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FAQs about Light Emitting Diode (LED) Lights for Small (< 40 gal.)Marine Systems

LED Lighting Science/Rationale, LED Lighting for Large/r Systems, LED Lighting Installations, LED Lighting Troubles/Repairs, LED Lighting Manufacturers,

Related FAQs: Metal Halides 1, Compact Fluorescents, Regular Fluorescents, Lighting Marine Invertebrates, LR Lighting, Tridacnid Lighting, Small System Lighting,

Related Articles: TMC's AquaRay MultiControl, AquaBeam 1000 HD Ultra, and AquaBeam 600 Ultra on test. Review By James Gasta, LED Lighting, the New Horizon in Aquarium Lighting? by James Gasta, Switching from Metal Halides to LEDs by Michael Maddox, Orphek's Pr-156 Power Reef LED Pendant, reviewed by James Gasta, Coral System Lighting,


Small Marine Aquariums
Book 1:
Invertebrates, Algae
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
ook 2:

New Print and eBook on Amazon: by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
Book 3:

New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner

LED lighting and Acropora/Reef Lighting 2/25/13
Hello gang.
<Hello Larry>
I bought a Kessil 90 watt fixture the other day to use over metal halides.
The tank is a 29 gallon and I have a few Acropora in there.  I don't know why the polyps are half way out.  Perhaps it's too much or too little light?
<Is likely the change of spectrum and/or an increase in intensity.  Corals should always be acclimated to different lighting technologies.  Please read here.
I've never had LEDs before.  The tank is relatively new, all of the water parameters are fine except for the nitrate is at 5.0 and the KH is around 5.0.
<I would try to get the nitrate down to about 1-2ppm.>
I've noticed the KH on another tank of mine was high in the beginning but came down through time.  I think the reason is that I bought Florida base rock, which is not the live rock that is typically sold for reef aquariums.
This base rock is dry, chalky and white.  Would a KH of 5.0 be harmful to Acropora?
<dKH is a measure of buffers present in seawater and buffers are mostly made up of carbonates which the corals need to build their skeleton.  Without the presence of carbonates, corals cannot grow or build their skeletons.
I would keep your dKH higher than this.  A minimum of 7dKH and a maximum of 12 should work very well.  It's best to monitor the dKH on a weekly basis, especially if there are many SPS/LPS corals present in the system.>
I also have some Zoanthids, Halimeda plant and a gorgonian.
Thank You
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>
L. Splitter
Re LED lighting and Acropora/Reef Lighting 2/25/13

Thanks James. 
<You're welcome.>
I had meant to say that the alkalinity was around 5.0 not the KH.  Would this still be too high for a wild Acropora specimen?
<What kit are you using to measure alkalinity?  Are you measuring meq/l? 
If you are, and I believe you are, you then multiply the meq/l reading by 2.8 to give you dKH.  In your case it is 14dKH, a bit on the high side but not harmful to Acropora or other stony corals.  Do not dose any buffers in the system until the level drops to around 8 or 9 dKH.>
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>
Re LED lighting and Acropora/Reef Lighting    2/27/13

Thanks James
<You're welcome.>
The test kit is made by Salifert and the units are in meq/l.
<I assumed that was the case.  Just multiply your results by 2.8 to get the dKH value.>
What products would you recommend for a 29 gallon reef tank?
<Mmm, why just a 29 gallon tank?>
There are quite a few to choose from.  In the past I've used the buffer and calcium additions from ESV (as well as iodide, magnesium and boron) and two little fishies.  I've used Kent products for trace elements and coral vite.  I also use RO/DI water and use a protein
<The products I like most are:
Brightwell Calcion-P for calcium
Seachem Reef Buffer
Seachem Reef Builder
Tropic Marin Bio-Strontium
Tropic Marin Reef Actif  (NO3/PO4 reducer and also provides food for the corals).  This product works better than
most any other NO3/PO4 reducer I have used in the past and need only be dosed weekly.  Does a great job clarifying the water as well.
For coral maintenance I am using the Red Sea Foundation products but when they are gone I will not use them anymore, too darn many things to dose on a daily basis and very expensive to buy all the components.  I've been hearing very good reports on a AquaVitro Fuel which is an all in one additive for corals (excluding food).  This is the product I am going to try. AquaVitro is a subsidiary company of Seachem. 
thanks again
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>
Re LED lighting and Acropora/Reef Lighting 2/28/13

Thanks again. 
<You're welcome.>
The reason I have a 29 gallon is that it fits in my office pretty nice.
<I did not mean for my statement to come across like that.  Was just that the products would work just as well in any size tank.>
 One other thing is that I had put some bleached coral in my tank that was left over from another tank.  In that tank there was copper, but this piece of coral had been left dry for about 4 years.  There wouldn't be any copper left on this piece of coral would there?
<May be some residual but likely not enough to cause any problems.  Bob may comment here if necessary.
James (Salty Dog)><<Not a worry; as James says, very little Cu here. RMF>>

Lighting for SPS 9/1/12
Dear WWM,
<Hello Bryce>
I recently sent in an email about a pending nano system I would like to set up for frags. It was suggested to me that I use a Ecoxotic PAR38 LED Aquarium Lamp to light the system. I was wondering if this would still apply for trying an Acropora frag, or perhaps a Birds Nest coral. I am also wondering if this type of lighting would be adequate  for anemones.
I wont mix SPS and anemones, but I would like to at least have an idea of whether or not this is a multipurpose light or not really.
<In my opinion, this LED lamp is more suited for highlighting areas in a tank.  It also has a very sharp narrow focus due to the 40 degree lenses used.  This would not be my choice for your needs.   Have you looked at the Orphek PR25?  This LED lamp has more LEDs and the spectrum is tuned for coral and anemone growth.  This LED lamp uses 60 degree honeycomb
reflectors and provides  12" x 12" coverage with the lamp suspended 12" above the water line.  Take a look here.
Orphek's contact email is sales-3@orphek.com>
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>

Lighting Change, for SPS  – 12/03/12

Dear Crew,
So, its getting to be that time of year again when I start to think about improving my reef tank drastically. I have arrived at the idea that I want to try some different types of plating corals, and branching too. Of course
I realize that this means SPS. I also know that there is no way my current four 65watt pc's will be enough to keep them. (two 6500k, and two 10k) I don't want to go to metal halide at this time, but instead would like to go with T5. I found a six 54 watt bulb fixture which I fancy. Firstly, would this be progresses or regress in the direction I wish to go?
<Nominal, a few tens of percent forward>
 Secondly, assuming it is progress which may be a jump in and of itself; what combination of bulbs would you recommend? I was thinking: 2 Coral Plus (
and 4 Midday Sun (
<These would be fine>
I likely would want to try some plating Monti's, Birds Nest, Pocillopora, and of course Staghorns. Now, assuming that the purchase would be regress;
would it be better to save my money and buy a metal halide later?
<For your size system... Mmm, no; I'd save and jump to LEDs. For (much)
larger systems, an intermediate choice at this time might well be MHs>
 I apologize if this message was slightly unorganized, but I felt that it was
best to send you the links to the exact bulbs.
<No worries. Bob Fenner>
Re: Lighting Change, /SPS  12/3/12

<Big B>
If then, this wouldn't actually be what I consider measurable progress, and instead you recommend LEDs I have a few questions. Firstly, if I have a basic understanding of PAR then, PAR of 100 is natural sunlight correct?
<Mmm, a bit more involved than this...>
This is unrelated at this time but relates to the next question:
This is advertised to have a PAR of 38. Which is significantly lower than 100, am I looking at the wrong type of bulb or would this be sufficient?
<How to put this? One needs, wants to have the registration/measure of 100 PAR or more "at the site" of the coral/s themselves... so you need to start w/ more at the surface total>
The high light Acros would be within 8 inches of the surface. I am assuming that multiples would have to be purchased, but what number would be appropriate for a standard 55 gal LPS, SPS reef? What distancing is best for this type of lighting?
<Have you seen James articles re LEDs on WWM? Am referring you to him here.
Re: Lighting Change, /SPS /JamesG    12/4/12
<<Hello Bryce.  Bob asked me to give my input on your lighting query.  I will clear up your understanding of the PAR 38 lamp.  In this case, PAR 38 has nothing to do with actual PAR (Photosynthetic Available Radiation). 
Instead it means "Pressed Glass Aluminized Reflector" or "Parabolic Aluminized Reflector" depending on who you ask.  I prefer the later.  The 38 means eights of an inch just like T5 where the 5 means 5/8" of an inch. 
In the PAR 38 lamp it means the lamp measures 38 eights of an inch or 4 3/4" in diameter.  There are also various sizes and styles of "PAR" lamps.>>
<Big B>
If then, this wouldn't actually be what I consider measurable progress, and instead you recommend LEDs I have a few questions. Firstly, if I have a basic understanding of PAR then, PAR of 100 is natural sunlight correct?
<Mmm, a bit more involved than this...>
<<PAR and CRI is not to be confused.  Natural sunlight has a Color Rendering Index of typically 100.>>
This is unrelated at this time but relates to the next question:
This is advertised to have a PAR of 38. Which is significantly lower than 100, am I looking at the wrong type of bulb or would this be sufficient?
<How to put this? One needs, wants to have the registration/measure of 100 PAR or more "at the site" of the coral/s themselves... so you need to start w/ more at the surface total>
The high light Acros would be within 8 inches of the surface. I am assuming that multiples would have to be purchased, but what number would be appropriate for a standard 55 gal LPS, SPS reef? What distancing is best for this type of lighting?
<<This will depend on the types of corals that will be kept.  If SPS, than I would recommend a minimum of three of the "PAR 38 LED Lamps".  For the cost of those you would be much better off with a LED Pendant which will put out much more PAR and have a spectral curve closer to the PUR range.  You may want to read a couple of articles I wrote a
while back to help you better understand PAR/PUR and spectral wavelengths. 
These links will take you to them.
James (Salty Dog)>>
>Thank you James. B<

LED's and Acropora/Reef Lighting 1/14/13
Dear Crew (likely Bob, or James),
<Hello Bryce, it will be James today.>
As I already informed you I set up a 20 gal. reef for SPS. I lit it with a Kessil A150W LED Sky Blue (10k). I recently did a water change and discovered that 5 gal. is a ton, I think it would be better to do 2.5 gal a week.
<I agree.>
I had the live rock stacked in a way that would bring corals within 6.5 inches of the surface, This wouldn't leave much room for growth, and so I was curious how far down in the water column SPS/clams could be placed?
The sand bed to surface is 14 inches, and the light is 6 inches from the surface. Most of the rock would put the corals closer to 10 or so inches below the surface if stacked flat along the bottom, but this doesn't allow for places to hide for inverts and pending goby. I also was curious as to the typical growth patterns of branching Acropora, and Acropora millepora.
I do not recall these as being overly aggressive as far as tentacles, or toxin release goes, but obviously they shouldn't be allowed to touch each other. I suppose the question reduces to: How much space should be left between these two colonies?
<Is really your call here.  I've had two colonies that grew into each other with no allelopathic issues.  Most hobbyists trim the corals before it gets to that change.>
The acro's should also be fed small planktonic foods, if I recall. Due to this, would Kent ZooPlex or Micro-Vert be useful to these species?
<May help some but I have never feed Acropora/Staghorn type corals.  Most of their food is obtained by photosynthesis although maintaining trace elements is helpful.
AquaVitro, a premium line from Seachem makes an excellent product called AquaVitro Fuel which is enriched with amino acids.  Reports I have heard state the product works very well.  Might want to check it out here.
Also, is my light strong enough for Derasa/Crocea/Squamosa Clam(s)? From what I have seen it should be sufficient for Derasa, and Squamosa but I am skeptical with the Crocea.
<Should be fine with the Crocea as long as the clam isn't resting on the bottom.  One source tells me that PAR readings on this fixture that were taken on the sand bed in a 29 biocube read a little over 100 with the lamp placed six inches above the water surface.
One of the downfalls with multichip designs is that there is a decrease in quantum efficiency as the chip size increases. The trade off is you get better color mixing with no hot spots.  Why Kessil calls their pendant an A150W is unknown to me.  I could find nothing on their site that mentions that it is equivalent to a 150W HQI lamp in terms of PAR.  I'm not degrading the pendant in any way, it is a decent fixture for the money but it does have its limitations.>
I suppose that this is quite a bit of information for one email, but I do not with to embark on this road uninformed. 
<No, the more pertinent info you furnish usually results in a more detailed answer.  James (Salty Dog)>

Anemone Lighting 11/4/11
<Hello Ken>
I have a Biocube 29 with stock lighting and had a question about the light required for a Long Tentacle or Sebae Anemone.
<Your tank is a bit small for keeping this anemone alive long term.>
I don't want to take off the hood and have a metal halide lamp because of heat and evaporation issues. I was looking into LEDs and found the Panorama Pro LEDs. I was wondering if these would be sufficient for an anemone in my tank and if so, how many I would need.
<You would need at least six of these and the anemone would have to be placed in the upper third of the tank. See Ecoxotic's Coral Placement Guide here.
http://www.ecoxotic.com/community/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/CoralPlanningMap.pdf . This anemone would require the same light intensity as a Crocea or Maxima Clam.>
Each one has 12 bulbs for a total of 19w. This seems low but I have read that they have very high PAR values. If these would work would you suggest adding one (or more) to my existing 72w of pc light or replacing my stock lights completely with the LEDs.
<I would rather see you go with a Bubble Tip Anemone which can survive on less light and is much more hardy than the Long Tentacle Anemone. Adding two of the Panorama Pro LEDs to your existing lighting, preferably the 12K or the combo 12K/455nm.>
How many of these fixtures would I need and would I also need to add reflectors, stunner strips, etc.
<The reflectors/optics are built in to the LED fixture. Stunner strips won't do much for photosynthesis, generally just used for color pop.>
Any advise would be greatly appreciated.
<May want to read here.
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>

Lighting, T 5 lamp sel., LEDs... 1/19/11
Hi Crew,
<Hello Sam.>
I have an Aquapod 24 gallon with a glass top and 96W of T5's. The bulbs are 2 daylight and 2 actinic and I have LPS only, Acanthastrea, candycanes, hammers, torches and a very large Trachyphyllia. The next time I change bulbs should I leave it as is or go for all daylight.
<Most will not like the look of all daylight, not blue enough.>
My corals seem ok but for the most part they do not grow new heads. I feed them at least once a week-finely chopped silversides. I don't notice the blue that much except when I have the daylights turned off which is the last 2 hours of my lighting time.
<Turn off just the actinics to get an idea of what all daylight would look like.>
And it does look very different at that time, but everything starts getting smaller. Can I get the blue effect with LED's.
<Sure, that is another way to go. All daylight with the T5s and blue LED's. You could just order two new daylights and then play with them along with what you already have to see what look you like. One actinic and 3 daylights will increase your lighting a good bit while still giving you the actinic effect. Do realize the placement of the actinic can make a big difference too. You will usually notice the actinic much more when placed towards the front of the tank where you view it than you would towards the back.>
<Welcome, Scott V.>

Addition Of LED Lighting and Adding 10,000k PC/Reef Lighting/Acanthastrea 4/6/10
Hi guys,
<Hello Jason>
I am thinking of doing a retrofit on my Oceanic Biocube (29 gallon). My questions are:
1. What do you think of Panorama LED Retrofit Module (believe the maker is Exotic)?
<I have no experience with the new LED systems although I am hearing good reports regarding their use.
Would be best to post this question on one of the BB's where you will get input from actual users.>
I am looking to add 2x453/nm on each side of the PC fixture.
2. Doing this, I would like to take out the actinic PC and replace it with another 10,000k PC. I read quite a bit about the hobby, but one thing that always confuses me is the lighting. I don't want to torch my coral. Is this too much having two 10,000k PC's??
<Absolutely not. Most Acanthastrea are tolerant of diverse conditions and can thrive in strong or subdued lighting.
Be forewarned that they are voracious predators with strong nocturnal feeding responses and must not be placed near other sessile animals.>
3. I would like to start adding Acan's to the tank. Right now I only have soft corals (Leather, zoo's). I keep reading that they require only moderate lighting. With the lighting I described above, would you feel (only asking your opinion of course) that I would be able to sustain them in a 20" deep tank (I want to have the Acan's on the sand bed).
<You should be fine here with this type of coral.>
I apologize ahead of time if I could find these answers somewhere on your site.
<Mmm, they are Mussids and can be found here.
You may want to read here as well.
I did look through your lighting section, but in addition I have also read some books that somewhat put more emphasis on actinic lights than on the 10,000k's. Some also shun LED lighting while others love it. So I just felt I would save time and ask you straight.
<Do read the links.>
Thank you for any help you can offer on this matter.
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>

12 Gallon nano and LEDs 2/6/08
First I want to be the ten zillionth person to thank everyone involved with this website. It has been a priceless resource. (If Mr. Fenner or Mr. Calfo respond to this question I'm grateful for all that you have done for our hobby and for your literature? several of your books permanently reside on my nightstand!) Now, on to the business? I have been in the hobby/cult for over three years. I initially set up a 12 gallon Nano Cube DX due to necessity (college dorm room) and finances (college). To say the least, I learned quickly that I was embarking on a challenging task of maintaining a nano reef. Well, after extensive research, heartaches, headaches, many expletives, and the installation of a 4 gallon refugium, I had a thriving system. Then after a year and a half, everything in my tank died? well everything but my pair of ocellaris clowns. All my inverts, corals, and macroalgae gone <Almost a universal experience, re-experience with these small systems... Yours "lasted" far longer than any measure of central tendency> and I couldn't figure out why. After two weeks, and what I thought was a power outage, I found the root of my demise? a broken glass heater that had been broken for at least a few weeks prior to its discovery (all of the metal (copper) internals were missing (dissolved?). <Yikes!> I tried to revive my tank but my efforts were fruitless. &#61516; I disassembled my system, gave away my clowns, and packed away my hopes of having a successful reef system along with my nano cube. Well, after a year and a half of having this huge void in my life (yeah? it was that bad), I have decided to setup my nano reef again. Well, I'm now in graduate school and really not in any better situation than I was three years ago financially? so I'm setting up my 12 gal Nano Cube again? I keep telling myself that I am going to do it ?right? this time. My ultimate goal of this system is to have a pair of clowns and some easy corals. The tank is currently sitting empty awaiting a fresh shipment of Marshall live rock. I have made many mod.s to the 12 gallon tank to better meet the needs of a reef... I have already made and installed DIY 9 gallon upstream style refugium. The only aspect that I haven't flirted with is the lighting (the current system includes two 24 watt 50/50 PCs)? I have a surplus of 24W PC lights that are around 10 to 14 months old and am in the market for new lights (which by the time I pay shipping usually runs close to $50 bucks a year). I don't want to opt of a HQI or MH fixture for monetary reasons plus I like having a full canopy over my tank. My local fish guru is currently designing LED light systems that he has measured to compare with metal halides but his systems utilize at least 25 or so LEDs per unit and costs well it makes me shiver just trying to type it! This got me thinking and researching like it was the day before a thesis paper was due. I have found that I can make a DIY 12 watt LED system that will fit in the existing canopy of my tank and save me money (assuming I can get 50,000 hours of useful life from the LEDs). This will be made up of twelve 1-watt LEDs at 50 to 60 lumens each. From my research, I think I should install ten 1 watt 10K white LEDs and two 460nm blue as well as an additional 1 watt 460nm moonlight that will be on continuously. So the final ratio of white to blue is almost 3:1. I know there are mixed feelings about LED lighting and that there are a lot of other external factors that will determine if this would be adequate. I plan on eventually having a few corals such as pulsing xenia, star polyps, maybe an anemone <Mmmm, if so... a cloned Entacmaea> for my ocellaris clown (if an anemone exists that would survive in a nano? any suggestions?), <See WWM> and maybe some Ricordea. After all of this ... would this scheme of LEDs (or any scheme involving 12 1-watt LEDs) be sufficient for the proposed corals in my 12 gallon nano? <Mmm, can be made to work> Also, would this LED design be adequate to produce and sustain coralline algae growth? <This rhodophyte groups species get by on far less light than photosynthetic Cnidarians> Again I can't thank you guys enough at WetWebMedia for your hard work, patience, and dedication to this exciting passion of ours. Sincerely, Matthew Weekley <Glad to share. Bob Fenner>

Lighting Experiment 6/9/06
Hi Folks... <Hi Mark> I'd like to start by thanking you for setting up and maintaining this invaluable resource on the web. It has helped my girlfriend and I get off to a good start in the world of fish/reef keeping. Now on to a few questions I was hoping you could help me with. I have a spare 20G marine tank that I wish to use to do some controlled lighting experiments. I plan to light this tank with a matrix of 100 high output (24,000 MCD) white LEDs, placed just above the waterline to light the tank. I intend to place one coral on the bottom of the tank and track its progress over the period of one year. I was hoping that you could recommend to me a couple of readily available, "medium" light requirement corals, that I could use for my test. Preferably I would like to use one that would provide me with a definitive visual indicator that it is receiving adequate lighting (colour temp/intensity/duration). <Mark, not so sure this experiment is worth doing. I'm thinking the high output LCD's, the type they use in "shake and shine" flashlights are only one watt, so 100 of these is only 100 watts of lighting, and at about 10 bucks per LCD with Fresnel lens...Mmmmm, I don't know. But if you want to try this, I'd recommend yellow polyps. Do keep us posted with your experiment if you decide on doing this.> Thank you for your time. <You're welcome. James (Salty Dog) Mark
Re: Lighting Experiment (Follow up) 6/9/06
Hi James... <Mark> Thanks for the prompt reply. <You're welcome.> Just to follow up, I bought the LEDs in bulk (with no housings or additional hardware) for under $100. I will be mounting them in a sealed custom acrylic housing which I will float on the top of the tank. I'm hoping that the lower wattage output from the LEDs can compensated for by the fact that these lights will be in the water and that they emit a focused beam (compared to CF lights). <Mmmm, interesting.> In regards to the Yellow Polyps you suggested can you tell me what sort of things to look for to indicate whether it is receiving enough light or not, and how long it would take for these symptoms to show?. <Yellow Polyps, thriving well, will always be open during the photoperiod. Under good conditions, multiply quite rapidly. I would look for at least five new polyps per month. If the lighting is insufficient, they are unlikely to open or reproduce.> Thanks for your help. <You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)> Mark

Light Conversation... 8/5/05 Hi Crew, <Hi there! Scott F. here today.> On my 37 gallon Oceanic corner tank a lighting question. I run a 24 inch Coralife 65 watt 50/50 and a 20 inch Coralife 28 watt 50/50. Both on timers, the 28 watt from 7:30 am to 9:30 pm, and the 65 watt from 8:00 am to 9:00 pm. About 30 lbs of mixed liverock, healthy lots of color" coralline" and I keep 4 colors of mushrooms all growing multiplying on there rocks, Recently I built a diy moonlight from 4 Led with a 2600 MCD rating and 468 nm rating. My question is this, can I leave LEDs on 24/7 ? And would any zoos make it with this lighting arrangement. Thank you all very much.. Roger <Well, Roger- I see no reason why you couldn't leave the moonlights on continuously, but I'd personally turn 'em off when not needed. Your lighting could work for many zooanthids, provided their other requirements (i.e.; water quality, flow, temperature, etc.) are met. Good luck! Regards, Scott F.>

Viewing A Reef By The Light of The Moon(light)! Hi guys, I just recently put a black light tube over my 40 gal breeder tank at night for about 15 minutes and was amazed at what I saw! My Rose Anemone had neon orange tentacles and neon green mouth/base area. The Green Star polyps were glowing like nothing I've seen before! Almost as if they were lit from within. Actinic tubes make the Green Stars glow somewhat, but this was amazing! <Yep- those "moonlights" are really cool...They add a whole new dimension of enjoyment for fish keepers> I have some Zoanthids that were closed ( I did this at night) and they opened up to the black light, and they too looked amazing. The coralline algae looks burgundy with some bright neon orange areas, and strangest of all, my purple Condylactis, (I know not right for this tank, but I love totally purple Condys, no problems so far) and it was green! <Trippy!> Totally fluorescent green! I did notice that the water looked cloudy with this light, so I'm assuming it was highlighting bacteria in the water column that otherwise can't be seen. <Hnmm...possible. Or it could be minute planktonic animals or algae in the water column> How exactly does a black light do this? Do actinic tubes go into the same UV range as a black light? <Wow- great question...I'm gonna throw this one out to other Crew members who may be better versed on the characteristics of light and bioluminescence...> Is this dangerous to any inhabitants? Are black lights similar in spectrum to a UV sterilizer? <Gosh- again, that's a good question. I know that some of the bulbs sold as "black lights" are, indeed Philips actinic bulbs. Not always, but I have seen this before.> Thanks for any info, this was just really interesting, made all my aquarium inhabitants look like one of those black light posters at night! Thanks again, Dennis <It's really a cool thing to check out your tank under black light or the new LED "moonlights" now on the market. Enjoy this natural alternative to the Lava light! Regards, Scott F.>

Using fibre optics to light a reef tank Hi <Hello there> Firstly, thanks for the great website. I'm quite interested in using fibre optics to light my tank and I was wondering if you think is would be something worth trying? Regards, Tony Davey <Ah, yes. Some folks are working out the bugs (intensity, quality of light, cost issues) as we key and read... for pet-fish applications. Definitely worth trying. Bob Fenner>

Small Marine Aquariums
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Small Marine Aquariums
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