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More FAQs about ORP, Ozone, Ozonizers System/Selection

Related Articles: Reduction Oxidation Potential, RedOx: A Very Valuable Tool For Assessing, Assuring Maine Aquarium Health, ppt. presentation, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, by Bob Fenner, Physical Filtration, Re-Dox,

Related FAQs: Ozone, Ozonizers 1, Ozone, Ozonizers 2, Ozone 3, Rationale, Application/Installation, About Dryers, Measuring, Maintenance/Repair, Reduction Oxidation, & Marine Test Gear 1, Marine Test Gear 2, Marine Water Quality, Marine Water Quality 2, Marine Water Quality 3,

Energy Savers/ESU: http://www.esuweb.com/ Ozotech: http://www.ozotech.com/ Red Sea: http://www.redseafish.com/ Sander's: http://www.aqua-sander.de/anlagen/index.en.html (USA distr: Quality Marine re: http://www.qualitymarineusa.com/home.html

Ozonizer     11/18/17
<Hey there>
I’m striking out it my search for an adequate Ozonizer that can help with Dinoflagellates.
Do you have a recommended Ozonizer that is rated by microsiemens/cm and can result in 400 microsiemens/cm?
<Oh, many... depends on a few factors... of course: The size/volume of water/system, biomass, feeding. Best to get one that has an adjustment knob... set up, run incrementally at a given setting for a few days... Till you find the setting that doesn't elevate beyond 400 microsiemens/cm. Actual makes and models are listed on WWM, but please do write back with some idea of the size, make up livestock wise of your set up and I'll suggest particular choices>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Ozonizer     11/18/17

Thanks for your help! I have a 100 gallon mixed reef system with 3 tangs (Sailfin, yellow and Kole), 1 Rabbitfish and a Sixline wrasse. I’d say I’m a moderate feeder, usually frozen, pellets and seaweed; I rotate everyday. NO3 is usually btwn 2-3 and PO4 is btwn .07-.1; I dose to maintain parameters. Please let me know if you need more information.
<Ahh, an Aqua-Sander or Ultrazone ozonizer unit of 200 mg/h production should do it. IF you have a good deal of humidity (more than 50%) much of the year, a desiccant device would be my next purchase. BobF>

Pygoplites Diacanthus/Genicanthus Bellus Compatibility in large system    4/13/17
<Hi Jen>
I appreciate your site and all you do for us and the creatures of the sea!
I'm a prior reefer who had to put it on hold due to a major career change and after 5 years am finally ready to resume the obsession.
<Ah; welcome back to the fold>
I'm planning a 748 gallon reef(120" x 48" x 30") with lots of live rock and mixed corals.
Would one Regal Angel (Pygoplites Diacanthus) and a pair(male and female) of Genicanthus Bellus tend to have enough space to avoid animosity in this setup?
<Oh yes>
I'll have a 100 gallon quarantine tank with established live rock and plan to quarantine each specimen alone and slowly in order of shyness prior to adding to the tank. My entire livestock list will be added this way. These will be the only Angels in the system and be fed several times per day.
I have a 200 gallon refugium/sump on an opposite lighting schedule. I want to grow Chaetomorpha mainly for filtering and secondarily for food but also would like to grow Red Gracilaria for the excellent nutrition(for the
Regal). I know you're not supposed to mix Algae, but I've heard of people having a veritable Macro algae garden of mixed types in large Refugiums.
Would I be able to do just these two in this system if I keep them on opposite ends of the refugium, lower lighting on the Red Macro and trimmed up?
<Yes to growing multiple types/species here. Really is more a matter of culture space>
Or any tips? I'll have a skimmer rated for a heavy bio load at 1,000 gallons. I haven't decided which brand yet. Thank you,
<Exciting! Please do periodically update us with your ideas, progress. Bob Fenner>
Re: Pygoplites Diacanthus/Genicanthus Bellus Compatibility in large system; Now Ozone     4/13/17

Hi Bob,
Big fan of yours for many years. Every time I veer from your advice I wish I would've followed it. On this subject, I was pretty sure of the answer, but it's always nice to get a professional affirmation. I will keep you
updated. Thanks!
<Glad to share w/ you Jenny. BobF>
Re: Pygoplites Diacanthus/Genicanthus Bellus Compatibility in large system    4/13/17

What size ozone generator would you recommend for this system? I want to try to get to 400, but they say to undersize a little. You think a 360 would do it?
<400 mg/h is about right. See my writings on sizing such ( 0.3 to 0.5 mg/hour per gallon of aquarium water)... I'd get/use, run full output at this size, no worries. Bob Fenner>
Re: Pygoplites Diacanthus/Genicanthus Bellus Compatibility in large system    4/13/17

Great thank you!!

Question for Bob F.      6/5/15
Hello Bob!
I was wondering if you have any practical advice regarding how to interpret ORP readings, when using an Apex system.
<Yeeikes... don't know the Apex system at all well. Have met the owner giving talks about; and he seems competent... >
I would like to try one out on my 210 gallon system (300 total gallons incl sumps), UV sterilizer, but no Ozone or Calcium reactor. Does run carbon and GFO, and I do dose for Calcium, Alkalinity and Magnesium.
<Okay to all this>
Any thoughts or advice to share?
<The usual (that you can find on WWM, articles, books I've penned) re ORP. I'd get/use a unit that even if "turned up all the way" won't over-drive O3... keep under 300 microSeimens per cm (µS/cm). Test/trial this few hundred mg/h generator with dryer or not... discharged into sump and/or skimmer...>
It is a mixed reef system (fish, sps, lps, and many many RBTs though from same original RBT).
Thanks so much,
< A tough question that I wish I had a better answer for. AM a giant fan of the use of ozone, measure of RedOx/ORP for determining, monitoring biological water quality. Bob Fenner>
Re: Question for Bob F.      6/5/15

Ok, any ozone systems you recommend?
<Currently? Mmm; not up to date... am still a fan of the Ozotech... but there are a bunch of new makers... As usual, I'd ask around... the hobbyist bb's, clubs... and get first hand reports as to usefulness. BobF>

Re: Duncan's coral not opening, now ozonizer sel. 5/1/10
Hello again,
<Hey there Wayne>
From what I can understand, my system might benefit from the use of an ozonizer and this may even help to reduce the impact of some of the allelopathic responses my reef tank may be experiencing (as indicated by Bob's reply to my previous email). There seems to be a great deal of discussion and debate in various web articles on the actual benefits of using an ozonizer and I was hoping to gain a little more insight from you folks.
<Mmm, have you read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/redox.htm
and the linked files above?>
My total system volume adds up to about 150 gallons including the 90 gal. display, sump and refugium and I would consider investing in an ozonizer and ORP controller if there is a reasonable chance that it will help me to reduce my nuisance algae, improve water condition and perhaps even reduce the impact of the "chemical warfare" going on in my tank.
<Will definitely do so...>
Do you feel that an ozonizer and related equipment would be a worthwhile investment?
<Oh yes>
Would I benefit nearly as much from the use of a UV sterilizer instead?
<Mmm, some UVs are principally used for or have as their chief functionality, production of O3... A purposeful ozonizer is superior>
Please note that I do already use an RO/DI unit to make all my aquarium water and I use SeaChem reef salt. I have not yet checked the composition of my salt to see if it contains Bromide species ions/compounds which may pose a risk if I were to deploy an ozonizer in my system.
<Only a few brands do... e.g. BioSea, Marine Environments... All SeaChem's fine salts do not>
So far I've found it terribly hard to find an LFS or Canadian e-tailer that even lists ozonizers in their product catalog. After contacting some, they have indicated it might be possible for them to order it for me. Also, I've noted several complaints in reviews of the Red Sea Ozonizers that they failed within the warranty period or slightly outside it and they were not able to locate someone to perform repair.
<Thank you for this input>
When contacting the manufacturer, they were told to take it to a LFS for repair. I don't want to purchase something that will be an expensive paperweight inside of 2 years.
<Do keep looking about... there are some new/er units that are better by far. Peruse the etailers listed on WWM for makes/models... BobF>
Thank you once again for your advice.

Ozonizer... sel., dryer 10/9/09
Morning Bob,
Question about ozone since you were speaking about it so highly at SCRC..
I was thinking about giving ozone another try, I have used it before but had mixed results. Is it possible to find a source of ozone that does not require an air dryer??
<Mmm, well... none do, but all "work better" in a dryer setting... If the humidity where the ozone generator is located is relatively low humidity...>
The ones that I have used before did not work well because the desiccant would go bad rather quickly.
<Oh! These are much improved nowadays... For larger "users" there are even electrical/electronic devices... Otherwise, I'd get two cheaper chemical/physical types and be drying one unit out while the other is in place. Cheers! BobF>
Thank you for your time.
Marine Depot has a unit that claims does not need a dryer, the ozone is produced by light..
Have you heard about these??
<Yes... UV's... please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/AqBizSubWebIndex/bizuvs.htm
and the linked files above. And direct your mail to Crew@WetWebMedia.com

UV Or Ozone For Sterilization 10/1/09
Hi Gang,
<Hello Ray>
I have a question for you regarding the use of UV sterilization and/or Ozone generation. First, a little background on the tank though. I recently upgraded my 55 gallon reef tank (running for 3 years) to a 180 gallon about 4 months ago. All has been doing well with no fish loss and all the parameters are well within specs for a reef tank (Temp 79, Ph 8.2-8.4, Nitrates 0, Phosphates 0.01, Mg 1250, Ca 480, Salinity 1.026, ORP 380-420mV- via RKE and probe). I have been adding more fish and corals slowly over time and usually have not run into any problems. However because I travel a lot I have not been as strict on the use of a hospital tank as I should have and after introducing a couple clownfish I returned a few weeks back to find them coated in a white slime (of which I believe was Brooklynella). All but one clown perished during this outbreak so I did not replace the clowns for 10 days in the main tank but rather setup the hospital tank and treated the new clowns (6) for 3 days with a Rid-Ich solution (dosage in accordance with the label). The Clowns appeared healthy and did not shown any notable signs of fungal, or Protozoan infestation however I was scheduled to travel in a few days so introduced them to the tank as I do not have a way to feed or chill the water (I live in South Texas) in the hospital tank. After about a week I have again noted one of the Clowns had a great amount of white stuff around its mouth (but not on its body). It is impossible to get the fish out of the tank and I have a 15 watt UV module installed in the chiller which should be taking care of anything when it's becomes free born in the water column. I decided to verify the UV and when I pulled it out it was failed and the starter bulb was shorted. I have been doing some research and learned that with a ~1000 gph main pump and a 15 Watt UV it basically is doing nothing as the dwell times would be pretty much nil to kill anything, even algae.
So now my question... I would like some guidance on which would be a better route to take (most bang-for-the-buck so to speak) to get the tank back on track.. UV or Ozone generation?
I currently use the Reef Keeper Elite controller and an ORP probe and am looking at budgeting $400-$500 for either an 80W (or is 40 watts enough?)
Emperor Aquatics UV (or which I may build myself) and run with a 200-300gph
pump or purchase a 200mg/hr Red Sea Ozone generator. Or other suggestions please!
Am I on the right track with regard to getting ahead of the disease and preventing further any outbreak?
<Ozone and/or UV are only going to kill organisms that come in contact with these devices, so it is likely that all parasitical cysts are not going to be killed. If I were to buy one of these units, it would be an ozone generator. There is a twofold benefit with using ozone, it is effective in killing disease causing organisms, and at the same time raises water quality by increasing the RedOx level of the system. Good water quality in itself is a boon in preventing disease outbreaks.
Do read here before buying. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marphysf.htm.
James (Salty Dog)>

Are there any negative effects from using latex vs. silicone..? O3 7/29/09
Hi Folks at WWM.
Thanks to Bob Fenner and a talk on ozone he gave while in Orlando (SRC), I decided to finally go and buy an ozone generator.
I am up and running and everything is going very well. My question has to do with tubing that will be used to go between the ozone generator and the protein skimmer venturi input.
Whilst at Home depot, I was shopping for some ozone resistant silicone tubing. I was not able to find any; instead I found medical grade latex tubing with the right inside diameter etc.
Are there any negative effects from using latex vs. silicone..?
<Mmm, yes... better to not use latex... Some could-be serious reactions, resultant pollution>
My ORP is currently at 350. Would you recommend running higher..? And if so, what recommendation might you have.?
<Between this and 400 is about ideal. Please read here:
Please advise and thanks in advance,
Matt Kantz
ORCA President 2007 ~ 2008
<Be seeing you, Bob Fenner>

Ozonizers/Selection 7/15/09
Howdy Crew --
<Hello Sean>
Quick question... From your FAQs I know that you like the Ozotech. For a 220g FOWLR with a heavy fish load and an AquaC EV240 skimmer and 290g total water, would you recommend the 200mg or the 300mg unit?
<I would likely go with the Red Sea unit which has variable control, especially if you do not use a controller.>
Also, would you recommend getting a separate controller?
<Excessive ozone will affect the delicate chemical composition of seawater.
Therefore, it is preferable if the ORP is monitored and used to determine when ozone should be applied. You should use a controller or an ORP meter to monitor, whichever one your wallet suggests. Do read/learn more here.
Thanks much.
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>

Re Ozonizers/Selection 7/16/09
Thanks for the fast reply.
<You're welcome.>
I'll go with the controller rather than just the probe and manual control. I believe that the Ozotech also has variable control. With a controller, would you then suggest the Ozotech (which I think has a better rep)?
<I would likely go with the Ozotech.>
With either ozonizer, do
you recommend a 200mg or 300mg for my size system?
<If using a controller, I'd go with a 300mg, and incorporate an air dryer in the system. They are inexpensive, and will extend lamp life and increase efficiency by eliminating humid air.>
Also, is there a particular brand/model controller that you prefer?
<I like the American Marine Pinpoint Controller.
James (Salty Dog)>

Dinoflagellates... Algae issue, env.... 06/02/09
Hello Crew!
We need help! We are at wits end with a presumed Dinoflagellate problem in our tank. We have not done a microscopic look, but grossly, the stuff looks
<Can be, often are, deceiving>
identical to pictures of Dinoflagellate and definitely produces gas bubbles.
<Many algae in profusion can, do>
It covers both the sand bed and the liverock. If we vacuum or blow it off, it reappears in a few hours. I have tried to read on Wet Web and have not found a huge amount,
<... take another look...>
so please feel free to refer me if I'm missing something in the archives. The system is about 600 gallons total: 250 gallon display, 50 gallon fuge with Chaetomorpha, 150 gallon sump, and several in line frag tanks. The system has been up for over a year and was an upgrade from a well established tank. The problem started about four months ago. Tank inhabitants: Naso tang, Yellow tang, Rabbitfish, Sargassum triggerfish, and pair of Clarkii clowns. All fish have been in the tank for several years. Corals are all SPS with a few LPS placed far away from each other. Nothing new has been introduced to the tank except for a clam about 5 months ago (and yikes, no quarantine). We have also been fighting an Aiptasia problem that seemed to sneak in on some liverock added about a year ago. We are using Aiptasia X (in case it relates to our big problem).
<Perhaps indirectly... by releasing nutrients from the dissolved anemones>
Tank stats:
250 pounds liverock (2/3 in display, 1/3 elsewhere in system), sand bed of about 3 inches (I know...the dreaded "end between" depth), pH usually runs 8.1,
<This is a clue>
alkalinity usually 2.5,
<Too low as well>
temperature 79, ammonia/nitrate/nitrite 0, silicates/phosphates 0, calcium 350, ORP 240.
<Way too low... And the best clue thus far>
Currently the pH has been raised to 8.4 after reading about this as a possible fix for the dinoflagellates. The alkalinity has been fluctuating up and down from adding Kalk to raise the pH. Lighting is 3 x 250 watt halides (14K spectrum) plus actinics. All bulbs were changed about one month ago to rule that out as a problem. Typically we run a Phosban reactor and a calcium reactor. Both have been stopped during the last month to rule them out as a source of the problem.
<They are not>
The skimmer is a Reeflo orca and produces substantial skimmate. The water return goes through filter
socks. We have tried running carbon, although we are not currently.
Water changes are about 10% every week using RO/DI water. We have other tanks that do not have a problem, so we do not think the RO/DI unit or source water is the issue. The only other difference with the problem tank and our other tanks is that we have a foam (aquarium safe supposedly) sprayed on the back wall that gives the appearance of liverock.
<Also not an/the issue>
I cannot recall the product name as it was done over a year ago before the tank was set up. What has helped the most is keeping the tank in the dark for 3 days (no lights, tank covered to keep ambient light out). The dinoflagellates completely disappeared (well, grossly anyway). However, 2 days back with actinics and ambient room light (still no halides), the dinoflagellates are coming back. Sorry if I have left out any needed information. Any advice or reference referrals would be greatly appreciated!
<For whatever reasons, your RedOx is too low... along with pH, alkalinity... I would re-start your calcium reactor, and for what you have invested here... the size/volume et al., look into/get/use an ozonizer...
For the rationale et al. posted here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/redox.htm
and the linked files above, part. the related article/ppt. Bob Fenner>

Re: Dinoflagellates 06/02/09
Thanks for the reply! As always, the website is great and the service is invaluable. We thought the low ORP was a result of the Dinoflagellate as opposed to a potential cause. I am ordering the Ozotech Poseidon 200 mg/hour now unless you recommend otherwise.
<I would look to something a bit larger production-wise. Please read where you were referred to. RMF>
Our skimmer is not ozone safe, but apparently we can change the seals ($80 kit) and correct that. Thanks again...will let you know how it works.

Re: Dinoflagellates, ozonizer sel. 06/03/09
I must have missed something in the reading.....I truly did read the articles and FAQs you referenced.
<Mmm, well... do take a look again... I would opt for at least a 300 mg/h unit...>
I'm a huge fan of the website and would not have ignored your reading suggestions. I will look through them again for a better recommendation on brand/size of ozonizer.
Thanks as always for the help.
<Oh, and please do seek out the opinions of other earnest aquarists (the hobby bb's are best here) re current likes in the way of brands/manufacturers. Cheers, BobF>

Question About Ozonizer -- 04/22/09
Dear Crew,
<<Hey there Andy>>
Hope all is well with you.
<<Hmm, how would my buddy Bob put this? I'm still vertical 'I'm still looking 'down' at the grass'¦ So yes, I suppose all is well!>>
I had the pleasure of meeting Bob in person this past weekend
<<Ah! Quite the character, ain't he?>>
--and I even got him to sign my copy of TCA!
<<I have a signed copy as well (waiting for the value to escalate so I can auction it off as Sotheby's and retire [grin])>>
His pitch was about the value of using ozone in marine aquaria.
<<Ah yes 'I too am a proponent>>
Unfortunately for my bank account, it doesn't take much to get me interested in pursuing a new and useful gadget.
<<Mmm, yes 'and a little extra money spent here can mean much>>
Until I heard Bob speak, I hadn't given any thought to using ozone.
<<I see>>
It's not something that's talked about much in the normal circles, at least as far as I can tell.
<<Hmm'¦ I don't know that that's it so much as it is just so readily dismissed because folks don't understand it>>
In any event, I started snooping around the e-tailer sites to get a feel for what is involved and what kind of equipment I would need.
<<That's a start 'how about some research/reading up on the process of producing ozone itself and the effects re?>>
Based on Bob's statements, I figured that, for my 90 gallon reef (30 gallon refugium), something in the 50 mg/hour range would be a good choice.
<<There are lots of variables that can determine the size unit needed aside from the volume of the system (e.g. - bio-load, method of introduction, efficiency of the unit) But even with just the info here, I would recommend a unit at least twice this size 'especially if one of the 'cheaper' hobby units. I run a very good quality, very efficient 300mg/hr Ozotech unit on my 500g (en toto) system and have never had the ORP exceed 370mV>>
As luck would have it, I happened to see an advertisement today from a fellow hobbyist who was selling a new-in-box Red Sea AquaZone Deluxe 100 mg/hour (Ozonizer/Controller with ORP probe and 250cc dryer) for $250 plus shipping.
<<I have heard mixed reviews on this brand, though I think I recall Anthony once gave these units a thumbs-up 'and at least it is a 100mg unit>>
At least from a price standpoint, that is a great deal considering this unit retails for $350 (if you catch it on sale).
<<Do consider the Ozotech units'¦ For the $250 you're thinking of spending you can get a much better ozone generator than the Red Sea units, in my opinion. The Ozotech units are 'Cold Spark' corona discharge units that are field serviceable. This means that not only can the discharge cells be replaced should it ever become necessary (not for a very long time with care/cleaning), but you can operate the units WITHOUT a dryer as long as you clean the discharge cells a few times a year. And believe me, unless you are going to fork out the money for an 'electric' dryer unit, you will spend much time/grow quite weary of recharging the silica-beads (necessary every few days, in my experience) of those 'standard' dryer units. You will still need to get a controller (Milwaukee has one for about a C-note), but the quality and longevity of the Ozotech unit will more than make up for the extra expense>>
I would rather have a 50 mg/hour unit to minimize the risk of disaster, but this deal is too good.
<<Even without the controller, a 100mg unit would pose little risk if any here I think 'but with a controller, you really have nothing to fear re the size of the unit>>
So far as I can tell, there aren't many options out there for ozonizers
<<A few'¦ Red Sea as you've noted 'with Sanders and Ozotech both providing better units>>
and it appears that the Red Sea line is fairly popular,
<<'¦'cause it's inexpensive, and maybe not as durable in/around a humid environment as it should be. Though to be fair'¦better than nuttin, I guess>>
so I'm hoping that someone at WWM has some experience with it and can share his/her experiences/thoughts on it?
Thanks, as always.
<<Happy to share'¦ EricR>

Re: Question About Ozonizer - 04/23/09
<<Hi Andy>>
Thanks for the response.
<<Quite welcome>>
The reason I noted the 50 mg/hour unit was that Bob specifically admonished us to get the smallest unit necessary, because Murphy's Law . . . Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.
<<I don't disagree 'but the keyword here is 'necessary''¦ I believe it is possible to obtain 'too small' a unit for one's system and thus not fully realize the benefits of employing ozone. All the more reason to do your research (hopefully from multiple sources) and make an informed decision>>
For example, I have a 4 year old . . . I can see him playing with the knobs'¦ Anyway, I have a follow-up question, if you don't mind.
<<Not at all>>
I run an AquaC EV-180, and the manual suggests using ozone only for 3 or 4 days a month because of its impact on the efficiency of the protein skimmer.
<<Mmm'¦ I do disagree. The addition of ozone may well impact the skimmate output due to its effect/the breaking of molecular bonds on some elements which may make them more susceptible to scavenging by other means (e.g. -- chemical filtration)'¦but I hardly think it makes the/any skimmer less 'efficient' than it was to begin with>>
<If I may kibbitz, I agree with EricR here... run your ozonizer continuously. RMF>
The manual goes on to say that because ozone destroys/removes dissolved organics, your skimmer will have less to skim. Now, I'm no scientist but it seems to me that whether you remove organics through ozone or through a skimmer really makes no difference.
<<Indeed (though to be clear, I advocate using both methods in unison)'¦ And the two methods do also share some benefits such as improved oxygen and ORP levels. But in my opinion 'nothing matches the 'water clarity' obtained by utilizing ozone>>
The important thing is to remove organics. Do you know if one loses something by running both a skimmer and an ozonizer 24/7 that you wouldn't lose if you ran only the skimmer 24/7?
<<I fee both have benefit and I do run both 24/7 on my own system 'as I suggest you do>>
Thanks again.
<<Always welcome'¦ Eric Russell>>

More Questions About Ozone Use - 04/30/09
Dear Eric,
<<Hiya Andy>>
Sorry to bother you again, but I have a few follow up questions regarding ozone.
<<No problem 'and not a bother>>
First, I did buy the Red Sea Aquazone Deluxe.
I know you believe there are better units out there, and I don't disagree, but I thought a brand new 100 mg/hr unit with all the fixin's for $200 less than retail was a good start for me.
<<Sounds fine (after all 'it is 'your' money)>>
Now that that's out of the way . . . I have an AquaC EV-180 without the special fitting and I corresponded with AquaC about how to run the ozone through the skimmer. As instructed, I drilled a hole next to the air intake, inserted silicone tubing in the hole and sealed it with silicone gel.
<<'¦gel? As in 'sealant' I presume'¦>>
Thinking ahead, which is something I don't always do, I decided to affix only a small length of tubing to the skimmer, which I connected, using a brass barb, to the longer piece that attaches to the ozonizer so I can disconnect and service the skimmer.
<<Mmm, it may be a small risk but I would replace the brass barb fitting with a plastic barb fitting (for fear of liberating copper ions via the ozone), or better yet, a JACO connector>>
First, although the unit was unused and the manual says the Red Sea ORP probe is pre-calibrated to work with the controller,
<<Always best to calibrate any such new equipment/probes>>
I want to confirm that my probe is in fact calibrated.
<<You can only do this with a calibration solution of known value>>
My ORP reading is 190, but I do a 15% water change (RO/DI) every two weeks, employ a good skimmer that I service regularly, have a 30g refugium with Chaetomorpha, have a shallow substrate bed (1/2" or less), and have a pretty light bioload, so I'm skeptical of a reading that low.
<<Hmm'¦does sound/seem 'low''¦and I hate to say 'but maybe why this unit was sold/sold so cheaply?>>
Right now, I have the probe mounted in my sump where the water enters from the overflow, so there is a lot of circulation/flow there, but I did notice that when I had the probe in my tank, the ORP was measuring at about 230.
<<Readings can fluctuate quickly and are probably influenced by the position/location of the probe>>
The manual says that you can get different ORP readings at different locations and to search around,
but it also says to place the probe in a dark place, like the sump, to avoid fouling.
<<It may require more maintenance 'but I prefer to keep my probe in the tank (near those affected most)>>
Maybe the reading is correct, but maybe not . . . Do you know if I can just use any ORP probe calibration fluid?
<<Any fluid with a known value in mV, yes>>
Second, and I'm sure this varies with conditions/ozonizers,
<<And environments/tanks>>
but how long does it generally take to see a change in ORP once you start using ozone?
<<As long as the unit is large/efficient enough to make a difference 'within a day or two for sure>>
Third, is it absolutely essential (for safety) to filter the air exiting the skimmer with activated carbon to eliminate any excess ozone?
<<Not in my opinion (I don't do this). The molecular interaction/action of the skimmer itself will do much to remove/use the ozone 'and residual ozone is not much if any of a threat with most of these hobby units if utilized/installed correctly, in my opinion. But do consult others re'¦and decide what you feel comfortable with>>
When Bob F spoke about this, he basically stated (I'm paraphrasing, and hoping I got it right) that, given the small amount of ozone we employ in aquaria and given that ozone so readily dissipates/metabolizes/whatever, this really isn't a concern,
but if you want to be 100% safe, go ahead and filter the air.
I can definitely smell some ozone in the air when I'm around my tank--nothing overpowering or anything, but it's there. I've asked the good people at AquaC, but I'm scratching my head as to how I might go about filtering the air leaving the water exit valve (which, other than the collection cup drain, is the only place that ozone can escape)--the EV-180 manual says not to restrict the flow of this water. If I stick a filter bag full of carbon over the exit valve, the flow is going to be restricted. Although the restriction may be small at first, I anticipate that the bag will foul over time and the restriction will become more significant.
<<Agreed'¦ But you can simply place a bag of carbon in the sump 'under' where the water falls from the skimmer 'and another atop the collection cup vent holes (if it has such). I really don't think you have much to fear here 'but as stated, do what 'you' are comfortable with>>
Thanks again for all of your help.
<<Always welcome'¦ EricR>>

Re: More Questions About Ozone Use - 05/01/09
Thanks for all your replies!
<<Always welcome>>
Yes, I meant silicone sealant--was drawing a blank when I was typing.
<<Happens to me too>>
I don't intend to keep the brass barb--I chose that over nylon (which is all that my crappy stores carry here) based on my research of what materials work with ozone (brass was given a B, while a nylon was F).
<<Wouldn't worry re'¦the nylon fittings can be easily/inexpensively changed out as necessary>>
I am going to try to find a glass barb or something similarly un-phased by ozone.
<<Not necessary 'the nylon or plastic fittings (is what came with my unit) will last/serve fine>>
As for the AquaZone, who knows if it was dropped off a roof, but it truly does look brand spanking new--the seller swore up and down that it has never seen water. We'll see.
<<Ah yes'¦it is likely to be either just a bad probe, or a unit in need of calibration>>
Andy Bulgin
<<Eric Russell>>

AquaC's Reply/Solution for Filtering Residual Ozone from their EV-180 Skimmer -- 04/30/09
Dear Eric,
<<Hi Andy>>
I e-mailed you earlier today with three questions, one of them involved the need to use activated carbon to remove ozone from the air/water leaving my AquaC EV-180.
<<Ah yes'¦and I've just sent that reply>>
AquaC got back to me and provided me with some interesting info, which I thought I'd share with all.
<<Excellent'¦thank you for this>>
See below/attached (I'm still interested in confirming Bob's statement that excess ozone in the air isn't really a concern). Not only does AquaC provide great customer service, but I love how the company gives you DIY solutions rather than just pushing its specialty products on you.
<<Jason and Steve do truly excel at customer service. Eric Russell>>
--- On Wed, 4/29/09, Steve - AquaC Customer Service
<steve@proteinskimmer.com> wrote:
From: Steve - AquaC Customer Service <steve@proteinskimmer.com>
Subject: Re: Follow Up Question about EV-180
Date: Wednesday, April 29, 2009, 1:35 PM
Hi Andy,
The air exiting the collection cup can be filtered by using one of our Auto Waste Containers, which features a carbon chamber on the air exhaust. An easy DIY solution would be to run a tube from the collection cup drain into a cup or chamber filled with carbon. This requires frequent emptying of the collection cup, since skimmate cannot be allowed to drain into the carbon container. We recommend using a larger size carbon, which will not pack as tightly and restrict airflow out of the skimmer. To filter ozone out of the water exiting the skimmer, you'll need to set up another carbon container for the return water to flow through. Water needs to be able to flow freely from the skimmer, so the water needs to pour out of the skimmer into the container. Something similar to a filter sock setup can be used (see attached diagram).
Thanks again, and let me know if you have any other questions!
Steve Prince
Customer Service Manager
AquaC, Inc.
7949 Stromesa Ct., Ste. E
San Diego, CA 92126
858-689-1121 phone
858-564-3419 fax
visit us online at...
www.proteinskimmer.com < http://www.proteinskimmer.com/>

UV producing ozone? 3/9/09 Hi Bob, <Ren> I met you last year at the Georgia Aquarium during MACNA, after attending your "reducing Cnidarian interactions" talk, and it was a pleasure. The talk was great, good combination of humour and practical information. <Ahh! Thank you... one venue/goal for my pitches... to provide both factual input, but "massage" the intended/actual audience into enjoying the process and retention> You touched on ozone use and inspired me to start running ozone on one of my systems (an ozonizer I'd had for years and never used). During the talk I believe you said aquarium UV sterilizers emit small amounts of ozone, is this true? <Yes indeed it is so... Some units, by design or passive effort more than others... Is one very principal plus in using UV> Thank you, Ren Abbotsford, B.C. <Certainly welcome. Bob Fenner in overcast San Diego, CA.>

Re: UV producing ozone? 3/9/09 Thanks Bob, <Welcome Ren> Overcast in San Diego eh!? We're having a March snowfall here in Southern B.C....strange weather! <Brrrrr!> Yes, you definitely have great technique "massaging" the brains of unsuspecting listeners.... I didn't know what hit my cerebral cortex, I walked in "ozone bad", I walked out "ozone good"! As Boris Karloff would say...."Mwa, ha, ha, ha"! Your plan worked accordingly. <I wish I was mixing us drinkies in a tumbler ala BorisK right now!> My theory on that, correct me if I'm wrong, is : aquarium UV lamps range in UV wavelengths from 185 nm-254 nm, 254 nm destroys ozone and 185 nm creates ozone. Since the average lamp ranges in wavelength, would it be the shorter wavelengths responsible for ozone production and the O3 has already reacted with the water before it can be destroyed by the longer wavelengths? <Yes, yes, and affirmative> Thanks again Bob, Ren <Thank you Ren, BobF>

A Little Confused About Ozone--How many mg should I run in my tank? 2/22/09 Hello all, <Shannon> I'd like to run ozone on my new tank--which will hopefully be up and cycling this summer--and I'm a bit confused as to how much ozone I should use for the tank. The total water volume including sump and refugium is going to be 191 gallons. How many mg of ozone should I be running on this tank? Would an Ozotech 100mg unit with variable output control be suitable? <Yes... a good unit and size> As always I greatly appreciate all the advice you fine folks give. Keep up the great work! Thanks, Shannon <I think you'll do very well with this arrangement. Please read here re: http://wetwebmedia.com/redox.htm and my new ppt pitch re: http://wetwebmedia.com/SystemPIX/RedOx/RedoxPPTpres1.htm for review, input. Bob Fenner>

Re: A Little Confused About Ozone--How many mg should I run in my tank? 2/22/09 Thanks so much Bob! I'll definitely check out the links you so kindly sent! <Ah good. Am hoping to present the ppt later this year... to hobby groups. Cheers, BobF>

Not Enough Ozone? -- 02/09/09 Hi Bob & Crew, <<Greetings>> Hope all is well. <<Okay for a Monday>> I was seeking your expertise on Ozone since it seems that not many people are very familiar with its use in aquariums. <<Hmm'¦is becoming more popular I think>> I have a 600 gallon aquarium with some large fish and decided to add some Ozone to help keep the tank clean. <<Ah yes'¦ Aside from its oxidative qualities/ability to break chemical bonds rendering some substances to be more easily removed by your skimmer, it also gives your water sparkling clarity>> For ozone I'm using a Red Sea Aquazone Plus rated at 200mg/hr. <<Mmm, you could go bigger here if you wish. I use a 300mg/hr Ozotech unit on my 500g (includes display, sump, and refugium) system, and even at full output I've never seen the ORP go higher than about 380mv>> When I first put the probe in it was showing an ORP of 190mv. I started dosing via my ASM G5 skimmer (twin Sedra 9000 needle wheel) at a rate of 50mg per hour and after a week the ORP would not go over 275. <<I'm not surprised>> I kept raising the dosage and I'm up to 100mg/hr and I still can't get the ORP over 285. <<If you are seeing the results you wanted via water quality and clarity this is fine'¦but you can increase the amount you dose as well, if you wish>> If I shutdown the Ozone generator the ORP will stay between 250-270 without dosing. <<For a time'¦>> I stopped dosing via the skimmer and now dose via a reactor and feed the output through carbon for safety but still cannot get the ORP over 285. What am I doing wrong? <<Maybe nothing'¦ Don't worry so much about the actual ORP reading as the effect on the tank>> I'm worried about increasing the dose over 100mg/hr <<Based on what? I think you could easily run this unit at full output on your large system. The controller on this unit can be easily set to turn the unit off at a designated ORP set-point'¦though I believe there is little chance you could ever exceed an ORP of 400mv with this unit on this size system>> and think that it could be that the air is very humid therefore I've ordered a pound of silica gel to dry the air before it enters the ozone generator but aren't sure if that's going to help me get the ORP up to 350mv. <<Though the drier will help, I doubt you will see this much of an increase without upping the dosage. And depending on your humidly levels, you can expect to have to dry those beads once, maybe even twice a week. Fortunately, this is easily done in the kitchen oven>> Thanks <<Happy to share. EricR>>

Ozonizer Recommendations 12/25/08 Hello everyone, and Happy Holidays to all! I'm getting all my gear together to set up my first 150 gallon tank, and after doing lots of reading, I decided I'd like to run ozone on the tank. I just purchased the MTC Ozone reactor, and now I'm trying to decide on an ozone generator. What would you fine folks recommend? I have a Profilux Plus controller that is able to control ORP, so I don't think I would need a separate controller. The Ozotech ozone generators seem to get good ratings on your site, but I'm not sure what one would be appropriate for my tank, as there are many different models. <I do highly recommend Ozotech... very reliable products, and good folks making, backing them. But, as you state, their smallest unit is too big by far for your use here. See here: http://www.ozotech.com/info/Product2008.pdf> If anyone could help me out I would greatly appreciate it. Sincerely, Shannon O'Rourke <Have your LFS contact the fine folks at Quality Marine for a Sanders unit... otherwise the repackaged ones by Red Sea (Aquazone) are suitable... Bob Fenner> > Thanks, Bob, for your quick reply! This really helps me out a lot! Happy Holidays to you and yours! <Thank you Shannon... Peace on earth! BobF>

Ready for Ozone -- 7/30/08 Hi Bob, <Dave> I hope all is well with you and you are enjoying your time in Hawaii. I am ready to order my ozone generator for the clown house & kind of need a little help. Here is my scenario, I have two routes to purchase. Option 1: Red Sea deluxe 200mg/hr with built in ORP controller & probe. Wholesale cost $400.00. I like that this unit has the built in controller and display. I have been reading on your site & the internet & have found an overall decent rating with most people satisfied with the units. This unit ships with a 250g air dryer. Option 2: Gen-X 250mg/hr ozone generator with separate Milwaukie SM510 ORP controller. Wholesale cost $195.00. I like the reduced cost of this option. I would have to but a separate dryer but would purchase the 500g dryer (which is included in the price above). I have not been able to find much comparison info for these units. I am trying to incorporate ozone into the clownfish system but do not have experience with either unit. A 50% reduction in price is significant for option 2 but am I making a sacrifice that I will regret later? <Mmm, no... I do think the service-ability of these two choices compare closely> Do you have experience with the Milwaukie controllers? <Yes, some... they are fine "hobby grade" units> I guess that is where my concern/apprehension lies. If ozone is introduced to the system through either generator then the safety of the livestock lies in the controller and if the Milwaukie controller is of decent quality (in your opinion) then the reduction in cost may be warranted. Option 2 will initially incorporate a larger dryer which would be beneficial. Any thoughts?? <I do think you will be fine, safe with their options... and pleased with the results> Thank you for you time, Dave Durr <Thank you for your continued sharing. A hu'i hou (be seeing you), BobF>

ORP Questions 8/9/08 Hi Bob, <David> Well I finally got all the ozone equipment installed today and all I have to say is WOW... I connected the controller to the juvenile system yesterday and let the probe stabilize overnight before turning on the ozone. The initial reading was 205mV at 12:00 pm today. I just fed the fish for the evening and 7 hours later the reading is up to 242mV and the water is almost crystal clear, amazing for such a short time. <Ah, yes> I had to make an intake chamber for the skimmer. I purchased a large air pump to push the air thru the dryer and ozone generator. I found out when I connected the airline to the skimmer that it was not allowing enough air into the skimmer and was making the air bubbles come out the overflow and not stay in the skimmer chamber the way they should. I took a 1-1/2 pvc coupling with 2 pvc plugs to make a chamber. Then I drilled one hole in one end for the airline to the skimmer. On the other end I drilled 2 holes, one for the ozone line and the other for an equalization hole so the skimmer could draw the extra air it needed beyond what the ozone generator was supplying. It seems to be working perfectly now. Now on to my questions. I set the controller to 250mV for the evening while I am in bed and will raise it 300mV tomorrow. Is this raising the ORP to fast? <No... and it's too> How high should I set the controller for normal operation. <This is fine... you could set it for... 325... but... the unit might drive/run all the time...> If I remember correctly I thought you said that natural seawater is about 350mV. I didn't know if I needed the ORP that high? Thanks again, Dave Durr <You're doing fine... on cloud nine! BobF>

Re: ORP Questions 8/9/08 Good Morning Bob, I wanted to try a little ORP experiment last night so I turned the ORP controller down to see if the ORP level would go back down overnight without the introduction of more ozone. When I went out to the clown house this morning the ORP reading had gone from 252mV last night to 296mV this morning. Now I am confused?? Is it because of removing some of the organics from the water yesterday that the ORP level continued to rise overnight? <And a lack of feeding, yes> Another question I have is will the introduction of ozone effect/reduce the Nitrates in the system at all? <Yes... will greatly drive down> If nitrate is NO3 will the introduction of O3 remove any of the Oxygen molecules in the nitrate to reduce its level? I'm not sure if my thinking is on track at all but I thought I would ask. <Will chemically denitrify> I am really pleased with the results in just 24 hours so now things can only get better. I am getting a very large skimmer next weekend (I believe that it is a large octopus but I can't remember) for the juvenile system. One of the club members had a large frag system so I am trading him some electrical work for the skimmer. It is a recirculating skimmer with a 12" chamber and 2 Sedra 9000 needle wheel pumps for the circulation. With the ozone connected to this on the juvenile system I should be able to handle a substantial load of fish. <Oh yes> Thanks again & talk to you soon, Dave <BobF>

Ozone/skimming Q/clarification? -- 6/16/08 Bob- did you ever say that ozone is more important than protein skimming? <Might have... is in many situations/set-ups> An aquarist or two on the MD web forums are discussing this tid bit (they claim came from you), but I don't ever remember you saying that. <Heeee!> Or, maybe I misinterpreted you... I thought you have/had said (all three times I've went to this lecture) that ozone, among other benefits, improves skimming... hmm... Best, Sara M. <Does greatly improve, even to large extents at times, replace skimming... All are useful adjuncts to water quality improvement... Cheers! BobF> Re: ozone/skimming Q/clarification? -- 6/17/08 Ah, I see... I was just curious... since these guys seem to be debating what you meant when you said this-or-that: http://forum.marinedepot.com/Topic87319-9-1.aspx <Interesting> They also claim you say a UV sterilizer could take the place of ozone... ? <Ah, yes... there are "ozonizers" that are "just" UV sterilizers... EricB needs to do a bit of reading. B> Best, Sara M. Re: ozone/skimming Q/clarification? -- 6/17/08 Interesting... thank you. I do recall you saying that UV sterilizers can also work as ozonizers... I was just wondering how good of ozonizers they are (i.e. could one actually entirely replace an ozonizer?) <Mmm, there are "ozonizers" that are JUST "good" ultraviolet sterilizers... some other units use corona discharge, other methods of making O3, Ozone... all can easily be looked up on the Net> I'm curious, would this work better for people with smaller tanks. I've never used an ozonizer because it seemed to take up more room (and/or be more trouble) than it was worth for a "small" tank. So that's why I'm curious about a UV sterilizer that might perform the same function? Thanks again, Sara M. <For Ozone use alone, the small Sanders (and re-packaged by others) "platinum and ceramic electrodes" electrical/electronic types are currently the best... The "most bang for the buck" for the up-to about 1,000 mg/hour of ozone production (a goodly amount for home-hobbyist sized, biomass/processing) volumes/applications. Am at my usual stymie here re telling enough, w/o adding sufficient background, cautionary notes... Please see here: http://www.qualitymarineusa.com/products.asp?cls=3&scls=8&cat=91&scat=35&id=0760200 Bob Fenner>

Thanks, Bob for the talk - how about an ozone recommendation? & Angel pic -- 04/21/08 Bob, <Bill> Thanks again for coming to San Antonio. And, thanks for taking the time to see my tank yesterday. <Thank you for sharing> So, you recommended a 300mg/hr unit for my tank ("you can afford it - I've SEEN your tank!). <Heeee! And your home!> So, you pretty much have me down. When I look online, I find that the Red Sea units - obviously the most popular, are a bit lower in output than you recommended ("a small, 300mg/hr unit). Red Sea units are ALL smaller than that. <Do look for the Sanders brand... if your retailer/etailer can't find, have them order in turn from their U.S. Distributor, Quality Marine... in LA...> So, specifically, what would you recommend. I know many folks might think you have a financial interest in some lines, but frankly, I don't care. I only want to buy a unit once (I've heard that the Red Sea units have a high failure rate) - but at the same time, I run my own company and I earn EVERY dollar I make. <Mmm, or their re-labeled Aqua Medic...> TIA for your recommendation. <A pleasure to share> Bill Streep P.S. If you got a good pic of my angel, I'd love a copy! <Ahh! Will send along on my return, review (forgot a patch cord to download from the camera). Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Ozone and Skimmers, O3 reactors and EuroReef 12/7/07 I am planning on adding Ozone to my 90 gallon tank. My main question is I am currently using a EuroReef skimmer and I am debating on running the ozone thru it. Any thoughts on how to modify this so it is not harmful? <These skimmers are good for ozone use. May need to replace o-ring(s) in the pump periodically, but this is the route I would go.> Also are there any good Cheap Reactors, DIY or not. <Several options for purchase or DIY by simple Google of 'ozone reactor'. > Thanks in advance. Was looking at Ozotech or Sanders 200mg models. <Either will work fine. 200mg/hr is more than enough.> Also which ORP controller would you recommend? <Have used both Milwaukee and Pinpoint, both work well.> Thanks <Welcome, Scott V. >

Reef safe <treatments> and skimmer/ozonizer <sel.> -11/18/07 Hello Mr. Fenner, <Jerry> My wife says that she wants to get me a tee-shirt with your face on it since "I spend so much time on your website!" <Heeee! Mine would rather I got one with Brad Pitt on it> Any how, you guys are the best, sometimes I wish I never came across your website because as they say ignorance is bliss!! Now I kick myself in the rear for all the things I did and still do wrong. <Oh, don't I wish that there were similar "projects" like WWM... on other hobbies, interests... aspects of gardening, cooking...> One recent case in point, quarantine tank and dip. You know the story. One minute my new fish has no spots, now my tank is infested. <Ah, yes> I read a discussion you were having regarding ozone as a possible way to treat ich, in the conversation you mentioned a company in Germany called Preis Aquaristik. <Yes! Oh! Ms. (Cornelia) Preis... IF ONLY one could import there line... including vaccines for many common fish complaints... Products that REALLY work... I see her/them every couple years at the InterZoo industry trade show in Nuremberg... and never have missed a chance to ask re their export to the west... Too many issues with laws, regulations... and rightly so...> I researched them and came across a product they make called Preis Neosal Liquid. I wanted to find out if you are familiar with the product and also if it is Reef-Safe. On the description section: for saltwater use only, specially formulated for use in marine tanks with invertebrates. <Oh! They do have a nice website: http://www.preis-aquaristik.com/eng/heilmittel/hmpreisneosalfluessig.html And do state that this product is fine to use with invertebrates... HOWEVER their info. includes some important statements re lowering spg (to 1.018)... and preventing elevated pH through not using calcified water... And the mechanism... flagellar immotility, worries me. I would NOT use this material in an established reef tank> Being so close to Christmas and Thanksgiving, I would hate to have my tank fallow. I know you say in the forum that there is no "Reef Safe" treatment but will this at least help? <Mmm, my usual chagrin and stmt. here re the relativity of this term "reef safe"...> Yes, I am looking for that get outta jail free card! <Heeee! Best to break out the board game Monopoly here> Also my skimmer is rated up to 110g (AquaC Urchin Pro). I have a 90g reef tank w/20g sump and 20g refugium, maybe about 110g together, not counting LR displacement. I was thinking about upgrading my skimmer to an Aqua C 180. My question to you, is if you had a choice, would you upgrade the skimmer or buy an ozonizer to supplement? <Mmm, a tough one... the ozonizer> I have read about the ozonizers and I would love to go that direction. In your opinion were would I get more bang for my buck? Thank you for your time, Jerry <Willkommen! Bob Fenner>

UV Sterilizer Application -- 11/13/07 Hello Eric, Bob and Crew! <<Hey there Don!>> My wonderful question today is what choice you guys/girls would do for a 210 AGA Mega Slow. <<Mega 'Slow'...Ha! I get it! Good one!>> I have an EV-240 with Mag18 pump in my 135 gallon sump. I have a section cut off for refuge and a 7 inch DSB with 50# LR. To help with Crypt outbreaks and I completely understand this isn't a cure all but I'm trying to figure a best fit scenario. A) Corallife 36 watt UV connected to a proper pump and let all the filtered water go through the out take to the tank. B) Buy 3 separate Corallife Twist UV's and place 2 9 watt UV's in the Mega Slow over boxes and still do option A with an 18 watt Corallife Twist UV. C) Stop being an idiot with crazy ideas, buy a UV and just stick it in the sump. <<I'd just choose the simplest approach (likely 'C'). I'm not a big fan of 'Hobby use' UV units, I find them to be too fiddly/high-maintenance to keep them working efficiently and for the 'little good' they may do re Crypt control. I would rather spend the bucks on a quality ozone unit for its increased benefits to the system...and rely on my own good husbandry/quarantine/hospital technique for pest protozoan prevention/treatment>> Thanks again for your time. Don V. <<Always glad to proffer an opinion. Eric Russell>>

Re: Skimmer Selection (Make Sure It's Big Enough!) - 03/12/07 Thanks for your quick reply! <<Very welcome>> Brent here again to bug you with one more question. <<No worries mate>> I am considering an ozonizer. <<Ah, very good...is a worthwhile addition in my opinion, especially on larger systems>> I have read the FAQ's about ozonizers on the web site and I am still not sure how they work. <<Mmm, several different methodologies (e.g.- UV, hot-spark, cold-corona discharge) but the end result is the same...oxygen molecules sporting an "extra" oxygen atom that makes the molecules very unstable and reactive to their environment>> Could an ozonizer be used with a Euro-Reef RC250 protein skimmer? <<Indeed it can. I use a 250mg unit in conjunction with my ER CS12-3>> Could you recommend a good brand to go with the Euro-reef RC250 protein skimmer? <<I can...Ozotech. These units are high-end units and cost accordingly, but will outperform/outlast the other "hobby grade" units available>> Would you recommend an ozonizer at all? <<I would, yes. I believe an ozonizer compliments a skimmer by breaking down (burning up) organic waste molecules...changing complex chemical compositions to "simple" compounds more readily "skimmed" or otherwise utilized by the system, and eliminating 'yellowing' compounds for unparalleled water clarity (better/more efficient than carbon in my opinion). There may be some concern over excess bromine generated as a by-product of ozone reaction with bromide (part of that breakdown of compounds I mentioned), but I have yet to notice any ill effects I would associate with this though admittedly it is not an avenue I have spent much time pursuing. I guess my bottom line would be the benefits outweigh any negative aspects'¦in my opinion>> Once again I am in the planning stages. I am buying a 240g (96x24x24). I plan to put a clown trigger (I am aware of the clown's temperament and at the slightest hint of aggression I am prepared financially to put him/her in another large system dedicated to the clown), emperor angel and a snowflake eel in the tank. <<Excellent to know>> With about 250 lbs of live rock and a 2-3" deep live sand bed. Would a refugium also be beneficial? <<Added water volume is always beneficial...and a large vegetable refugium to help process organics would help...but in your case, the addition of a fluidized-bed filter to help cope with "rapidly" fluctuating bio-levels might be of a greater benefit>> Thank you for your thoughts. They are always greatly appreciated. Brent <<Always happy to share. Eric Russell>> Re: Do I need a better protein skimmer? Actually ozone, just using WWM 11/10/06 Sorry for the late reply. I just have one more question, how do you use ozone in a reef aquarium and how will it increase my water quality? <Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/redox.htm and the linked files above> Please give me as much information as possible, I know absolutely nothing about ozone. Are there any down sides to using ozone? Is it possible to use ozone without having it run through the protein skimmer (my skimmer doesn't have a input for ozone)? Thank you very much, Ryan. <Mmm, you'd do well to become familiar with the indices/WWM, the search tool. Bob Fenner> Ozone hardware 8.14.05 O.k. Where is Anthony Calfo? <In your service> (Hey-I grew up in Reading, PA.....have you been to THAT FISH PLACE in Lancaster? It used to be nice.). <Yes... and they have invested huge sums of $ in improvements in the last few years in particular. Really an amazing place to see now.> Anthony, please be more specific and clear on ozonizers. <OK... what are your questions, specifically?> I contacted Ozotech thinking I could get a cheaper better quality ozonizer and I about fell on the floor with their prices! Yikes! <Hmmm... I have never promoted them as "cheap" but rather a better (long-term) value. For not much more money than a poorly made hobby unit, you can get a unit that is made for lab/fisheries environments and quite long lived (hence the value)> Yet as of now, I got the Red Sea Aquazone Deluxe (Dryer, controller, probe) and it was working great. <Well... do be sure to compare apples to apples, here. Bead air driers are cheap... cheap to build, cheap to buy... and do not last long at all between recharges - mere days to weeks depending on humidity. As for prices: 150mg Ozotech unit $319 about $100-150 more than the hobby units of comparable size, yet far better quality than most. You get what you pay for my friend. Good things are seldom cheap, and cheap things are seldom good> About 2 weeks later, I have it set at 330 and the probe shows it dropping below that and yet the light is not coming on (showing ozone on) to bring it back up to the set level. I'm not impressed. <I'm not sure what to tell you beyond contacting your retailer and/or Red Sea. But experiences like this time after time through the years have led me to the opinion that $100-250 hobby units just aren't worth it. I'll pay my $300-400 for a better made brand and use it for years. One of my Ozotech's now is over 10 years old> Actually I'm grumpy about it. But I had read about the better quality of places like Ozotech (from you) and better prices. What did you mean? <Not cheaper, but better value my friend. Buying a $350 ozonizer once every ten years is a better value than buying a $200 unit 3-5 times perhaps per decade ;)> Can you give a list of suppliers where this is true? PLEASE?!? Thanks. Renee' <no worries... a fine retailer: http://www.customaquatic.com/customaquatic/brandcategory.asp?brandid=OT&catID=oz best of luck, Anthony>

Ozone 12/20/2005 Dear Sirs: Will a 200mg/hour ozone generator produce enough ozone to treat a 200 gal reef with a 40 gal sump? <Should be no problem Paul. As a rule of thumb, 10mg/hour per 10 gallons of water. James (Salty Dog)> Thanks for your reply <You're welcome> Paul

Ozone Generator Overkill? - 06/06/06 Hi WWM crew, <<Howdy Steve!>> After looking at WWM and reading Bob Fenner's book, I have bought a Pinpoint ORP controller and an ozone generator. <<Cool!>> I will install them in the next day. After, reading at some of the FAQ, I started to be afraid that I may have bought a generator that is too big for my tank. <<Not a concern if used in conjunction with the controller>> The generator is a 200mg/hr and my tank is a 65 gal with a 25 gal sump. <<Mmm yes, the generator is likely larger than you need...but will be fine used with the controller>> I plan to use it with my Bullet-1 from Precision Marine. <<Good product, quality materials...should work fine>> Is my generator too big for my tank? <<You could have gotten by with one half the size...probably>> Will it be dangerous for me or my tank? <<No, not if used with the controller>> If so, would it be ok if I would only put it on few hours a day? <<Not necessary...the controller will turn off the generator at a certain set-point (350mv is a good starting point)>> Just another question!! <<Okay>> Every how much time should I change the carbon at the exit of the skimmer and how much should I use? <<Mmm, small concern here (I don't use any for this purpose myself), but If you prefer, a cup or so replaced bi-weekly should suffice>> Thank you very much for your help!! <<Quite welcome>> P.S. I would not have a marine set-up If not for this website and the books written by Calfo or Fenner!! Steve <<Much good/helpful information indeed! Regards, EricR>>

Use Ozonizer Without a Controller?...Not Recommended - 06/04/06 Hi, <<Howdy!>> Thank you very much for your article on ozonizers. It has helped me understand the reason for using them + why we have to be very careful in the process. <<We're happy you found it useful>> With all this extra input, I still have concerns re the use of my ozonizer in a 240ltr tank. <<Hmm...let's find out why...>> The ozonizer I have is the Hailea 810 on which you can't control the output? <<For clarification (and for our readers on this side of the "pond") we're talking about a 200mg/h ozone generator on an approximately 63 gallon (US) tank>> I was hoping to have this on a timer + split the cycles into two or four cycles per day, but wondered if this is a viable option. <<I wouldn't try this, 200mg/h "should" be more than a tank this size needs/can safely utilize. This ozonizer can be used...but I wouldn't do it without a controller to prevent overdosing the tank>> I would prefer not to start spending more money on an ORP reader when it might just be easier to obtain a different ozonizer?. <<Mmm, is about the same isn't it?...still money spent!>> At the moment my set up is new [just two days old] and obviously I want to have the ozonizer system clear in my head as well as the tank before introducing any fish. I hope you can help me in this matter <<Looks to me like you're gonna have to spend money either way...to buy a controller for the ozonizer you currently have...or to buy another ozonizer with an "integrated" controller. The choice is yours to make but I would pick the first option, preferring to have separate components>> Many thanks in advance Sheldon <<Welcome, EricR>>

Corona or U.V. Ozone? Hello Bob, I hope you can help my or at least point me in the right direction. I have a couple of questions to ask you (probably will be several by the time I get done). I have been reading for months about the benefits of ozone in the aquarium. I have a 100 gallon reef tank in which I would like to incorporate an ozonizer. The question is what type, corona discharge or U.V. Depending on which article or ad your are reading, their company makes the best. I read that corona technology provides higher ozone concentrations than UV, then I read that UV is better because you do not have to use a drier and that its ozone output is better. The drier is not a main concern for me, the air here is pretty much dry and driers are inexpensive. I just want your input here. Like many other aquarist I have invested countless dollars into my hobby much of which is sitting on a shelf in my closet because of experimentation or something better comes along and I buy that. Please, if you would, give me the pros and cons of each or any suggestions, or better yet, just tell me what to get. I have been looking at an Aquazone Plus (corona) and an Ultrazone 360 (UV). Also can I run the ozone into my Seaclone Protein Skimmer through the Venturi. Will it have enough contact time with the water? And is post-carbon filtering necessary? Thank you for your time. Don <I would read through the FAQ's on ozone and its use, here http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ozonefaqs.htm But if you really wish to improve your water quality, your most effective use of your money would be investing in a new high quality protein skimmer. Euro-Reef, Tunze, and Aqua-C brands all spring to mind. -Steven Pro>

Re: Ozone and brine shrimp questions Anthony <Cheers, Pete> Thanks very much for your efforts in sending the answer to my previous question regarding ozone use for our 600,000L tank - I did receive it via the alternative address you used, and I also read it on the WWM FAQs. Ozone sounds perfect for our application... can't wait to use it! We are now looking for an ozone generator that produces around 30g/hr, ideally for less than the AUS$20,000 for a new unit. Have some months before we'll need this so hopefully a better (i.e cheaper) option will come up in the meantime. <I have sent some e-mails to aquaculture folks here in the states for you regarding commercial ozonizers... I'll send word when I get some figures for you here for perspective> Thanks also for clarifying the 4% protein levels found in some adult brine shrimp. Wow! Suppliers of these brine shrimp must simply hatch them and feed NOTHING while waiting for them to grow to an acceptable size for the aquarium trade. <worse... they harvest them wild unfed and without enriching them from the salt lakes here in the US> That's pretty slack isn't it!?! <heehee... its capitalism exploiting uninformed consumers, actually> There might be an opening for someone to produce adult brine shrimp properly enriched for use by aquarists. <it cannot be produced and marketed cheap enough to outcompete this wild, low grade high profit industry> It's not that hard to do! <agreed in principal> I'm glad you explained to me how this 4% protein comes about... I'm quite happy to eat humble pie for trying to correct you <G>, <no need to eat that pie at all my friend! You have reminded us of the often overlooked value of live or enriched brine. For reef keepers I strongly recommend feeding very freshly hatched brine nauplii to trip some corals to planulate (like the Pocilloporids... they planulate easily when fed)> as long as others can learn from the exchange! <agreed! With thanks> Talk again soon. Pete McKenzie. <curious question too Pete... I'm going to be in Singapore this Spring... how far of a flight is it to visit your region of Australia from there. Considering its on the other side of the globe from where I live... I'm going to visit a few places on an extended tour. I've been invited to lecture in Hong Kong (going north of Singapore!)... but from my perspective, Australia is just a hop away <G>. Bob wants to go diving in Vietnam!?! I'm more of a land tourist personally :) Best regards, Anthony>

Ozone quantity for Australian tank Hello Anthony and Bob <Hello Pete! Bob is off to the Caribbean again :) But I am faithfully here to chat with you> Pete McKenzie from Western Australia again with some ozone queries. Ozone treatment sounds like it would suit our new public aquarium setup perfectly, so I hope we can use it. <agreed... most large public aquaria use it. It is time-tested, very effective and well understood> I read in one of the "ozone" FAQs on WWM that 10mg ozone per hour per 100L of water is about right for a normal marine tank. Does it then follow that we can scale this up proportionately for our big tank; i.e. 60g ozone required per hour for our 600,000L tank? <I suspect that you will not need that much. Perhaps quite a bit less. The hobby aquarium recommendations are for small aquaria that are likely to have a higher level of dissolved organics and a heavier bio-load (inherently overstocked fish tanks). Your display by virtue of its size/volume will have a considerably lighter bio-load and hopefully less DOC levels with careful feeding, aggressive skimming, water changes and the virtue of the water volume> Or do we need more/less than this? The tank's fish bioload will be quite light for such a large water volume - around 150kg. <agreed... less ozone likely needed> Tank will also have the filtration benefits of DEEP sand beds and seagrass, plus a large quantity of live rock. <all good, but these are mineralizing faculties and not nutrient export processes (unless you harvest the seagrass in which case you will have some small benefit here). The ozone instead facilitates the export of reduced organics through the protein skimmers (PS: be sure that your skimmers are made with ozone stable plastics)> Natural light will provide a nice ecosystem with associated natural foods, and I'll be careful not to overfeed of course. We'd like this tank to have "oceanic" quality, crystal clear water, and think this is achievable if we run the appropriate amount of ozone through the skimmer. <exactly... among the many benefits of ozone, imparting a superb crystal blue water clarity is achieved with the application> Skimmer will be 4m high, 1m diameter, counter-current design with air pump and diffusers... can wooden diffusers handle ozone, or is there a better option? <the wooden airstones will be fine with ozone. The inherent nature of the wooden block diffuser requires that they are changed regularly for optimal performance (not used more than 4 weeks for most). As such, their ability to produce adequate bubble sizes will fail before ozone degrades them> I've been looking at some of the bigger ozonators on the net, and must say that they all look very complicated and expensive. <not complicated at all... they are extremely easy to use and should/must be used in concert with a redox controller (simple meter with setpoints to dose and monitor ozone). They are not that expensive if you buy them from an industrial or aquaculture source. They are expensive however if you buy them from an aquarium supply house (marketing... price gouging).> Hope we can afford one! If we do need 60g/hr, the power required to produce this amount is around 1kW, which is not too bad really... <agreed... very low power> we always try to minimize our running costs where possible. Can you recommend a manufacturer of a suitable unit, or perhaps suggest where I might find a second-hand unit? <ozone is an extremely common industrial application. They almost certainly are manufacturers of such units somewhere in Oz. Again, do avoid aquarist supply vendors, but instead ask around to water treatment facilities (your regional drinking water authorities). Also seek out food fish farmers (shrimp culture, food fish culture, etc). Aquaculture units tend to be cheaper and less expensive. You might contact other big/public aquaria on the continent as well... but don't be surprised if they bought or only know of over-priced units. With all due respect, many of the folks in the zoological community are learned men and women in the sciences, but poor shoppers/bargain hunters for having been spoiled with large budgets. Many of them quite frankly are barely competent at husbandry! I'm not sure what its like in Oz, but here in America, many of the big public aquaria need to employ more actual aquarists and perhaps a few less lab monkeys with impressive degrees but no practical experience in animal husbandry :) Case in point... it gets back to finding a product in a market that will charge you a fair price. Food farmers (fish/shrimp) are hard-working people... and they are very savvy about their expenses. They will demand a good product that is made strong, lasts long and is affordable. Lets find an aquaculture supply house for you in Oz. And if we cannot find a good vendor easily... then lets do some keyword searches for aquaculture facilities instead, call them and ask for their professional courtesy and advice. We could even contact your governments department of fisheries and aquaculture for contacts and referrals. Perhaps your local/regional department of commerce (they have all such businesses licensed and listed)> After using ozone in the skimmer, what needs to be done before the water returns to the display tank? Activated carbon removal is probably not an option at this large scale... <hmmm... this is the best and most common way to disperse. Without it I would have to defer to the manufacturers recommendations> would a "settling tank" with a water retention time of some minutes suffice? <perhaps not, and residual ozone in the display can be fatal and a health hazard. You may need to build an off-gassing tower> The tank will have inverts including corals... Thanks once again Anthony, your advice is invaluable :) <it is my great pleasure, my friend. Best regards, Anthony>

Re: 180 gal tank wet dry question plus ozone? hi guys killer site... just got a 180 gal tank with 2 overflows a custom aquatic wet dry a ts-8 Euro reef skimmer and 1/8 horse sequence pump. 1st question its a FO might convert to a reef later. is live rock in the sump better than bio balls and if i use live rock in the sump does it need lighting above the filter? <I would go for the live rock rather than the bio balls, and no, it doesn't need to be lighted.> does it need the same trickle action the bio balls need? or should it be under the water? <Better for it to be submerged.> if i use live rock instead of bio balls will it cut down on algae in the aquarium? <Not necessarily. There are other factors that will influence this more that the choice of filter media.> or is there something else you would put in the sump? <Live rock is fine.> 2nd question want to get ozone looking at the aqua zone plus 200 mg-hr ozonizer with controller and ORP probe also has air dryer...is there a better one you would recommend? <Perhaps the next model up... once you add the sump, your system will be larger than 180 gallons.> i would like an ozonizer that's complete do you know if the aqua zone plus is complete? <Need to check with the retailer where you intend to purchase it.> thank you for your help...Scott... <Cheers, J -- >

Calcium reactor, UV, Ozone Hi again, <Hello to you, JasonC here...> I have a simple one this time. I am constructing a FOWLR. Will this benefit from having a calcium reactor? <Not especially.> Will the presence of calcium help me grow a more diverse range of "things" on the live rock or in the sand (I plan to have a deep sand bed too). <It would pay to keep the calcium in a decent range, but you could achieve that with additives. Calcium reactors become more useful when you have organisms that consume large amounts of calcium.> Will a UV sterilizer help or hinder a DSB and LR? <Don't think it will affect it either way, but in general more useful for hospital and quarantine tanks.> I want to use ozone, how do I know what size of unit to buy? <Buy what you can afford WITH the controller.> I cant find much on that. I plan to use an ORP controller so that will take care of things for me but I don't want to buy a unit that is too big or small. <Most of the small units available to aquarists are too small to get into big trouble with.> Thanks, Adam L <Cheers, J -- >

Ozonizer 7/30/03 Dear WWM Crew How are you all doing? <keepin on keepin on> I just have a quick question. Which is the best/most efficient 100mg/h electronic ozonizer on the market right now? <cannot say definitively... but I have no care for the old corona discharge styles... and I am not endeared to any of the junky (IMO) hobby models available. I do like the sturdy Ozotech units> Which corals can I keep in a 16" deep aquarium using 1 30W actinic blue and 1 30W power glow light?? <not many even considering the shallow water> I think none, and if I add a 90 or 110W VHO?? <yes... much better. Do look at mostly soft coral (Alcyoniids particularly), Corallimorphs and zoanthids> Thank you Best regards Helio <kindly, Anthony>

- Ozone Reactor - Hi, <Hello, JasonC here...> As I am always trying to improve my system (albeit behind my wife's back!) I was wondering what was your opinion about ozone reactors. <Neither here nor there really... they work. You would do just as well running the output into your skimmer. Oh wait, you already are ;-) > I am particularly interested in one made by Coralife, since right now I am mixing the ozone through an airstone in my Sea Urchin Pro, and suspect the currents created by the airstone my affect the skimmer's performance. <Well, no matter what the presence of ozone will affect the production in any skimmer.> What is normally needed to run such a reactor? <Water in, water out... an ozone generator... not much else.> Finally are the Aquazone generators any good? <They work... some have built in ORP measurement and control, which is handy. Nothing wrong with them that I am aware of.> As I want to upgrade my small 25 Sander, but no one seems to sell those anymore. <I've seen them around, but you will likely need to use a search engine to find one.> Kind regards, Harold <Cheers, J -- >

What do you think of this ozonizer? Coralife Electronic Ozonizer? Thank you, Luke <Coralife/ESU has not been known for producing top shelf/high end quality products. Rather, their niche seems to be making affordable hobby grade products with a lot of advertising invested <G>. I have had friends/folks use this product with great content. I personally would not pay money for it, but rather invest in a more industrial/durable instrument. Best regards, Anthony>

OZONE SAFETY 11/15/03 can ozone be harmful to humans. <it can indeed... early symptoms of excess are headache and nausea. Yet controlled it can be quite effective. Even used in some commercial air cleaners> I some times smell a faint smell of chlorine am my room, <I suppose that could be residuals... you also hear it described as the smell after a lightning storm/strike... or off of the miniature train track transformers> even though I have a carbon bag on top of my skimmer. thank you <if you dose ozone with a controller (not just a meter) and use carbon changed regularly on the effluent air and water, you should have no troubles with it... there are many benefits to properly applied ozone in aquarium systems. Anthony>

- Ozonizer - Hi Bob, I really appreciate the website, I have learned A LOT from it. I have a question regarding the use of an ozonizer. I have a 55 gallon currently setting up to be a reef tank with a 20 gallon sump and 20 gallon refugium, after reading about the benefits of an ozonizer I decided to get one. I was initially planning to get a small 50 mg/hr unit but was able to get a 200 mg/hr Aquazone with a controller unit from a friend, however I am worried that this is going to be too much for my tank. Do you suggest I sell this unit and purchase a smaller one or would having the controller on the larger unit allow me to save the money and get by safely? <Well... the amount of ozone produced is adjustable and with the combination of the controller, I don't think you have anything to worry about. It will also suit your needs when you choose to upgrade to a larger tank.> Thanks, Andy <Cheers, J -- >

Ozone Insomnia? (What Is Happening Here?) Thanks to all of you crew and especially Scott and Marina lately for helping me to keep my head and not to give in after many years in this wonderful pastime of ours. <Glad that you're enjoying things! Scott F. here today!> By the way Marina, you were right again. I found my "scarlet shrimp".........Had molted which took about 3 days but he's fine......Cheers to you! <That Marina is one sharp fish nerd, huh? She really is a "star" here at WWM in many ways!> Scott?.......Have you had any luck trying to find out what my skimmers may be doing? <Well, during one of my late-night, Thai Iced Tea caffeine-induced insomnia episodes, I came up with a wacky notion that maybe the ozone is somehow reacting with the plastic of the skimmer, inhibiting foaming action. A bit weird, but it could be a possibility...> I will try and briefly bring you up to date but I have an idea now, that I know what is going on. .....Will try to explain. <Please do!> Have two skimmers on my system (medium load 260g) Berlin Classic (with Eheim 1060) + Aqua Medics TF1000 (driven by Eheim 1260) These were working fine, each pulling out thick brown/green skimmate every day. <Love to hear that! I commend you on using two skimmers! I'd love to see more hobbyists do that!> The system has been running for about five years in all. Then a month ago I added a Sander "Certizon" ozonizer model 200 to the Turboflotor. This had the effect of this skimmer producing about an inch of milky looking skimmate in the collection cup after one day but then, and this is what I need to sort out, BOTH skimmers have appeared to stop working. They have not pulled anything out for the last three weeks! I have discontinued the ozone but I hate to do this, as I have been totally convinced of its benefits by you all at WWM. <It is very beneficial, if administered properly> I do not have a controller for the ozone as yet, but this + an air-drier are my next additions. <Ohh...I wonder if too much ozone is the cause...hmm> Is it possible that the ozone improved the skimming to such an extent that there was nothing else to skim from the system? <Well, not "nothing", but it could have broken down one of the substances in such a way as to limit the skimmers' performance. Ozone is very efficient at breaking down large organic molecules. Perhaps yours is a bit too efficient...I may be reaching just a bit with this thought, though!> Actually as I speak, I just checked the skimmers and they have both (since yesterday) started to work (properly it seems) again. My real question to you now is can I safely administer ozone w/out a controller and if so, at what level in my 260 gallon setup should I add the ozone? <I really don't recommend the use of ozone without a controller, although many hobbyists may not agree. Although it's unusual for most aquarium-specific ozonizers to present any problems (in terms of "over-dosing"), the potential for disaster is very real if the ozonizer is excessively large. > But, before I do this, why, when I connect the ozone to the Turboflotor via a Rena 300 air pump (200litres per hour) does it stop dead the bubbles in the main chamber? Is it possible this skimmer can not be used with ozone? Or could it be it should not be used in conjunction with an air pump? <Both are possibilities...I'd contact Aquamedic for more information on that one. I suppose that ozone should be drawn in by your skimmer's venturi for maximum efficiency. Its not advisable to introduce ozone directly into the aquarium. The skimmer is the optimum place to introduce ozone, IMO> The skimmer is of the venturi type with the "patented" needle wheel. I have tried to contact Aqua-Medic over this but they seem to have gone deaf all of a sudden. <Grr...I'd keep trying. Perhaps you could call the local sales rep for Aqua Medic for more help> One other thing I just wanted to fire at you if I may? Reason for the subject. I have bubbles rising from the substrate of my main display tank continuously. It looks horrible. Any ideas what this could be? <Hmm...Hard to say. Could be CO2, could be nitrogen off-gassing...Even trapped air pockets...Lots of possibilities. Another one of those ponder-while-you-lay-awake-at-night things... > Again, Thanks to each and every one of you at WWM for your devoted support to all of us out here. Simon <My pleasure, Simon...Hope that I haven't created more confusion with my theorizing, but I think that we are on the right track here...Keep me posted! Regards, Scott F.>

Sizing an Ozonizer and Lighting 3/28/04 Hello crew! <howdy> I have a few questions I hope you can help with. <OK> First, here's the system: 180 gal tank (6" DSB, LR, Fish, Coral down the road), 2 20 gal refugiums (One with live rock and some of the green spaghetti looking stuff, forgot the name, <Chaetomorpha... one of the best> the other with 1/2 live rock half Thalassia, did I spell that right?) <correct...sweet> and a sump holding approx. 40 gallons. All water from 5 stage RO/DI filter. Both refugiums have been on a 55 gal system until the 180 is set up, and both have more critters than can be counted running around. I have already ordered a calcium reactor, and intend to add a chiller before summer hits. I currently have a Berlin Classic skimmer, but intend to upgrade to a better skimmer soon as well. <very wise...agreed> Now, the questions, before I purchase the last of what I need to migrate that 55 to the new system: 1. Ozonizer. I will be using an Octopus 3000 controller. Will the Aquazone 200 likely be enough for this system? I know there are a lot of variables, but should it be sufficient in general. <tough to say... but likely so, yes> 2. Lighting. Once the tank has matured I plan to start keeping corals. There is quite a lot that I can't even identify growing from rock I purchased for the 55 gal already that will be moved. For additions, I will probably stay with mushrooms and soft corals? I know this should be a firmer decision before selecting lights, but it is too far off and the wife's input will change whatever I decide anyway :) So, I'm looking more for what would be a good match for the lights I intend, or to know if it is way too much or too little for anything. The tank is 72x24x24, the lights will be hung about 6 to 8 inches above the water. The tank is built into the wall with a utility room behind. I have 4 96W PC lights I plan to reutilize, <these lights should be mounted no more than 3" off the surface to be effective> and intend to purchase MH in addition. Would be 3 250w Aqualine 10,000k MH, <and yes... 6-8" is good here with MH> 2 96W 6700k PC, and 2 96W actinic PC. In general, what range of corals would do best under those lights, and what would be REAL bad under those lights? <this is moderate to bright lights. Do avoid deeper water LPS corals, and many/most corallimorphs/zoanthids> Thanks for any advice! Steve <best of luck, Anthony>

- Adding Ozone - I'm considering heavily adding an ozonizer to my 125 Reef with 25G refugium just due to the benefits I've been hearing and reading about. One question I didn't see asked was the difference between the 'corona' and 'electronic' models. Where is one more appropriate than the other? <Both are effectively the same - both produce ozone, although through different means.> Also, if I hook it up to my Precision Marine Beckett system, do I still need to try and run it through carbon somehow, or will the intensity in the skimmer 'blow off' the excess O3? <Well... ozone is highly reactive so the odds of having excess are pretty low unless the unit is improperly adjusted, but yes, running this through the skimmer is a good way to go.> Thanks! <Cheers, J -- > Ozone 9/10/05 I have a question about ozone generators I have one from a 500 gallon spa/hot tub it probably puts out grams instead of mg. if this is on a ORP controller does it matter? I thought I would inject it into a homemade Becket style downdraft skimmer [pvc] then into a three hundred gallon sump then back into the display. Thanks Jeff. <Jeff, shouldn't matter with that size sump imagining your display tank is over 300 gallons. James (Salty Dog)> <<Uhh, I would use the ORP controller... set this low to start with... 150-200 mv... see how often the unit is cycling on/off... Can likely dangerously overdrive a biological system... RMF>> The Ozone vs. UV debate (?) Robert, Sorry, this is going to be along one... I have read The Conscientious Marine Aquarist and most of the articles on your site about these two topics. I am trying to gather all the information I can about this hobby before investing thousands of my dollars and the lives of animals, but the differences of opinions is making this difficult :( <You're telling me!> From you book and articles, I had decided that I should inject Ozone into my skimmer. I emailed the manufacture of the skimmer I am considering to ensure Ozone compatibility and this is the response I got: --------------------- Q: "Do you recommend the use of ozone with your skimmers?" A: The short answer... No. The long answer... While our skimmers are safe for use with ozone we do not recommend it's use primarily because tri-atomic oxygen or ozone (03) is a very aggressive oxidant and it can be very dangerous if not used properly. At low concentrations, ozone causes eye irritation. At high concentrations, it may cause pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and even death. <Yes... as does white bread... At the small levels of production of hobby units (at the high end, a few hundred milligrams per hour...) there is more O3 in the surrounding atmosphere from electric storms...> In the aquatic environment it will greatly enhance the nitrification process of organics very quickly thus promoting the build up of ammonia (NH4) Nitrite (NO2) and Nitrate (NO3). <What? Who wrote this? Are you pulling Bob the Fishman's fins here?> Ozone (O3) acts by transferring it's "extra" oxygen to the contaminant. <Ha ha ha... really, I used to teach H.S. level chemistry and physics... this is the sort of material I used to grade... don't miss it> This is, of course, undesirable and in direct conflict with the purpose of using a protein skimmer in the first place which is to remove organics before they become oxidized and then nitrified. <Is this all?> While ozone (O3) is a great way to sterilize water, it's drawbacks far out weigh it's benefits especially in light of the fact that high quality ultraviolet sterilizers, when installed and run properly, are equally or more efficient and have none of the negative effects of ozone (O3). <Hysterical... do a bit more research yourself... of the processes utilized in the ornamental aquatics interests, corona discharge and the same Ultraviolet radiation is utilized to... MAKE OZONE!> It's up to you- ----------------------- From your articles you are very emphatic that the "fear" of ozone is unfounded since the levels of Ozone in use are so minimal and that UV, while beneficial, is not the best "bang for the buck". <That is correct... that is, it is my opinion (shared by some, not all) that although UV sterilization per se is valuable as an adjunct to improving water quality in captive aquatic systems, ozone (and even ozone-generator dryers... to remove moisture ahead of the air's use in the ozone reactor) are better... ahead of UV use in value... but both are fine tools...> My questions for you are: Is the information about higher NH4, N02, and N03 provided by the vendor correct? <No... you can do a bit of experimenting here if you'd like... Really... how is ozone/triatomic oxygen going to increase ammonia/NH4?, how 'bout NH4OH in solution?...> Do you have any Ozone generators and air driers you would recommend? <Yes, the small units made by Sanders in Germany, and the re-sold ones by Energy Savers/ESU here in the States... there are many others... mainly in Europe... Hey, take the time, save some money and read Hans Baensch, Helmut Debelius v. 1 "Marine Atlas"... about this gear... good idea... and show this to this one dealer rep.> (I was leaning towards the Aquazone Plus 200 from Red Sea since it incorporates an ORP electrode.) <Okay> Is either the use of Ozone or UV really necessary for high water quality and high oxygen levels, or is a well tuned skimmer adequate enough to keep water clear and un-yellowed? <Hmm, well, actually none, including the skimmer are really necessary... look at the Leng Sy (link on the www.WetWebMedia.com site's "Miracle Mud" type systems for instance... have none of this gear...> Thank you for your time, Jason Rickard <You're certainly welcome... Keep studying my friend in fish... Don't rely on one dealer, one Bob Fenner, one anyone for what will have to ultimately be your decisions.>

Ozonizer Requirements and Recommendations Bob; I have a 90 gallon marine (non reef) tank that has been very lightly loaded for 2+ years (4 medium sized fish). I plan on increasing the number of inhabitants by 6 or 7 for a total of 10 or 11 fish over the next 2 months. The tank is very stable and water quality appears to be good with this light load. I currently have an Amiracle SL150 Wet Dry, a Fluval 304 Biological Filter and a 15 or 25 Watt Emperor Aquatics UV. I drive the Wet/Dry with a Quiet One. <Okay> I plan on adding a Berlin Turbo Skimmer and since I already have an ORP monitor and controller from using an Ozonizer about 5 years ago, I had very good luck in the past using an Ozonizer so I also plan on adding a Clearwater Tech Ozonizer with my "reconstituted" system. I can obtain a 100mg unit at a very reasonable price or can "spring for a 250mg for more than twice the price. Can I use the 100mg model or will I need the 250mg for my 90 gallon tank? <The 100 will do, the 250 mg/hour would be better.> Any other recommendations if I want to significantly increase the Bioload? <Am leery here... as you've enjoyed such success with "four fishes" of indeterminate species... and want to build this up to so many... need to know much more about what you have, want to add... Do study over the possibilities of what, in what order, size to place... perhaps the survey articles on "Livestock Selection" for reefs, marine systems... and many fish sections on www.WetWebMedia.com> Thanks in advance for any help or advice <Be chatting, soon, my friend. Bob Fenner>

Ozone So I read up on ozone using your FAQs, articles and some info from buy.com <Okay> Confused to say the least. What brand do you recommend for my 100G fish only tank with the 55G sump? How much do these cost? I don't see this info on your FAQs. <Not a big fan of such demonstrative statements... brands, makes and models change over shorter than you'd think time... Let's say for the record the Sander's lines... a couple of hundred milligrams per hour production... a couple of hundred dollars US> The info I found at buy.com somewhat contradicts your other articles/FAQs regarding Activated Carbon because they say to place carbon after the ozone, before it returns to the main tank... but you state carbon becomes ineffective within a few short hours. So how do you "do both"... ozone continuously and carbon-filter the return water? <Different purposes here... actually to absorb the "excess" ozone...> One other point I couldn't really discern from your FAQs... can you over ozone a fish only tank or is over ozonizing primarily concerned with a reef tank full of inverts? <Hmm, both... Time to invest in a "complete" printed work on aquarium set-up, maintenance... hard to understand any universe from simple question/answer statements... don't you agree? Bob Fenner>

Ozone Hello Mr. Fenner, I bought your book "Conscientious..." and noted your recommendation on an Ozonizer. I also have read the FAQ's concerning Ozone on the WetWebMedia site as well. I am in the process of setting up a 110g LR/LS/Invert w/ a Wet Dry and skimmer tank. My question is what "size" ozone unit would you recommend for my tank - 50, 100, or 200mg/hour? <For how large a system, amount of livestock... about the same "size" as gallons of system as a rule of thumb. 50 mg/h for a fifty etc.> And I noted you have recommended Sander's models in past posts, but I am partial to the Aquazone because of the built-in probe/reading capability. Would you consider this brand a good one? <Yes, reliable, a good value.> Lastly, I have read several concerns about UV's killing good bacteria along w/ bad...any such related concerns with an Ozonizer? <Negligible> Thank you so much for your time. Keith. <Thank you for asking. Bob Fenner>

Ozonizer Mr. Fenner, I hope you had a great time on your trip. I recently got your e-mail and purchased a American marine ORP monitor/controller today hoping this would save me time experimenting with the degree of ozone in the water. <Good move> I know you do not like commenting on any brand make or model, but is this a decent monitor? <Yes> And should I still keep a close eye on the ph of the system? <Hmm, not so much with the controller, no> I bought it that way if the Redox got to high the monitor would shut it off. Hope to hear from you soon, but really not a rush enjoy your Sunday...Ryan H. <On the way back from MACNA... in Detroit/Motor City... Bob Fenner>

Request from Belarus (seeking large ozonizer) Dear Sirs, I'm a private farmer from Belarus. I'm starting a sturgeon growing farm project. I'm currently installing 32 primary growing tanks, each with a capacity of 1000 cubic meters of water for initial fish development. I'm looking for an industrial electrolytic ozonizer with 2-3 kg/hours productivity. If you have one or know a company manufacturing electrolytic ozonizers, please, provide me with the information. I appreciate your help with this question. <I would first contact the folks at Sanders in Germany, and Ozotech (http://www.ozotech.com/) in the U.S. for input on who in your area might have units already specified for your application. I will post your query on our site (WetWebMedia.com) in hopes that others have input for you. Bob Fenner> Vasiliy Vergueychik Private farmer 5 K.Marx St., office 27 Minsk 220050 Belarus tel./fax: (375-17) 227-0442 e-mail: lsokol@home.by

Re: request from Belarus Dear Mr. Fenner, Thanks a lot for prompt reply and for your valuable information. We will contact the folks at Sanders in Germany. But I've head that the industrial electrolytic ozonizer are manufactured only in the USA. Is it true? <Don't know. But am sure the folks at Sanders will know. Bob Fenner> Best, Vasiliy

Activated carbon/ ozone Bob, Is it essential when running ozone, that the returning water from the skimmer be run under carbon???? This seems like a controversial subject. Thanks again. Lee <Not essential in almost all cases... part of an ongoing "urban myth" in the hobby (along with the lack of necessity of thermal acclimation, floating livestock polyethylene bags... please stop me). There is so little O3 produced by corona discharge hobby units there is exceedingly small likelihood of ozone "poisoning" (and extremely tiny chance of "space poisoning" the area around the aquarium/s it's used in...). If curious, get/use a conductivity or Redox meter and measure the change in water quality in/about the use of this ozone-generating device. Bob Fenner>

Ozone Generators I am currently deciding between two type of ozone generators available locally for my 1100lt reef tank. Preference would be an Red Seas Aquazone 200 plus with controller however I can't find them locally and trying to get one for the US via the net to Australian Electricity Specifications , 240 volt 50 cycles, is proving difficult. Perhaps you could recommend a stock list or tell me the conversion where the output is expressed in liters per minute to mg per hour <I would suggest that you contact Red Sea Pharmaceuticals directly and talk to customer service or technical support. They sell these units worldwide and can probably put you in touch with a local vendor carrying a unit for your electrical specifications. Try the contact information at this page, http://www.redseafish.com/> Thanks <You are welcome, Steven Pro.>

Ozonizer or UV sterilizer? Hello again! <Salute! Anthony Calfo in your service again> This time I need your advice about the next step I should make in order to be more "conscientious" (I got Bob's book just yesterday - ordered it from Amazon.co.uk). As you can suppose, I have neither an ozonizer nor a UV lamp. <not necessary but sometimes quite helpful> My marine aquarium is 210 liters (approx. 55 gallons) and is fish-only (for the time being!). I have an Eheim external biological filter (not a wet-dry one) and an Eheim internal sponge filter (I replace the sponge with the Eheim activated carbon for two days a month - is it ok?) , <you certainly can treat with carbon for a longer period of time, even full-time for optimum water clarity> a two-way internal protein skimmer <do adjust so that it can produce dark skimmate daily> and an electrical circulator. I used to have an undergravel filter but I was told that it makes no sense to keep it since I have an external biological filter, so I took it out. Ammonia is 0.0, Nitrite is 0.0 and Nitrate is 100 mg/lit (maximum of the Tetra test kit!). My Blue Tang has already been through twice a fungus disease and once Amyloodinium. I am told that the installation of a device will help to avoid some of the diseases... What will be my best choice to start with? I have been told that for a small system like mine the best is to get a UV-lamp. <definitely safer, although not a guarantee to prevent diseases. For that, a quarantine tank for all new fish or occasional sick fish would be better> Some of them are fix - their lamps are not replaceable (I have been told). <if so please avoid these models> Which one should I buy? Is the Tetra UV lamp reliable and good quality? <a good reputation/brand. Do be sure to buy a model with a quartz sleeve for easy to replace bulbs.> Which size? <in American wattage, a 15-25 watt unit for your tank> I really do not know. May be too many questions (sorry!) <no worries at all, my friend. Anthony Calfo> Best regards, Thanassis (your Greek friend)

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