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FAQs about Corallimorphs 4

Related Articles: Corallimorpharians

Related FAQs: Mushrooms 1Mushrooms 2, Mushrooms 3Mushroom Identification, Mushroom Behavior, Mushroom Compatibility, Mushroom Selection, Mushroom Systems, Mushroom Feeding, Mushroom Health, Mushroom Reproduction

Zoas and mushrooms - 02/04/19
Hello Wet Web Media,
<Hello Davy>
I would just like to know these few questions:
1. are zoanthids and actino/ricordeas corals? or are they anemones or some call colonial anemones? Are anemones corals too?
<I'm not sure what an "actino" is, but these other organisms are all Cnidarians (in the Phylum Cnidaria) and are within the class Anthozoa. Sea anemones are within the subclass Actinaria. Ricordea are within the subclass Corallimorpharia. Zoanthids are within the subclass Zoantharia.
The term "coral" is not scientifically defined per se. However, generally speaking, "corals" are all marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa, except for anemones. Now that I've given you the subclass names, I trust you can search either WWM or Google to learn more.>
2. regarding the questions above, please let me know the reference or where I can view the description of these two. I am not sure if I can trust Wikipedia or google. I need like some sort of a very solid scientific study on what class the zoanthids and mushrooms belong to.
<In my experience, Wikipedia is fairly trust worthy on these sorts of topics. It's monitored constantly by geeks such as myself who are always eager to correct an error or update a page with the latest scientific developments. However, if you are writing a report for school and need a more traditional source, I suggest you visit to your local library and look for books on marine invertebrates. If that is not an option for you, I would try going to the websites of respected marine conservation organizations. These websites often have educational pieces on corals which might help you. Here's one offered by good old NOAA: https://coralreef.noaa.gov/education/coralfacts.html>
Thank you and regards,
<Cheers, Sara L.>

Attn: Bob Fenner. Help w/ filling out import-allowance form, Australia, for Ricordea florida     2/25/14
Hi Bob,
I was hoping you would be able to assist me.
<Let's see>
I propagate Ricordea Yuma in Western Australia.

<Interesting... Have a friend, industry acquaintance (Dick Perrin, Tropicorium) who built his business on the Florida congener... And am generally familiar w/ issues of the use of ornamentals; clean list/s there>
I believe in trying to provide aquarium enthusiasts with a good supply of coral without raping the reefs.
<We are definitely in agreement>
Although my business is small every bit helps.
In Australia majority of the Ricordeas are found in Queensland.
Most of the quality Ricordeas found on Australian reefs go overseas along with a lot of the other rare coral as that is where the best market is.
Should a rare Ricordea get to the retail sector it usually stops there and goes into the shops show tanks.
<A matter of simple economics likely... There are parallels w/ fancy goldfish, marine angels and more... gravitating toward countries/markets that pay better, more assuredly>
I have been propagating for about 4 years now selling to people across Australia.
<Ah good. If I may; do you utilize some techniques; e.g. tools for cutting through siphonoglyphs... that you might share (that you don't consider proprietary) with our/WWM readers?>
I have made a few contacts with people overseas who propagate both Ricordea Yuma and Ricordea Florida.
Both companies that propagate are happy to assist and supply me with Ricordeas of both species.
<Ah good>
I have decided to try and get some of the quality Ricordeas back to Australia.
Currently it is illegal to import the Ricordea Florida into Australia however I have spoken to Fisheries and they are happy to look at my proposal when I submit one.
<I have read through the form you attached; for applying>
Although rare there are some Ricordea Florida spread across Australia and they are highly sort <sought> after.
Western Australia Fisheries have given me a list of questions asking me to write a report.
Unfortunately I have not been able to find much information in either books or on the internet.
Writing reports is definitely not my area of expertise.
I would have thought your staff would have written many reports similar to the one I require and possibly one relating to Ricordea.
<Heeeeee! Ah my friend. I don't have; have never had staff. We are a group of coming/going volunteers>

Do you have anyone there that would be able to assist or at least know of someone I could contact for assistance.
I have attached a copy of what is required.
Thank you
Chris Murphy
<Let's you and I go back/forth with the parts you can't find good/reliable-accurate input for. What specifically are you looking for on this form? Not all. Bob Fenner>

Biotope question, mainly re Corallimorpharians     4/7/13
Hello WWM crew. First I want you to know how much I appreciate everything you do. This site is usually my first reference when I am not sure about things, and sometimes even when I am.
<Ahh! A pleasure to share>
I am wanting to create a biotope of sorts. I have had my tank going for almost a year now and it turns out that most of the corals I like the best come from patch reefs and lagoons. I was going to do a garden style tank, and some may still consider it garden style considering I have softies, certain LPS, and Montipora sp. for SPS. I have been looking for pictures of patch reefs and it seems like most of the corals I have fit.
<Do look for the large/r "folio" "dive books"... through Amazon or your public library... Oh, and the works of J.E.N. Veron>
 I am however interested in patch reef corals around the world, not just from one location. Maybe this violates the whole biotope concept.
<Mmm, no; there are a few such "propositions"... Purists may argue that one is looking for a "slice" of the environment AND livestock just pertaining to a given locale, some others wish to present life found in a given "type" of physical setting (as you are mentioning here)>
Still this environment in general contains a bit of everything it seems and has some amazing life just like the reef slopes do. My question (yeah I actually have one somewhere in this book I am writing :D ) is do Corallimorphs occur on patch reefs?
<At times, please yes. I've seen them in northern island reaches in Tonga, Vanuatu...>
 I would imagine they do but then again I do not see many pictures with them.
<May seem, sound strange, but as I am a very long time provider of content/enjoyer of both ornamental aquatics and the dive-travel fields, it's my experience that many folks don't do much lagoon diving (and hence photography). Instead, most people on liveaboard or resort diving are "out on the reefs"... though I will readily state, that there are fantastic settings and life to encounter in lagoonal areas. Stated another way; there is an artifact here of people dive traveling, making images and where they're historically led, exposed to... e.g. I was amazed the first time I dived in "muck"...>
Also does the presence of Corallimorphs always mean the permanent decline of a reef or can hard corals, soft corals, and Corallimorphs coexist on a reef without things being thrown out of balance?
<I do find that Corallimorphs in settings in the wild w/ less flow DO have more space around them sans other Cnidarian life... perhaps this too is artifactual to a degree... there being more patchy distribution of hard substrate to inhabit... But Mushroom Anemones in deeper, more-current areas ARE more often juxtaposed near other stinging-celled life>
 I am sure there are references here that I have not read as of yet but I will keep reading and learning. Thank you again for everything. James
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Corallimorph questions   8/24/08 Once again, what an invaluable site! I have looked over the relevant FAQs... I have a 10 gallon aquarium with about 8-10 lbs of live rock and resultant critters, 1 Percula clown, 1 Hawaiian Feather Duster (have had it for about 3 years) some blue-legged hermit crabs, some Chaetomorpha and grape Caulerpa, and two species of mushroom corals...once two individuals, now three. The lighting is NO fluorescent, about 45 watts, with a DIY hood. One of the mushroom coral "oozed" off of a rock over a period of days, with a thin filament of flesh attaching it, which finally separated, leaving a bit of the "foot" behind a week or two ago which is now a tiny replica of its parent, which seems to be growing and healthy. Question(s) #1: The parent Shrooms, in the process of splitting, fell onto the substrate. It seems happier where it is, as before it was drooping. It is now hydrated, but is it getting enough light? Should I leave it alone unless it starts to pale? <I would leave it be... can/will derive nutrition other ways> Question #2: TI noticed this morning that the other Shrooms I purchased appears to have engulfed a Bristleworm, as a 1.4" portion of dead Bristleworm is hanging out of the oral cavity. I am worried that it has overfed itself. Is there anything I can do for it? Thank you, Rus <Mmm, no... just time going by. Bob Fenner>

Pruning a Rhodactis Mushroom - 01/10/08 I searched through the site and did not find an answer so I hope I did not miss it. I have a very large Rhodactis mushroom which I need to shrink down to size. <<I see>> Is there a way to prune it without fragging it? My understanding is I need to cut it like a pizza to frag but I would prefer to cut it all around if I can and leave it as one piece but smaller. <<If you are not interested in "saving" the cut-off portion then yes, what you propose is possible. The reason for slicing this animal like a "pizza" when fragging is to get a piece of the "mouth/anus" with each frag for better survivability of the fragmented pieces. If your wish is merely to reduce the size of this organism but retain its shape, then cutting a belt of tissue (to be discarded) from the perimeter of the animal is possible. Do be sure to use a new/sharp blade, and be careful to make a clean cut without any ragged edges to promote fast healing. If you can't position the animal such that making a long continuous cut with a blade is possible, then consider using sharp surgical scissors. Many of the etailers now offer such equipment…or you can find/order from a medical supply vendor>> A side question, I have on Rhodactis mushroom is what if any danger there is when it stings you. <<Mmm, depends on individual sensitivity to such…just like with bee stings>> I think I've been stung a few times by handling it without gloves and it makes the fingers quite numb and slightly swollen for a few days. <<A definite concern here… Maybe as much a reaction to contact with chemicals "exuded" by this large and noxious Corallimorph as anything else. And still reason enough to take proper precautions when handling…do get some gloves, and do wash-up thoroughly after handling>> Thanks for all your help. <<Happy to assist. EricR>>

Mushroom Life Span - 09/29/07 Cheers Crew. <Hello again Andy, Mich with you tonight.> This may be a stupid question, but I can't find an answer. I assume that mushrooms, like all living things, must die? <Yes. Generally all cells exhibit apoptosis, or programmed cell death. The exception to this rule is cancer cells, which is why cancer is so difficult to fight.> Is there a known life span for these and/or, <Presumably, though I have never hear an actual number.> like other living things, do they sometime just die early of natural (genetic abnormalities, etc.) causes? <Undoubtedly.> The reason I ask is that I have a beautiful mushroom rock with 8-10 hairy green mushrooms--had it for about 5 months. Over the last three or so days, one of the smaller Shrooms tightened up, lost its neon green color and appears to be slowly melting. <Sounds like some sort of trauma response to me.> The rest of the Shrooms look great, are open, colorful, etc., as are my other Shrooms, tree corals and BTA. My water is good--SPG is 1.025, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate all 0, temp 79*F, pH is 8.2, phosphate is 0.05-.1 (this is new. Has previously always been 0. <You'll want to get that down.> I use RO/DI water, my TDS meter shows 0 ppm, I have 80lbs live rock, aggressive protein skimming, 30g fuge with 4" DSB and Chaeto, and I feed quality foods (Formula One and frozen Mysis and blood worms that I thaw and drain before feeding). I think the reading may have been influenced by BGA that I had disturbed/cleaned from my substrate about 1 hr before testing phosphates). <Could be.> Not sure if any of you experts might know about the life span of Shrooms . . . . <A small mushroom would generally indicate a younger mushroom, so I highly doubt this is a lifespan issue to begin with.> Thanks! <Welcome! Mich> Andy

Stocking Order/Corallimorph Care - 05/21/07 Hello Mr. Fenner, and/or any other of his esteemed colleagues. <<Hmm, if that translates to "diving and drinking buddy," then that's me!  Eric here, and at your service>>   I have a few more questions.  Thank you for the prompt responses so far, the info has been very helpful and appreciated. <<Am sure you are quite welcome>> Quick refresher...I have a 55 gallon hex, planning FOWLR, cycling for 3.5 weeks with 50 lbs of live rock and a 2 inch substrate of aragonite/live sand.  All water parameters are excellent, pH at 8.3, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate at 0, and SG 1.023. <<This last would be better at something closer to NSW levels (1.025/1.026)>> I am running a Fluval 305 Canister Filter, <<Make sure you service this weekly>> a BakPak 2r protein skimmer with 2 Maxi Jet 600 powerheads.  I am noticing (in addition to the typical new tank diatoms) lots of emerging vegetative growth on the live rock which I am assuming is some sort of plant/algae, and hopefully the beneficial kind. <<Mmm, all is beneficial/serves a purpose really...is just that some species can easily become problematic under the right conditions>> I am also hoping this is a sign that all is well in the tank and it is becoming a healthy system.   <<Time will tell...>> I have finally made decisions about the livestock to put in the tank, and am interested in stocking order.  Am planning on a Midas Blenny, a Blackcap Gramma/Basslet, a pair of Ocellaris Clownfish, and a Dwarf Angel of some type. <<Sounds ok>> I know the angel should be placed last, as it will require good algae growth for its feeding preferences, and also due to its aggressive tendencies.  Just wondering about the order of placement for the other fish.  I am leaning toward the Midas Blenny first, then the Blackcap, then the Clownfish, then the Dwarf Angel.  I have been told by some, however, that the Blenny and the Blackcap could be introduced together, and others say the clowns should go in first.  I welcome your suggestions and input. <<The order of introduction you have selected will be fine>> Also, I have discovered a surprise but not unwelcome guest in the tank. <<Neat!>> On Wednesday I purchased some cured live rock rubble to scatter on the substrate.  Today I observed what appears to be a single mushroom coral on one of the small pieces of new rock.  Am almost positive it is a mushroom based on pictures I have seen on WWM and elsewhere.  It is a violet/purple color and about 1/2 inch across.  I wasn't planning on a coral aquarium, and as such don't have the lighting for it.  Currently have a 28w 50/50 PC fluorescent. <<I see>> I would like to see if I could keep it alive, if possible. <<Probably so, though even for these organisms with low lighting requirements I think you will need to "at least double" your current output>> As I wasn't planning on keeping corals I know very little about the subject. <<Easily remedied with research/reading>> I quickly perused the WWM files on mushrooms and found they are relatively easy to keep and don't require special lighting. <<But they do require "some" lighting to best show off their color/maintain health>> I moved the coral and its rock frag up closer to the light, thinking that being on the sand bed further away from what is already not a strong light source may not be ideal. <<Indeed>> Any other advice you could give me on keeping this little guy alive would be appreciated, like feeding, lighting, location preferences.   <<All found here ( http://www.wetwebmedia.com/corallim.htm) and among the links in blue.  As you have discovered, corallimorphs are usually easily kept and will sometimes reproduce to plague proportions, though this is usually more a concern in a "reef" system where their spread can inhibit/kill more desirous organisms>> Thanks so much, and I apologize for the lengthy e-mail.  I figured better to have 1 lengthy one than to crowd your in-box. <<No worries...a pleasure to share>> Have a great weekend! Jamie <<Regards, EricR>>

Yuma dying? Maybe the city, but a Corallimorph as well in this case   5/15/06 thanks for reading my question!     I bought a purple yuma on a branch awhile back, and today I noticed what I thought was feeding behavior.... it had stretched its mouth to almost half an inch wide (total width about 1.5 inches) and I could see all of its innards..... this happened while I was feeding the tank, so I put a shrimp piece on its mouth and a while later I noticed a slime emanating from the mouth all over the shrimp (frozen variety).... thought this might be gastric juices or something..... so now I go back for another look and the mouth is still open as far, and the rim looks to be dissolving, so I'm thinking this is not good...... all water parameters are fine, and I have no problems with other tank mates (various shroomies and an anchor coral plus a coral beauty and a few Chromis, and the normal DFS algae attack pack plus a Mithrax crab)  Is it going or is it gone? Dan <... Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/corallim.htm and the linked files at top. Not a good idea to "feed" as you state, have done... Bob Fenner>

Help mushroom problem... no info. of use  - 5/11/06 Hey guys <And some vimmen!> I noticed these dark brown spots on my purple mushroom and thought they were flatworms.  I tried to remove one or two and what showed up was a white spot and what was removed was slimy and not a flatworm.  Then I notice that the edges of the mushroom had this same dark brown coloration and if I tried to remove it slimed.  What is going on?   <Who knows?> This mushroom was doing great up until yesterday!  Iodine dip and what is the correct dose if that is what you recommend.   I also thought about surgical removal to save the uninfected part in the event that the slime spreads. Thanks <... no info. on the set-up, chemical testing, other organisms... Please (re)read the areas on Corallimorphs: http://wetwebmedia.com/corallim.htm and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Inverts/Mushroom Corals   03/9/06 Hi all, I have a question I thought you might be able to help me with again. I am getting in a mushroom and a feather duster to add to my 30g saltwater setup. I want to know do the mushrooms sting? Also what would be the best food or supplements for them. <All easily found on the Wet Web.  http://www.wetwebmedia.com/corallim.htm  Do learn to use the Google search tool.> Thank you <You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)> Chess

Corallimorphs/Ricordea   1/20/06 Thanks for that advice James,<You're welcome> I'll give it a try over the weekend, will let you know how it all goes.  Just a quick question though:  Are either the Corallimorphs or Ricordea Poisonous to dogs?  Just need to know if I have to lock my huskies out while I have the coral out on the floor or not.  They get very inquisitive about my fish stuff. <I've heard that some Corallimorpharians can cause a nasty burn when touched and without knowing what you have I can't answer the question.  Ricordea florida belongs to the same order (Corallimorpharians) but is only toxic to other corals. James (Salty Dog)> Thanks <You're welcome> Amanda

Attaching Mushroom Corals - 12/12/2005 Hello there, <Hi Rich.> I've recently obtained around 10 mushroom corals from a friend.   <Cool.> I really did not want them at the moment, (trying to get a hair algae situation under control) but it was my only opportunity. <Understood.> They will not attach anywhere (I assume the hair algae on the rocks is preventing this) and I had to turn my more powerful powerhead off, thus not helping the hair algae situation.   <Should try to keep this running. Just redirect the flow so as not to terrorize the mushrooms.> I would rather not use superglue to attach them.   <Wouldn't be a good idea with these anyways.> I was thinking of getting some large clam shells and trying to attach them.  My question is how would I tie them down to this?  Could I use dental floss?   <Fishing line or thread would be my choice, but if it's the old school floss (just a string) then I don't see why not. Just avoid the scented/treated flosses.> A couple of the smaller ones do not have large enough stalks, would it hurt them to tie around the top of the mushroom?   <I would not want to do this because they naturally expand and contract, but you don't need much stalk to hold it. Read through our Reproduction FAQs on these. Numerous ideas there. If you can't tie them, there's a chance that they could attach themselves (if allowed to stay in one place, not tumbled around by the current). I believe Anthony even had a suggestion about pinning them in place with a toothpick! Whatever works, just make sure to maintain good water quality and suitable environment so they can work with you.> Thank you for your time, I thoroughly enjoy visiting your web site. --Rich <You're welcome. - Josh>

Mushroom coloration 8/31/05 Hi Crew, <Hi Friend> About 6 months ago I bought a small rock (3") with two mushrooms , one red and one green. The green was very bright. The red one started stretching its foot and after a while I had two baby reds. The originals grew to the size of a half dollar. Then I went from a standard fluorescent 18 watt to a 50/50 96 watt about 4 months ago. The green lost most of its color but did keep growing the same as the red. I put it in a shaded area but the color did not return. Then about 2 weeks ago the green started stretching its foot. So I decided to cut off the head. The head shrunk to the size of a nickel but it is now a beautiful dark blue green. What gives? It is only two days and it does not look happy but I really like the color. Any way to keep it that way? I also have another loose mushroom that I picked up at an LFS. It is a brownish grey outside and in the middle it turns to light green and then white as if there is a light on. I have it 3 months and it will not stay put. Most of the time it curls up and ends up rolling around. I am surprised it is still alive. Any suggestions? Thanks <Nothing much you can do other than use certain propagation techniques and hold the mushroom down or simply put it in an area of low water circulation. Regarding keeping the proper coloration of your mushrooms there is not much you can do other than simply making sure your water parameters are up to par, your lighting not overly intense and your regular water changing routine on point. Good luck and continue reading/learning! Ali.>

Corallimorph removal 3/10/05 Dear Anthony <cheers> I have some easy to keep SPS Turbinarias... <Hmmm... yellow scroll species, you mean?> ...in my reef tank, as well as Caulastrea and Montipora. All are placed mid way up my tank with 300 watts of PC lighting. As you know from previous posts I am upgrading to 400 watt metal halides. <sorry mate... I did not recall from the hundreds of e-mails in the last month ;)> I have a massive corallimorph growth on my tank bottom that concerns me for allelopathy. <agreed> The mushrooms are in low flow and all my SPS corals receive moderate to fast flow from powerheads well away from any SPS. No mushrooms are touching but my concern is general chemical aggression by these mushrooms. <understood> I change water weekly and carbon regularly. I am thinking of removing some of the corallimorphs to my refugium or maybe ditching them totally. <a good idea> Anthony suggests using ozone to obviously kill chemical compounds that corals chuck out in an allelopathic manner. I have to disagree with the usage of ozone as it is chemically unstable and in my opinion does the job that can be done by normal aquarium maintenance (or even a weekly zap of a UV sterilizer). <thank you for your input> Is my regime adequate for this coral mix or should I remove the mushrooms? <removal is the best long term solution> Cheers, Jim <Anthony> 

Mushrooms galore WWM I have a 120 reef that I had attempted transition from LPS, soft coral, etc. (a general mix of various types of corals) to SPS and LPS. Unfortunately, the mushrooms in the tank are taking over and stinging some of my Acros. Do you know any way of eliminating the mushrooms, other than removing the rock and replacing with new rock. I have removed some of the rock and placed it in another tank but all the rocks have fairly significant coverage of mushrooms. I have also attempted to scrape, detach, remove and so on, but they are just too numerous.  <Rob, I'm sure there would be no problem trading mushroom rock for nice live rock at your dealer. James (Salty Dog)>

Coral question, actually Corallimorpharians Hey everybody. <"You're a Day Breaker..."> I have a question about coral today. <"Oh boy, about a petfish boy who had a tank...">   I recently decided to try out a small reef system (60 gal) with some beginner corals.  Everything is fine for the most part with the system.  Two mandarin gobies, a cherub angel and a small crew of inverts are the only non-coral inhabitants. My question has to do with mushroom corals, however.  I have a bunch, different colors and textures.   The green mushrooms seem to be always a little stunted. <Mmm, they may be mal-influenced by the others> I have identical mushrooms in other colors that are fine, expanding to a fairly good size, budding (they do literally bud, right? <Yes> I didn't think they were sexual), etc. <Mmm, can be as well>   These green mushrooms always stay much more contracted and very flat to their base, almost as if they are getting too much light.  Do they require less light than the darker variety? <Don't think so> I read they will expand and reach upwards when in need of more light, so is it safe to assume they are having the opposite response because of over-lighting?   <A good guess> Also where is the happy medium for their shape (i.e. reaching is not enough light, flattening is too much... should they be more frilly and still close to the rock or reaching, but small?).  Sorry about my fantastic coral vocabulary.  Like I said, I just started and I haven't really worked out the appropriate descriptive terminology yet.  I hope I have painted a vivid enough image of the situation to help you. Thanks for all your help! Reuben <Have you read through our Corallimorph files? Please do: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marine/inverts/index.htm Bob Fenner>

Funny mushroom tentacles and feeding candy corals Hi I just set up a 26 gal reef tank about a month ago.  I went to my LFS and purchased a small mushroom coral and a small red mushroom which was attached to a very small candy coral.  Now the mushroom coral is doing ok and the little red mushroom looks good, but it appears to have some tentacles growing from underneath it!? << On a mushroom?  I wonder if it is spreading skin to propagate. >>  The tentacles are very thin white strands with a little black spot on each strand.  Is this part of the mushroom or a bonus critter that hitchhiked with him??  With my horrible description is there any chance that you know what it is?? << Well it isn't anything to worry about.  Do the strands move?  If so I'll say it is a hitchhiker, if not then I'll say it is part of the coral. >> My last question is I read that I should feed the candy coral a few times a week but I have a lot of little white bugs in the tank (copepods maybe??) would this be food for the candy or what could I feed it?? << Well mainly feed it lots of light.  I don't think micro shrimp will be consumed by candy corals, I think something like phytoplankton and Cyclop-Eeze are a better choice. >> Ok I lied one more question should I only feed the candy at night when its tentacle like things are out?? << I would feed it during the day.  It will get use to it and often times extend tentacles during the day. >> Thanks so much for all your help!! Tammy

Out of control mini mushrooms hi, first of all great book bob. << I agree it is. >> I have some "mini mushrooms" that are becoming a problem. << Really, send them to me, I'll take them. >>  the largest are about 1/8 an inch across.  they don't seem to exceed this size.  They look exactly like Discosoma except they are a bit more boxy than round and are brown w/ a yellow speck in the center. so here's my problem, they spread really fast and not like other mushrooms. they pop up and form colonies around the tank randomly. << Pull those rocks out and sell them. >>  when I added a piece of pvc to the tank to feed algae strips to my tang it had at least 20 of these things on it by about 2 days.  when my leathers shed their skin or don't open their polyps for more than a day or so they start to grow these "mini Shrooms" on them, and the leathers don't open until I take the mushrooms off. << Hmmm, now I'm worried.  Not sure what they are, but a picture may help.  Odd that they would be so prolific. >> Do you think these are able to sting my corals? << Sure, just about all corals sting each other.  Usually it isn't enough to worry about. >> I have xenia, and many leathers, along with some Acropora.  all my other corals have stingers  so I am only worried about these. are these common pests?  do they have predators that won't eat similar corals (I also have some yumas and various button polyps)  also here's some other info that might be useful. << I'm not sure what they are, nor how to control them.  I'd stick with manual removal until you hear and see some better/solid advise. >> I have a 125 gallon w/ 3 250 watt MHs.  they seem to grow away from directly under the lights, although do not grow in any shadows (like under ledges) they grow on sand, and mainly areas with less water movement.  the water conditions are perfect- 0 ammonia 0- nitrite, nitrates.  all my corals are thriving.  my KH, ph and calcium are all good.  I use iodine at least once a month, and do regular water changes ( 50 gallons twice a mo.) w/ instant ocean. I have a plenum in my live sand.  I also have two refugiums, an old 40 gal. converted to sump w/ micro and macro algae on 24 hours a day, and a hang on the back CPR refugium on normal hours, with macro algae.  My protein skimmer (don't remember the brand) is extremely efficient, and is (industrial sized) about 4 feet tall.  The temp varies daily from 81 to 98.5. << WHAT?!?!?!?!?!?  Is that a typo???  It must be.  You can't have a daily variance of 17.5 degrees, all the way up to 98.5.  If so, I'm amazed anything is living. >>      I know that feeding brine shrimp promotes Aiptasia, I do this frequently, and my Aiptasia went out of control until I got some sea slugs (Berghia verrucornis).  are there sea slugs that will eat these? << Doubtful, because I haven't heard of any. >>     do you think they are broadcast spawning, or just de-attaching themselves from the rocks, floating around and forming new colonies? << Not broadcast spawning.  Although, I still don't know what it is that we are talking about. >> any help is greatly appreciated, as I have been researching this with no real clues for quiet a while.     also if these are pests, do you think it would be safe for me to trade frags with others? << I don't see real reason to be worried, but they do seem quite prolific.  I'd hesitate, but still grow them. >> <<  Blundell  >>

RICORDEA QUESTION 7/29/04 Hello WWM crew! <Hi Dennis, MacL here with you this evening.> I have a quick question.  I purchased 4 great blue Ricordea polyps on a reputable online store.  They arrived today and seems to be in good shape.  But I noticed that there was a small (about 1 inch long) strip of Ricordea flesh just floating about in the delivery bag.  Should I place this small piece of Ricordea into the tank as well or should I just throw away the small piece? <Personally I would try to attach it to something.> Will that piece regenerate into a full polyp or is it a dying piece that will pollute the water (increase nitrites/ammonia)? <I always try to give tiny pieces of things a chance. However if your tank is very tiny it might be best to not take the chance.> Thank you very very much for all your help, guys!   -Dennis

Mushrooms growing in the sand - 4/12/04  A few of my Ricordea have moved off the rock to the sand bed. Do I just leave  them there or move them? <Are they attached to the sand bed? If they are sitting loose in the sand bed keep an eye on them so that they don't blow under some rock work or into another coral. Otherwise leave them be, in my opinion ~Paul>  Misty

Excess mushroom growth how do I control or get rid of green striped mushrooms that took over 80% of my rock in my reef. <manual extraction for those present (chisel placed at the base pops them right off the rocks) and be sure to limit the excess nutrients that are going into the tank to prevent future blooms of them (improve your skimmer performance, do more water changes, and feed more carefully.... like not throwing frozen food in without thawing and decanting/draining away the pack juice which feeds nuisance grows in tanks like this). Anthony>

Bi-Color Blenny Bothering Shrooms - 2/2/04 Hi. Thanks for all you support in the past. <Thank you for being part of it all> New problem {haven't had one in a long time thanks to your crew :>). <Great to hear> I have a 55 gal with about 40-50 lb. live rock assorted mushrooms on rocks and polyps feather duster yellow tailed damsel (2) false perks blue legged and red legged hermit crabs a pincushion urchin and my new addition of a BI colored blenny. So cute. <Agreed> Problem the blenny. Has his spot in one of the rocks and swims back and forth between his spot and my purple mushroom rock. Just sits there swims away and back again. <Normal behavior> the problem is all of a sudden my mushrooms are not opening up some seem to be missing where he sits. <Likely he "bothered" them away, they detached and are free floating looking to attach somewhere else. There is a small chance they have been consumed.> the bigger ones on the side of the rock are still there and still open up full but I cant seem to find the others. <Look around as they are there but you never know with this fish. They have been known to have tendencies sometimes to eat invertebrates and corals.> He doesn't seem to be eating them or picking at them. <Agreed> its just on the purple mushrooms he enjoys sitting on. <Hmmmm> I moved the rock to the bottom of the tank in the sand bed hoping he would find a better spot but he just followed it down there. <Weird. I have not heard of them eating these mushrooms before. There are reports of them nipping at clams and other corals, but mushrooms are so noxious.> I was going to try to remove the mushrooms off this rock and try to propagate them to some small pieces of dead coral and set them somewhere else and give him back his rock. <Worthy of a try> am I doing the right thing or just sit back and watch this catastrophe happen? <No way. Empowering yourself is the right decision. read about the Bi-color blenny here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ecseniusblennies1.htm  ~Paul> Thanks a million. Misty

Mushroom lighting - 2/3/04 Hi. I have 125 gal. tank. Dimension: 72"L by 18"W by 23"deep. The corals will be placed 19" below the lights (give or take a couple of inches depending on rock height). I need these corals to thrive (nice blue corals). <We all aim for our animals to thrive, me hopes> There will only be blue mushrooms that I grow, I do not intend to get into other corals. <good that you know that, but are you sure?? There sure are a lot of cool corals out there....> I find everywhere general info on lighting for corals but it all varies depending on dimensions of tank. I need best lighting for health, coloration, and reproduction. <Well, continue your education. Keep reading websites, books, forums, reef clubs  to deduct your own best opinion. Find someone (store, reef club, friend) who is having success with these corals and mimic their setup> Currently I have 2-36"L 30 watt NO fluorescents. I need to upgrade these and lighting is definitely not a good subject of mine. <A very important aspect of reefkeeping and one, I suggest, you should become more acquainted with for the future>  What is the best lighting for nice blue mushrooms (Discosoma species) based on these dimensions? <I guess I would go with some T5s or PC maybe. This is not exactly a hard number for success but I would try to get in the range of 4-6 watts per gallon with bulbs in the 10000k range. Do read about the needs of these corals on our site: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/corallim.htm and here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marlgtganthony.htm>  Not too much and not too little. Thank you very, very much. <Hope it helps ~Paul>                                                                                                  mjsalinas

Too many mushrooms #2 - 1/30/04 I read this question as posted...and I too am worried about this. I plan on keeping/have just mushrooms, one leather and one Condy anemone. <OK> Is this ok? <Why not> I would like pretty much like a mushroom garden. I have approx: 120lbs LR right now (slowly buying more) I have 2 (two) 20w high Intensity PowerGlos and 1(one) 20w high intensity Marine Glo (actinic blue). Lights on 12 hours.  The tank is deeper then it is longer, but I know that there is enough light getting to the bottom, as the mushrooms located at the bottom are dividing like crazy, red coralline growth all over the bottom substrate (coarse crushed coral). <Sounds good. The only question is how long has this tank been established and how long have the inhabitants been in the tank?> The leather is at the top of the tank, with the Condy settled in (moved from top level to mid-level by him/herself). Everything seems, looks and smells fine. <great> There have been NO problems, with the Condy even having to "walk" over mushrooms to settle where it has chosen. It doesn't seem to be bothering anyone and is even eating when I feed it. The mushrooms next to it (about two inches away) are growing..  The leather looks ok, with the polyps coming out once in a while, but it looks healthy..  Is there anything wrong with this bioload picture? <Well, depending on how long this has been set up it seems to me if it is not broken then doesn't need to be fixed. Now if this is relatively new, then there is always a chance for error. The lighting seems a little muted (depends on how big the tank is as well) But if it is working or has been working for some time then leave it be. Mushrooms can be pretty toxic but with your inhabitants I think it will likely be fine> As always, thanks for sharing the wisdom. <Thanks for participating ~Paul> Jess

Mushroom question/ID 1/30/04 Thank you very much for your help Adam. This question may be just as simple, but I got to ask. I won this "green mushroom" at the FMAS the other night. I looked on the site in an effort to ID it with little luck. Is it simply another type of simple mushroom or something more like a Ric which is the closest picture I could find. My confusion comes from the bubbly texture of this mushroom versus the smooth of the other. Same lighting requirements for a Shroom like this? And lastly, can you recommend a good book for mushrooms? <Hello again Lanz.  It is a bit hard to tell from your pic, but it is probably Rhodactis or Actinodiscus, and almost certainly not Ricordea.  As I said in our previous exchange, the taxonomy of these critters is sketchy at best, but thankfully the care is the same for almost all of them. The best currently available hobby reference is "Aquarium Corals" by Eric Borneman.  Best Regards.  Adam>

Cnidarian ID 1/30/04 Please help me identify this animal? It seems to live half-buried in the sand, with a sort of crown of tiny tentacles sticking out. During a recent partial water change it became dislodged and this revealed a small, short, sort of squiggly purple body, something like the leathery texture of a sea cucumber, but not as long. It soon covered itself again. The whole thing is maybe 1 cm long and more or less purple, with clear tiny tentacles that have whitish round ends on them. I have made a drawing of what it looks like to me: Sincerely,-Laura Butler <excellent drawing my dear, and if the "balls" on the end of the tentacles are accurate, then it is quite descriptive. It strikes me as being a Pseudocorynactis Corallimorph or kin. It is seemingly anemone like at any rate. A photograph would help me to confirm it if you can provide one. Kind regards, Anthony>

Too many mushrooms or high Alk? 1/30/04 Hi crew,, <Hi Cory.  Adam Here.  I moved some parts of your question around a bit so that the answers stay with the questions.> I have been searching/researching and asking lots of experts this question.  Can you have too many mushroom coral in a system.  I have a 38g tank, established and stable for 6 yrs.  I bought some (6) single, unattached mushrooms from a friend and they have naturally propagated to well over 100. Some larger 5" head, some small .25" most in between. I recently sold 4 rocks to LFS to lower overall count of mushrooms.  As of now, I cannot determine the impact of this. <Congrats on your success!  It is always nice to sell things back to the LFS!> The problem I have is I recently changed PC bulbs.  I went from 10K's to 50/50's.  Now the tank has a sweet smell to it, the mushrooms are not reproducing and I am growing green algae dust by the minute.  I noticed the mushrooms took several weeks to adjust to the new lights. <It sounds like the new lights are probably much brighter than the old ones.  This would explain the algae growth and the response of the mushrooms.> I have a light load in the tank.  Water parameters are:  Am = 0; nitrites = 0; nitrates = <12; Sal = 1.023; Temp = 78F CA =?, Alk = 30 dKH..; I recently have been researching and decided to look into this possible Alk problem.   I add 2 ml Iodine every 3rd day, I dose Kalkwasser 1tsp mixed in tank water 1 time per week; <Kalkwasser should be dissolved in freshwater and added to the tank, never directly to the tank.> RO/DI water exclusively, 5 gal water change every other weekend, Buffer on water changes.  BTW, through minimal testing I found the source of the high Alk, my LFS RO/DI water is 10 dKH before salination or other additives.  I will be switching sources immediately. <First thing...  If your Alk is high, quit adding the buffer <g>!  Also, something is wrong if their RO water has such high alkalinity.  Either it isn't RO, the membrane is bad, the source water is *extremely* high in carbonate hardness or some combination of the above.  I would test both the RO water and your tank with a new kit.  My first hunch is that your test kit is not reading accurately.  Do verify the reading before taking drastic measures.  If it really is that high, water changes performed with normal alkalinity water will be the best way to correct it.> Question -  Do colonies of mushrooms secrete something that is polluting my tank, i.e. causing the sweet smell and the rapid nuisance algae growth.  I test everything I can, I don't know what mushrooms secrete that might be causing this.  Is the elevated Alk contributing to this.  Although, this all seems to have occurred after I changed the bulbs. <You hit the nail on the head.  The lighting is probably responsible for the algae growth and irritation of the Shrooms.  I would correct the alkalinity through water changes which will have the added benefit of reducing your nitrate.  The smell could be from secretions from the Shrooms, but I am not sure (could it be something on the lamps?).> Every suggestion I have had to date is treating the symptoms.  I would like to understand the problem.  <Water changes will help lots here.  Nitrate, alkalinity and metabolites/secretions from the Shrooms will all be reduced.  Look for improvement in the Shrooms with time as the acclimate to the new light and water changes reduce the amount of their own waste that they are living in.>  Any help would be greatly appreciated.  <Hope this is helpful.  Adam>

Too many mushrooms? 1/30/04 Hi crew,, <howdy> I have been searching/researching and asking lots of experts this question.  Can you have too many mushroom coral in a system.   <its a very open ended question... but I'll say yes. Easily, yes. They are very noxious and chemically aggressive (one of the worst) and known to seriously inhibit the growth of stony corals if not outright kill them. As beautiful and hardy as Corallimorphs are... the must be tempered if mixed with other corals/inverts> I have a 38g tank, established and stable for 6 yrs.  I bought some (6) single, unattached mushrooms from a friend and they have naturally propagated to well over 100. Some larger 5" head, some small .25" most in between. I recently sold 4 rocks to LFS to lower overall count of mushrooms.  As of now, I cannot determine the impact of this.  The problem I have is I recently changed PC bulbs.  I went from 10K's to 50/50's.  Now the tank has a sweet smell to it, the mushrooms are not reproducing and I am growing green algae dust by the minute.  I noticed the mushrooms took several weeks to adjust to the new lights.  I have a light load in the tank.  Water parameters are:  Am = 0; nitrites = 0; nitrates = 20; Sal = 1.023; Temp = 78F; I add 1 ml Iodine every 3rd day, I dose Kalkwasser 1tsp mixed in tank water 1 time per week; RO/DI water exclusively, 5 gal water change every other weekend, Buffer on water changes.  Question -  Do colonies of mushrooms secrete something that is polluting my tank, i.e. causing the sweet smell and the rapid algae growth.   <the smell is not uncommon... man marine organisms do this. And it is most often a defensive signal. I recently sniffed a native SoCal Opistobranch that has the pungent fragrance of watermelon when harassed> I test everything I can, I don't know what mushrooms secrete that might be causing this.  Although, this all seems to have occurred after I changed the bulbs.   Every suggestion I have had to date is treating the symptoms.  I would like to understand the problem. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.

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