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FAQs on Reproduction

Related Articles: ReproductionMarine Ornamental Fish CultureCulturing Food Organisms,

Related FAQs: Hormonal Manipulation of FishesMarine Ornamental CultureCulturing Food OrganismsDwarf Angel Reproduction,

Smaller species are easier to breed, raise... and sell.

Marine Breeding, fishes, book   - 11/16/07 Good afternoon Bob! <Matt> I stumbled across your article on Marine Breeding at http://www.wetwebmedia.com/reproduc.htm - first let me thank you for the plug to MarineBreeder.org in the "further reading" section! <Okay> I actually was spurred to contact you regarding an update to the "Knowledge: Where To Get Help" section of the article. You may or may not be aware of the new book that Matthew Wittenrich published earlier this year - Breeder's Guide to Marine Fishes ("The Complete Illustrated Breeder's Guide to Marine Aquarium Fishes"). Definitely worth every penny (and heck, it's actually a very affordable book too!) and happens to be probably the best (and only!) current book on where we've come in the last 30-40 years of Marine Fish Breeding... (here's a link to it on Amazon - http://www.amazon.com/dp/1890087718?tag=mariornafishi-20&camp=14573&creative=327641&linkCode=as1&creativeASIN= 1890087718&adid=05PK5QDT0FRSC0XADEQS ) Thought it was worth mentioning :) Best Regards, Matt Pedersen MOFIB - www.MarineBreeder.org <Thank you for this input. Will post, share. Bob Fenner>

Propagation Business   11/29/06 Dear Anthony, <Mmm, no longer here. You might try him at Marine Depot (.com's) public site or Reading Trees (.com)> My name is Andrew Lewin.  I am writing to you for some advice on starting and successfully running a Coral and Fish Propagation Business. <... I'll respond here for all though> As a marine biologist and active hobbyist, I realize that there is a great demand for aquarium marine life (I'm probably preaching to the choir!).  My goal for this business is to decrease the pressure on the reefs by successfully propagating species in a laboratory environment. There is a lot of information on propagation (I just ordered your book) and fish breeding that I think that I can begin a successful business. The business will distribute the species to retail stores, more consistent than retail, in Canada (where I live) and then eventually the United States (speaking with CITES on how to go about doing this).   <Hard to make "economic sense" out of direct sales to/through retailers... "Economies of scale"... but can be done> I have read most of the posts on your website regarding propagation businesses where you mention that it would be good to offer some unique way of growing corals or offer rare species that are in demand. <Yes... as well as "standard" offerings> Well, following this advice I want to experiment with the use of the BioRock method.  I'm not sure if you are familiar with this method, but the Global Coral Reef Alliance uses it to restore reefs in the ocean.  The method uses an electric pulse (small enough not to harm animals) to attract minerals from the sea water to a cathode.  The electric pulse causes limestone to form on the cathode providing a good base for coral growth.  Corals tend to grow ten time faster than normal.  My question is: Do you think that this same process could occur with artificial sea water?   <Mmm... only way to see is through experiment... Not likely economical... due to the cost of electricity, time...> If so, I could grow corals a lot faster and increase the turnover time of the propagation. <The ultrastructural differences here may be trouble...> I have another question as well.  I figure that the larger the business, I.e. large number of corals being grown, the more money I would make because it would bring my overhead costs down. <Up to reasonable limits yes>   In your opinion, do you think that it would be wise to start a big operation, more start up capital needed? <I would start small-ish... boot-strap finance here... until you have a modicum of practical experience... There are a few critical "realities" that exist, you'll experience... For instance, the amount of time it takes to husband a given sized operation... the incipient costs (opportunity costs of your time)... and vagaries of dealing with folks in the trade, the airlines... You can/will only "know" this/these through practical experience> I was thinking of hiring staff, experienced in coral propagation and fish breeding, to oversee the technical matters. <... Unless you have a very large sum (a few six figures) to lose, I would NOT go this route... not likely to be successful w/o your knowing first-hand what needs to be done, doing "it"> Like I mentioned, it would require a large start-up cost but I would be able to sell more product for cheaper (sort of like a Wal-Mart business model). <... the markets for such an enterprise do not currently exist... or are well-occupied by a few players (e.g. ORA...), that have "best-methods" applications, honed-reduced costs of production... and still (IMO) relatively low ROI models/results...> I would like to become the largest marine species propagation business in the world.  It would be my part in saving the reefs. I'm curious as to what you think about my idea. Sincerely, Andrew Lewin, M.Sc <I encourage you instead to look into the history of Frank Baensch... & to set up a model of producing, supplying rare/r species in a small setting here... "Keeping your day job" at the same time for a year or two... I have many good friends in the ornamental aquaculture industry... Many of these are tremendously upbeat about this part of the industry's future (Carol Cozzi-Schmarr) of Ocean Rider especially (am out on HI's Big Island currently). They've received funding, are "trying" a few non-syngnathid species... Bob Fenner>

Centropyge breeding tank set up/egg collection Hello, I have been doing a lot of research lately on this subject before I begin investing more money than I already have into it. <Good> I would like to try breeding a couple different species of dwarf angels, namely Flames and Potter's to start. I know what's supposed to be in the tank and tank size and proper nutrition of the breeding pair. I am doing research on larval food with the help of my college's Bio. Dept (which has an obscene number of marine biologists and Ichthyologists for not having a marine biology program heheh)... <Ah, the public trough/ivory tower... I miss it so> ...and the local Marine Institute with some tips from my LFS here and there as well. My question comes because its one thing I have been unable to find anywhere else. <Is this Anglish?> How do I get the fragile eggs from the breeding tank to the rearing tank without harming them. I know they float due to the drop of oil in them. I have thought about an overflow into a sump tank with an appropriately sized screen to separate them from the workings of it, but if I go that route will the eggs suffer any damage from riding the rapids down to that tank? <Likely so... many facilities for aquaculture utilize quite large, fine screens... relatively low flow rates... so the eggs don't get too agitated... and rinse the eggs off the screen, floating them, and either siphon or "dip" them from the surface... or grow the young out in place, removing the broodstock> Net scoop them out with a plankton net? <Could> Any help in this matter would be greatly helpful, thanks. In addition if you know off hand by chance the micro-organisms that larval angels will eat, smaller than rotifers, it would take some serious travel time off my schedule. Thanks, Mike <Do you read German? Have folks there who do/can? I encourage you to peruse this title: Nachzuchten f? das Korallenriff-Aquarium and the references you'll find. You know of the work of Frank Hoff? Frank Baensch? Bob Fenner>

Re: Centropyge breeding tank set up/egg collection Hello, Unfortunately I do not know anyone who speaks German, a few Russian and Polish speakers though heheh. I have read Frank Baensch's article in an aquarium magazine from a few years back and his website but he does not list the food source for the larva up to the rotifer stage. For some reason he just doesn't want to answer my email on the subject either, lol. <I've had no luck getting a response from him either... he is likely very busy... am given to understand he's gotten his doctorate... is still in Hawai'i I believe...> As to the screen idea, I will draw up some plans and see how they look. Thanks for the help, you have given me some good ideas to work with and sources to look at. Mike <I DO encourage you still to make that sojourn to the college library... Have a reference librarian help you devise a search if you're unfamiliar with this. I have a brief article here re: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/litsrchart.htm  I would search using the terms "Centropyge" and "Culture", "Aquaculture"... and when you find the food organisms being utilized by others, search by their common and scientific names. Bob Fenner> 

Greenhouse aquaculture 9/20/04 Hi Anthony, it was a real pleasure to get your reply.  Your propagation book has been an inspiration to me. <ah, thanks kindly... very good to hear it> I am really looking forward to a greenhouse.  I'm in the early planning stages- I'm going to take you up on your kind offer and will submit plans at some point for your thoughts, after the tour of Tropicorium and others- <I will help any/every way I can> One question- why would you want to heat the room rather than the water?   <good question... always the air. You'll never see a productive/profitable fish room/GH run by heating the water... waaaay too expensive. Heat the air, and the tanks/water act like heat sinks. Very stable> It isn't that electricity is more expensive than natural gas?   <depends on where you live... varies wildly all over the country. I have seen electricity from 4 cents to over 30 cents per kw hour> I would think that heating a large volume to bring the water up to temp would be very inefficient-I suppose the cost of 10k watt water heaters for each 240 gallon sized receptacle would be prohibitive compared to inexpensive warehouse-type heaters? <it is most always best to simply use a hanging furnace to heat the room/air. You see these everywhere in industrial applications. There's a reason for it <G>> Thanks for your help, Anthony- Charles<always welcome.. best of luck/Life. Anthony>

What is the key to raising clownfish? I have been attempting to keep my percula clownfish larvae alive, but am finding it difficult at this point The batch I'm am nursing is the seventh in the last two months, by breeding pair keep laying new eggs two days after the previous batch hatches.  so far I have kept the larvae alive for a measly forty-eight hours.  I attempted to use rotifers but had little luck, now I am using a aquacultured marine zooplankton mixture and they seem to actually eat it, but not longer than two days.  I add new saltwater daily to keep the nitrates, nitrites and ammonia down, what do you suggest I do next? << Well don't try to raise them all, you can't.  The key, the whole key, at least to me, for raising marine fish is copepods!  Rotifers and green water are nice, and I would probably try raising the fry in a small 10 tank loaded with green and rotifers.  But the real key, call up Adelaide at www.copepod.com and tell her you need copepods. >> <<  Blundell  >>

Just a few questions on keeping and rearing cleaner shrimp fry and clownfish fry. Last night both my clownfish and my cleaner shrimp's fry hatched and I transferred as many of them as I could across to another tank. I was wondering the chances of survival on the cleaner shrimps and would they too eat rotifers. << Rotifers are a great starter food, but phytoplankton is probably just as important>>Or what would you recommend?? << Well I think copepods are the almighty food, but at first I think phyto and rotifers are your best bet.>>I have captured a few hundred and it would be a great to breed these if possible. Any tips. How often should I feed and how much water should I remove and how often??<< Well I just keep them fed, and change the water as much as need be.  Meaning if you have them in a 10 gal with an undergravel filter, change a gallon a day.  But if you have them in a 55 gal with lots of rock and sand, you probably don't need to change the water.>> How many days should I move the feed to baby brine?? << Good question, I'm thinking around 2 weeks, but that is stretching my memory on hearing presentations regarding this.>> Secondly the rotifers I have purchased I have fed them daily with the algae required but should the tank they live in always be green. << I see no reason to not keep them in green water all time.>> How much water should be removed from a 7-10 litre tank and how many ml.s of algae would need to fulfill them? As I assume once they are fed they will eat the algae and remove the colour giving an indication that the need more feed.<< I don't think many people measure it out, but simply keep the rotifers in green water, if the water turns yellow, add more phyto.>> Also what temperature should the rotifers be at as I have no heater in their tank just an airstone?? << 23 C.>> How long does it take to get the tank teeming with rotifers as my culture seems a bit light on at this stage? << If they have lots of phyto, I'll say around 4 days>> Thanks for your help << My best advice is to ask around.  The Breeder's Registry probably contains a lot of information on this.  Also, there have been numerous hobbyists to raise peppermints, if you can find them.>> Stu << Adam Blundell>>

Accidental Reproduction! Thanks for all the help you have given me in the past. <Surely! Ryan with you today> You guys are wonderful and have helped me out soooo much. Here is a new one. I have a 55 gal salt tank, about 75lbs of live rock, and my tank is about 1 1/2 yrs old.  Lots of asst mushrooms and polyps. had a peppermint shrimp but cant find him for the last 2 weeks. Here is the kicker that I don't understand. the only fish I have is 2 Perc clowns, 1 yellow tailed damsel, and a bicolor blenny. yesterday I was checking all the nooks and crannies of my tank for the shrimp and in one of the back nooks that is like a little cave with both ends open there are about 10 small clear fish and they really are fish. <Great!>  thought they might be brine shrimp or something but I took a magnifier glass and by gosh they are fish. they are about the size of guppy fries just born. I've had fresh water for years and raised guppies. now there are no guppies in this tank lol so I don't know if with a salt tank there are some type of animal that looks like fish and they are food for the others or what. my blenny is about 2 mo.s in my tank and the clowns I've had for about 4 mos. they have been tank raised. I know that the clowns have determined their sex by their size, one is quite larger then the other. Is it poss. for the clowns to have babies? <It seems to be the only explanation> This is amazing. <You're a lucky owner> if so what do I feed them now? <Baby brine shrimp gut loaded with Selcon, Cyclop-eeze, infusoria, etc.> I haven't added any new rock if that was your next question.<Highly unlikely that these would be a hitchhiker> I'm baffled and awed. There is no way I can get a picture of them and the clowns act like they don't even know they exist. <after egg laying, this is typical behavior> any ideas? Thanks a million, if you could answer this as soon as possible I don't want them to die from lack of food. <Lots to research, and don't waste too much time.  Baby fish need to eat 2-3 times a day to survive.  I recommend that you get involved on wetwebfotos.com for some great advice from many who have done this properly before.  Good luck!  Ryan>  Misty

Tank-raised marine livestock query Hi All, I have a 75 gallon reef tank in a Caribbean biotope.  Live sand and LR from TBS.  I have two tank raised Neon Gobies and a tank raised Royal Gramma.  I've been looking for one more fish to put in this tank. As I prefer tank raised fish, I'm at a lost as to which fishes may be compatible in this arrangement. Any thoughts or suggestions would be appreciated, Mike <Mmm, well your current choices are limited to non-tropical West Atlantic species... a good number of the Clownfishes, Dottybacks, a couple of marine angels... There are some cultured invertebrates to consider, including the Caribbean Lysmata wurdemanni... Bob Fenner>

Feeding Station Explanation 11/11/03 Hello Crew <howdy> I have decided to start a Mariculture farm. I purchased Anthony's book and must recommend it - It is fantastic. <thanks kindly my friend!> I really want to set up what Anthony describes as a feeding station, starting with phytoplankton, down to rotifers and finally to brine shrimp. <my goodness... I fear my response to you/this query was lost. Did you e-mail this some days/weeks ago to my personal address too? If so, I did reply and regret that it must have got nuked in the virtual world> I would like to know how each row feeds down the chain, and since the water is taken from the main tank, what is stopping rotifers getting into the phytoplankton? <Ahhh... they are not centrally filtered, but rather strategically places with prey above predator on shelves to prevent contamination from drips and to make feeding each lower tier easier by draining prey down to predator (phyto down to rotis, rotis down to brine, brine out to feed, etc)> I have built the tanks and raceways, refugium and  live rock growing and curing tanks and I am now desperately in need to getting my feeding station running - Please help <do check out more info on feeding stations in Martin Moe's classic "Marine Handbook - Beginner to breeder" and Frank Hoff's "Plankton Culture Manual"> Thanks for the fantastic site and advice, it is simply the best on the web! Kindest Regards Gavin - South Africa <cheers, my friend... Anthony>

Re: Farm-Raised Fish 10/29/03 Bob: A brief review.  I notified you of a mail order company selling a farm-raised Centropyge loricula.  The  company is unimportant to my question, so I will leave them nameless here (you can read in past email below).  First, about your response: "eighty dollars for 3/4" to 1-1/4".... Yikes!...good for them and the industry".   1) Is "yikes" in regards to (a) size, (b) price or (c) size/price ratio?   <Yes... just a bit of (to be expected) "sticker-shock" at the price of small specimens (compared to the current transit and net-landed-cost for adults procured from the wild> 2) If it has to do with size, is there a general minimum (not that again!) for farmed fish? <In general, yes. There is tremendous resistance from consumers (oftener than not) for "too-small" specimens, particularly in the face of available, larger, less-expensive wild-caught individuals of the same species> 3) Are wild specimens of this fish a lot cheaper out West? <Flames "land" on the west coast for something in the "teens" of dollars to wholesalers... generally retail for 50-75> 4) If yes, is it because of the shorter travel time from their collection sites? <Mostly yes... due to less re-bagging, shipping time... another important factor is that many markets (towns) shops sell livestock for scant mark-up> My LFS always has a good supply of larger (3"+) wild-caught specimens at a steady $60.  So, I thought a 33% markup would be a worth it to be able to leave one in the ocean (I like to think of it that way).  Also, I like the idea of having a smaller guy to watch grow up.   <I agree with your orientation> 5) As far as your 5" maximum statement, how long would you say it takes for this species to reach this size?   <A few years (2,3) in a large, uncrowded, well-fed setting> 6) Can I reliably approximate an age for this fish at 2", 3" and 4"? <Perhaps 2, 3 and four years respectively, plus or minus an inch or year> 7) With any "newly" farm-raised livestock, is it best to wait a few generations? 8) If yes, why? <Not necessarily... it "took" a couple of decades to work out the bugs, get as hardy, colorful, well-marked generations of Amphiprionines captive-produced as wild, but the Centropyges, other angels... Gobiosoma, Pseudochromids and others are hardier than wild-caught from the get-go nowadays> 9) How long (ballpark) would a few generations take? <five, ten years, depending on species characteristics, difficulties to work out in the breeding, rearing protocols> 10) Can you breed out the "wild" in a species? <Yes, definitely> Sorry, I think I got carried away, but I just wanted to cover everything.  My main concern is buying a large specimen that is already 5 years old/possibly at middle-age, since this fish will be my crown jewel.  Regards, Rich. <No worries. Good questions, valid concerns. Bob Fenner>

Re: fish collecting business Hi Bob Thanks for your response. I will appreciate any help I can get. I intend to sell a wide range of freshwater species (cichlids, catfish, killifish, barbs, Mormyrids Distichodus etc.). I still need to gather my information on the logistics but I guess the best way will be directly contact the wholesalers as you suggested. <Yes> I have a lot of experience in various aspects of fish keeping. It will be very nice to get some help building my collection station but knowing that I have established a ready market will be a big motivation. <Agreed> I am pretty comfortable with putting together a station having worked on and built several custom systems. My intention is to start with a 2000 gallon holding system excluding quarantine and hospital tanks and leaving room for growth and expansion. I am currently based in the US so I intend to concentrate on the American market for now to allow better supervision. I am not sure of what numbers  I will be able to hold at present. I intend to have about 500gallons in 2-5gallon holding tanks and the rest of the tanks ranging for 10- 200gallons. I Also hope to setup a few large concrete tanks I am not ready for aquaculture at present but I always wondered why with the ease of breeding certain fish species there is not more emphasis on aquaculture of aquarium fish. <That eventually comes vis a vis economic incentives with all species> I guess with more education I will understand why. I spoke to a friend who has several ponds setup for catfish which he sells for about $1 after six month for food. I believe that this space could be better used for aquarium fish culture. I look forward to getting some help from you with a few people I could talk to. Thanks Dayjee <Real good. I will be here. Bob Fenner>

Breeding Literature - 8/20/03 Hi, <howdy to the good fellow in Oz> Just wondering if you can offer me any information on how to obtain some literature on breeding: <do begin by contacting The Breeders Registry - a database for reproduction in marine species... membership gives access to their archives> Dottybacks (all species) <look for Martin Moe's "Breeding the Orchid Dottyback" to start> Lysmata. sp. <and Jill Kirkendall's "How to Train and Raise Peppermint Shrimp"> Banggai Cardinals, Etc. <well covered in the Breeders registry and even on the Web at large. Use the google.com search tool> Doesn't matter if they are in the USA, as I will still try to get them. thanks Shaye <excellent pursuit my friend... do check out Amazon.com for the book titles to glean ISBN numbers, info, etc: here and here... best of luck! And when you are ready for invertebrates... do check out my "Book of Coral Propagation" (Calfo) and the new "Reef Invertebrates" (Fenner/Calfo) both carried by Reef Online in Australia.>

Can You Help Identify? Eggs - 8/23/03 this past Sunday, during my tank cleaning ritual,  I noticed these tube looking things on the underside of a shell in my tank.  I am including these two pictures.   <only the second one came through> today, there were some more tubes next to these and the ones pictured have turned brownish in color.  I pulled one tube off the shell and viewed it under a microscope and saw several clear balls wiggling back & forth inside the tube.  each ball has a small black rock-like ball to one side of the center and I can see what looks like a curved spine on the clear side.  I have a 100g saltwater tank with one each: French angel, yellow tang, Caribbean angel, yellow-head sleeper (goby), high hat and a purple fairy wrasse.  I also have about 10 snails (don't know what type - my brother picked them up while scuba diving this summer).  are these snail eggs or is it possible that they can be fish eggs?  I appreciate your help.  thanks. <from the blurry image, they look more like fish eggs... yet most of your fishes listed are pelagic spawners. Perplexing. Anthony>

How many eggs do regal angelfish lay at once? <Please see fishbase.org under Pygoplites diacanthus, and further from there re this species reproduction. Bob Fenner>

Brittle star what astronomical event signals the advent of mass spawning underwater? <Principally the position of the moon, secondarily the sun. Bob Fenner>

Breeding Marine Fish Hi Crew! Yesterday I saw the "little mermaid" with my 3 years old boy and he said to me: hey look an hermit crab like yours... (actually my hermit crabs are just tiny blue legged) being serious... <Well, let's face it: the ones in the movie are more cute!> In fresh water is common to see spawning and breeding events... there are fish marine species that actually breed as easy as guppies? :) Carlos Diaz <Well, Carlos- "easy" is a relative term! There are a number of species of marines that are regularly bred: Clownfish, various Cardinalfish, Sea Horses, and Dottybacks, just to name a few. A really worthwhile endeavour, as successful captive propagation of marine fish can help ease pressure on the wild reefs. Give it a try! -Scott F.>

Breeding Fish & Inverts in the Refugium? Hello Almost Knowing One, <You reached Steven Pro today. Anthony Calfo and I are helping out for the time being.> I have read through most of the FAQ's but to no avail. I am looking for information or ideas for a guppy or molly type fish that I can breed in my refugium for my saltwater tank. I had a sailfin molly pair but they are too big for my small refugium (10 gal). They did well indeed and bred a couple of times before the female got sucked into the power head. <The Mollies are your best bet, but they will eat your other planktonic life forms in your refugium. You might want to leave them out and get yourself some creatures specifically for a refugium, like Mysis shrimp.> The refugium will also hold a few peppermint shrimp some live rock and plenty of macroalgae. What kind of fish should I buy and do you have any tips on keeping the alive in such a high salinity. <Very slow acclimation over several days.> The refugium is hooked up to a 46 gallon fish/reef tank. <Leave out the big animals and watch with amazement the proliferation of tiny bugs.> Thanks for the support in this expensive and expansive hobby. P.S: Your site is great.  -Chad S., Springfield, MO <You are welcome. -Steven Pro>

Re: Samariscus triocellatus You can visit the homepage of the breeding company : http://www.aqua-fish.com/ Thanks for answer ! Herv?><Ah yes. Merci. Have seen these folks post-larval collected and raised fishes in many places. Will post this link for others perusal. Robare Fenner>

I have babies! Hi Bob Fenner, I wrote you a few days ago concerning grad school in the oceanography field, anyway, that's not what I want to talk about right now. This is what I have to say: I have baby fish in my tank! I have baby fish in my tank! <Yay! Some fun.> Ok, enough excitement. There is some concern since I have had no fish in my tank since the end of September. Ole, my Kole tang, got ich so I pulled him and the two damsel fish out about 6 weeks ago. The babies are located in the refugium area of the sump tank, and the two damsels were in that part of the tank for a little while (a week?) before they were moved out into a different system all together. Now I did buy a rock covered in colonial anemones about 4 weeks ago. There is a small cave in this rock and this is where the fry is located. Is it possible that I bought this rock with eggs on it already, they hatched a few weeks ago, and I am just now seeing the babies?  <Possible... Or the Damsels?> I am afraid that when they venture out they will be eaten by the colonial anemones. Yet I am afraid to pull this rock out and put it in the main tank, and have some of the babies attached and end up in the grips of a shrimp in the main tank. I am also concerned about these little guys being sucked up into the pump. I am not sure if catching them and putting them in a little baby net thing is possible since there are sooooo many hiding places in that refugium. I would have to pull everything out. Do you have any suggestions for me as for as what to do with them and what to feed them. I was definitely not planning on this to happen! <I'd leave them be... will develop on what they can, will find> This is what they look like: most are about 2-5mm long. Their belly is dark (you can see their digestive system), and the rest of their body is transparent all the way down to their tails. Some are larger than others and they swim around very rapidly, never come out of their caves, and chase each other around occasionally. Help! I am going to a public library today to see if I can find some kind of information there. Thanks for the help, and I bet you are excited too, hu? Jana <Take a read through the Breeder's Registry: http://breeders-registry.gen.ca.us/ Bob Fenner>

Information (Aquaculture of Porgies, for food) Dear fennerrobert We work on Acanthopagrus latus( Yellowfin sea bream- sliver seabream or other related species) culture in Iran fishery Department , we search on your website but unfortunately we didn't find any information a bout these species, would you please send us full details including broodstock, breeding pattern, larval rearing, feed habit, culture in cage,-pond, and guide us where can we find these information in internet. We look forward to receiving your next. Yours faithfully H. ABDOHAY.(M.SC.) General Director Fish reproduction and stock Enhancement <Hmm, unfortunately, none of the true Sea Breams (family Sparidae) are utilized as ornamentals, at least the two species listed... I will post your note to our site (www.WetWebMedia.com) in hopes others will be able to help you. And do of course avail yourself of a computer based literature search: http://wetwebmedia.com/litsrchart.htm to find not only "what is currently known" about these fishes husbandry, but also "who is doing research" on them (as authors of the published works). Bob Fenner>

Fwd: Fish Catalog Bob, Can you suggest a URL which might help him as well as a breeding book? Thanks, Susan  Hello there: I am Ben Ubach, live in Aguascalientes, Mexico, was an active Aquarium hobbyist some years ago, left the hobby for abt 15 years and want to come back so I would appreciate some help. A few days ago I found a web site with a complete Tropical Fish catalog but I can not find it anymore. Could you give me the URL please? <Please take a look at our site, its link pages: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/links.htm> I also want to buy a book about breeding procedures for Aquarium Fish. Please tell me what book (s) are good for this purpose. <TFH publications still owns the best titles here. I would get hold of a recent issue and order from the back or the same works from Amazon. Bob Fenner> Thank you in advance Ben

Reproduction of Reef Fishes help Dear Sir, I am an assistant researcher for the BBC and I am currently researching for a programme about the sexual behaviour of animals. I have looked you up on the internet and thought that you might be able to help me with information about the sexual behaviour and particularly the sexual frequency of Hamlet Fish, Blue Chromis, Spotted Box Fish and Anthias. <Do know a bit about these fishes, groups. Have you seen Thresher's works on reproduction of reef fishes? Dated, but still useful> If you are available to talk on the telephone, please forward your number and I will call you at a convenient time. <Okay, 858-549-XXXX in San Diego, CA... Pacific Standard Time. Bob Fenner> Yours faithfully, Verity White BBC Natural History Unit Bristol, England. 44 (0)117 97 47718 verity.white@bbc.co.uk

STI News: Breeding successes at Underwater World This message was forwarded to you from Straits Times Interactive  (http://straitstimes.asia1.com.sg)  Hi Bob  Here's an article about Underwater World, a local aquarium. I did a dive in  their shark tank not too long ago. Nice experience to be able to feed the  Eagle rays but at Sing $96 a bit pricey.  <I'll say>  Perry  Breeding successes at Underwater World  UNDERWATER World at Sentosa has bred about 15 species of fish and sharks  successfully.  And many of these, like the checkered sea perch and eagle ray, have never  been bred anywhere else.  In fact, a large number of the creatures swimming in the tanks are either  parents or were hatched at the aquarium, said its curatorial director, Mr.  Bruce Mackay.  He said: 'Breeding marine creatures is very, very difficult.  'It's 99 per cent perspiration. It's not a matter of being lucky at all.  'After all our years of effort, we've managed to build up a lot of  experience and expertise.'  Underwater World is 10 years old. <Sounds like a great shop... want to visit there in a couple of weeks when  we're in SG? I do>  To breed the fish, the staff first need a brood stock of healthy, happy  adult fish.  It often takes the fish several years to grow to adult size.  Then, the eggs they lay are collected and hatched in aquatic nurseries.  Various types of micro algae are grown at the facility to feed microscopic  animals called rotifers, which are then fed to the larval fish.  Some of the species, such as the golden Trevally and bamboo shark, have  done so well that they are being bred by the thousand <Wow, really?>  and sold commercially.  Not only does this bring in extra revenue, but it also saves the fish from  being taken from the wild, which helps in their conservation, said Mr.  Mackay.  Apart from fish, Underwater World is breeding turtles, in collaboration  with researchers in Nagoya, Japan.  The aquarium also serves as a haven for stranded and abandoned wildlife,  and for those which are saved from poachers.  Take Gracie the dugong, which was found as a baby near Pulau Ubin in 1998,  still trying to suckle her dead mother.  Gracie was fortified with loving care and formula milk, and is now three  years old.  <A Dugong (sea cow, manatee)? Impressive!>  But she will not reach her adult size of 400 kg or so for another seven  years.  Weighing in at a whopping 150 kg now, the healthy smooth-skinned beauty  with its whiskery face and liquid eyes is a darling among staff and  visitors alike.  IP Address:  <Thanks for this. Bob Fenner> 

Beginning Breeding Hi, I was thinking of sticking my nose into the area of breeding. I was wondering if you could give me a general overview of either equipment/what can and can not be breed, and what are some good books to get on breeding? I know the big area fish wise for breeding are clowns, but I don't know if they are the best beginner species to try. Also, I'm assuming these guys don't need an aquarium, just a big Rubbermaid tub with all the fixings. Any advise on for a prospective breeder would be appreciated. Chris >> Ah great! Do look into the easier to find "breeding" books by Frank Hoff, Martin Moe, Joyce Wilkerson, Stephen Spotte... you can search them through the on-line book e-tailers... And get thee to a large college library... And, which part of the world do you live in? Travel about? For the time, money, other resources you're about to commit, you ought to visit some of the outfits that do what you're considering... Are you thinking about fishes only? Maybe invert.s like soft, hard corals, shrimps...?  And yes, the Clownfishes make up the bulk of captive bred/reared marines... and are a steady market and good place to start your learning/enterprise... and no to Rubbermaid tubs... Great products, but you need to see your fishes better... as in through clear viewing panels. Read the above authors works and we'll chat when you know more about "culture". Bob Fenner, feigning a New Yawk accent

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