopathy (keyword searches an simply navigate the menu> I also heard if one seems to be dying although there not you should remove or risk killing the whole tank. <this really is a dreadful way to run an aquarium with living organisms. Putting it in a stressful environment and then pulling it before it kills others. Anemones are really a dubious group regarding sustainable harvest. They naturally can live many decades (some with theorized "immortality" in the sense that they have NO definable lifespan) and tragically never live more than months or a couple of years because ill-advised aquarists put them in such mixes as yours.> I understand I'm sure I have to many anemones in there but I have an attachment to all of them. <please make the conscientious choice and keep only one species per tank, and do so in a system that specifically meets its needs (hard substrates, soft substrates, lagoon with grasses, etc). Most of all... please, please, please research the needs of all living organisms before you buy them and throw them into potentially harmful or unnatural mixes> Is this possible to keep. <no> thanks <sigh... best regards, Anthony>

Get Your Coral Straight Thanks for the advice... will go with better husbandry corals....  <excellent to hear my friend>  so does this mean that large polyped stonies (brain, moon, hammer) and soft corals (Sarcophyton, Sinularia, zoanthids, leather) can't or shouldn't be kept with each other?  <it is commonly done... and will work for some years, but is not without sometimes considerable challenges to coral health/husbandry. I think you will enjoy far greater success with a more natural selection of like-needs species>  what I had come up with was 2 175 watt 10k MH and 4 110 watt VHO  03 of them being actinic and one being 6500 k ...Was just concerned about keeping the fluorescence of the LPS as I have read in your book of coral propagation that if you have less than sufficient light the corals will turn brown or release their ZOO  <yes... true for some corals. Other corals its the opposite. Its really a case by case basis. Its one of the reasons why you hear so often that you have to pick your exact list of corals (by species... not just by group/type) before you pick your lights. Red brains need UV to maintain their reflective color it seems, but other corals will darken under excessive UV, for example>  I am not even sure the SPS I like is really SPS it is usually found in my LFS and they have it listed as Pagoda cup coral.  <Ahh, yes... its a LPS (Turbinaria), and a good, hardy one at that. Excellent choice>  It is shaped as a cup and has long polyps that come out of the cup.. maybe LPS ?cant find a picture of it in your book (cause there are no pictures) and Eric's book doest show it either.  <actually does... page 319, left-center picture... a shaggy, healthy piece of Turbinaria peltata>  any way being that the tank will have 19 inches of water after the sand bed will the lighting I suggested be sufficient to support (Brains, moons, Zoanthids, Star polyps ,hammer and softs like xenia, Sarcophyton, Sinularia and maybe some leathers ? The skimmer I bought is the Euroreef CS-8 4 external,  <outstanding skimmer!>  after I fist spoke to you on the water flow I bumped the pumps up to 2 dolphin 2000 each one driving opposite side of the tank on a dual outlet manifold. also used as sump return pumps. Sorry to bother you so much just want to do it right once...Ya  know...Thanks a million.  <sounds very good my friend... best regards, Anthony>

Need your expert suggestion.... Hello and thanks for taking the time.........Question is.... in a 120 Gal. tank 48 L X 24 W X 24 High  <one of my all-time fave shaped tanks>  with 4-6 inches of LS.....  <excellent>  progressive stacking of rocks....  <be sure to avoid stacking rocks against any walls... this will dramatically improve water flow and reduce nuisance algae growth>  with inhabitants such as Trachyphyllia  <this genus must be nestled in the sand... never on rock. Be sure this is so>  (all sorts of brain coral and moon corals...one or two clams and softs like xenia, Sinularia, zoanthids, leather, colt, Sarcophyton, mushrooms maybe a pagoda cup and possibly one or two SPS just because, what would be the ideal lighting arrangement utilizing metal halides and / or fluorescents....  <ughhh... with such an unnatural mix of corals from all over the map, I do not know where to begin. For long term success in an attempt at keeping this motley crew, let me strongly encourage you to do weekly water changes (10-20%), change carbon weekly instead of monthly or use ozone full time, and make sure the skimmer (or two) are working superbly>  I am partial to the blue appearance mainly because of the way it makes certain corals fluoresce but not too blue if you know what I mean, also want the best for growth rates as far as photosynthesis is concerned...I will purchase whatever arrangement you suggest and thanks again for your time and brain power. Anthony Pastorelli NYC Fireman  <my sincere advice is to swap out some corals and focus on a more natural mix of corals with like needs. Open brains and high-light SPS corals could not be much further apart from each other on a reef. Noxious soft corals mixed in really throw a monkey wrench into the equation. There is no one lighting system that will satisfy all of these creatures. Still... if you twist my arm for a recommendation, 2 x 250 10k K Halides gets my vote for the compromise. Anthony>

Reef Invertebrates Book Hello, <Hi there> I just first want to thank you guys for an awesome, informative website.  I have found countless answers to my questions on there.  But I just have one more that I am slightly unsure of.  I am looking for a general information book on corals and was wondering if your book, Reef Invertebrates, covers the "basic" corals that are available in the trade.  <No. The third volume (likely due out about a year and a half from now) will cover the cnidarians, including the corals of course>   I have read the reviews on it but it does not specifically state anything about actual corals but more on other invertebrates such as "sponges, worms (feathers, fans, bristles & flatworms), snails, Nudibranchs, sea hares, bivalves, Tridacnid clams, octopus, squid, nautilus, cuttlefish, shrimp, lobsters, microfauna, cucumbers, urchins, seastars, tunicates, and sea squirts" among other topics.  Can you please let me know.  Maybe I'm just not fully aware of what the words "Reef Invertebrates" encompass.  <You are correct in that corals are indeed reef inverts> If your book does not contain information about corals, can you direct me to a well-recommended book on corals?  Thank you for all your information and help. <You're welcome. Eric Borneman's "Aquarium Corals" is excellent as is the second volume of the Modern Coral Reef Aquarium by Fossa and Nilsen and Anthony Calfo's "Book of Coral Propagation". Bob Fenner> A conscientious marine aquarist Anemones and the lighting they need Dear crew, <Hi> I have a twenty gallon tank that I would like to put at least two or three anemones in it and a few assorted hard and soft corals. <I see a major issue here -- first, your tank is considered on the small side. In a healthy environment, anemones can get quite large. One anemone may take up a large portion of your tank leaving little room for corals which it will not eventually sting. Secondly, I advise against adding more than one anemone to a smaller sized aquarium. Anemones will often battle each other for space, lighting and good. Usually when anemones battle, none of them survive. With that said, I would stick with one anemone for your 20 gallon tank.> I know that my 15 watt lights will need to be changed, but to what kind of lights and to how many watts do I need to have a healthy aquarium? <To start with, lighting only plays a small role in a healthy aquarium. Many other factors are equally important - Water quality is a huge issue. Before adding the anemone make sure everything is in order and where it is suppose to be. Anyway, 2x 65wt Power compacts would make excellent lighting for your 20 gallon (depending on the dimensions of the aquarium). You can often buy retrofit kits at almost any local pet store or online to setup the lighting exactly how you need it to be.> Thank you for your time. <No problem. On a last note, if you are still considering an anemone, I would look for a bubble tip anemone (E. quadricolor). These often do the best in captivity.>   thank you again, <Take Care, Graham.>          Sven

Corals and Anemones? (Almost) never together 2/5/04 Dear WWM crew, <howdy!> Thanks in advance for the help.  I am running a corner tank (custom made) approx. 50 gals.  I am running 3 CFs, one 10,000K daylight 50-50 and two actinic 50-50's all 65W for a total of 195W.  I am running a Fluval 303 with biological and chemical media attached to a UV sterilized processing between 50-75 gal/hr.  I recently added a refugium ( a 10 gallon aq. capacity is about 7.5 gal and a sump about 3.5 gal.  I'm using an overflow box to get the water from the tank to the sump and it free flows from the sump to the refuge. and a quiet one 3000 pumping at about 400 gph.  The refuge is about 2 weeks old, Q1. How long and when should the refuge be lit?   <depends entirely on the needs of what is growing inside (just like light over displays). Anything you read about 24hr illumination applies only to Caulerpa, which you need to understand well if you are going to use... many merits and dangers with the genus. Chaetomorpha or Gracilaria are better/safer macroalgae IMO to be lit on a simple 12hr photoperiod (reverse of display if you like to help with pH stability> I had some problems with Cyanobacteria so I backed the lighting off of the main tank.  I am running the two actinic from 10am - 6 pm and the daylight from 11am to 7 pm. <Cyano is not about lighting my friend... it is entirely about nutrients. That is what feds/fuels Cyano... and its caused by many things: quality of source/tap water, overfeeding/overstocking, poor skimming (less than 3-5 dark cups minimum weekly), and most commonly - a lack of adequate water flow (10-20X) which allows detritus to settle and feed nuisance algae> The main question I have is this.  I did some drilling on my stand to run the hoses for the refugium and I lost my yellow tang.  I thought he had died from stress, but my Condy anemone is getting huge.  Could he have eaten a silver dollar sized tang.   <yes... possibly> His base is about the size of the palm of my hand and he stretches from about 10-12".  He seems to be getting to big for the tank.  Will he eat other fish?   <they can indeed. And please take note to read further about the perils of mixing anemones with corals. It should almost never be done in my opinion (beyond being an unnatural mix with most sp.> I recently (1 month ago) bought a Sebae anemone, white w/purple tips.   <Oh, no... mixing anemone species is arguably even worse. Arghhh. These anemones simply are not commonly found mixed in/on a reef with corals... and even when they are, the condition of confinees in an aquarium with motile stinging cnidarians (anemones0 with sessile ones (corals) is a recipe for disaster in the long run. Please reconsider> I know this isn't good but he seems to be doing OK and my maroon has taken to him.  He is between golf and baseball size.  He has taken up residence under a ramosa shell I have in the tank.  He wasn't eating very well but I have read some of your articles and will change my feeding regime.   <OK> I have a Goniopora coral, the Condy, a Sebae, and Xenia in the same tank.  Can/Will they get along?   <The fact that your young tank also has a Goniopora in it tells me that you are getting staggeringly bad advice on buying decisions... or you are not taking good advice from your LFS, my friend. I say this to help you... there are several red flags going up here that earmark your tank for an all too common disaster in the near future. Fish/coral losses at very minimum> The Condy is slowing growing and is getting pretty close to the Goniopora.  Will he sting in and kill it.   <Yes, possibly. It is one of the problems with mixing anemones with corals as mentioned above> He has already harmed the Xenia?  How far apart should they be and any info you can provide will be nice.   <10" is the minimum distance to keep between most corals to start with> I just found your website today and spent about 4 hours here.  My wife is ready to kill me. Thanks, Dave <read on my friend... and buy flowers <G>. Anthony>

Cnidarian ID 1/30/04 Please help me identify this animal? It seems to live half-buried in the sand, with a sort of crown of tiny tentacles sticking out. During a recent partial water change it became dislodged and this revealed a small, short, sort of squiggly purple body, something like the leathery texture of a sea cucumber, but not as long. It soon covered itself again. The whole thing is maybe 1 cm long and more or less purple, with clear tiny tentacles that have whitish round ends on them. I have made a drawing of what it looks like to me: Sincerely,-Laura Butler <excellent drawing my dear, and if the "balls" on the end of the tentacles are accurate, then it is quite descriptive. It strikes me as being a Pseudocorynactis Corallimorph or kin. It is seemingly anemone like at any rate. A photograph would help me to confirm it if you can provide one. Kind regards, Anthony>

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