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FAQs about Light Emitting Diode (LED) Lights for Marine Systems: Science, Rationale 

FAQs on: LED Lighting for Small Systems (< 40 gal.s), LED Lighting for Large/r Systems, LED Lighting Installations, LED Lighting Troubles/Repairs, LED Lighting Manufacturers,

Related FAQs: Metal Halides 1, Compact Fluorescents, Regular Fluorescents, Lighting Marine Invertebrates, LR Lighting, Tridacnid Lighting, Small System Lighting,

Related Articles: TMC's AquaRay MultiControl, AquaBeam 1000 HD Ultra, and AquaBeam 600 Ultra on test. Review By James Gasta, LED Lighting, the New Horizon in Aquarium Lighting? by James Gasta, Switching from Metal Halides to LEDs by Michael Maddox, Orphek's Pr-156 Power Reef LED Pendant, reviewed by James Gasta, Coral System Lighting,

LED lighting       12/21/15
Hello WWM Crew,
Thanks for all the great reading so helpful. I have a question about lighting and would like your opinion, I’m not sure if my LFS is just trying to sell something 3 times the price. On a 72”tank 26”deep would 2x36” Current USA Orbit LED lighting with 144 led’s, 72 daylight and 72 actinic on each fixture total of 36 watts each, and 4x36” T5 HO 10,000K daylight be enough for various soft corals. My LFS said I would have to go up to the USA Orbit Dual Pro for corals. I value your expert opinion. Thanks is advance.
<Mmm; well.... depends (as usual...) on what you mean by "corals"; where they're placed, and what you want them to do mostly (there are a few other more minor considerations). Allow me to expand. There are some "low/er light intensity" stinging-celled groups; like Alcyoniids/soft corals, Pennatulaceans/sea pens.... and even amongst stony corals; typically the fleshier so-called large polyp corals are less light demanding (not all) than the small/er polyp species; notably the Pocilloporids, Poritids and Acroporids.... then again, not all of these share the same light-adaptability/use/tolerance.
Re the placement; of course one can "mount" their organisms "up higher" in the water column; adjust the PAR/PUR exposure therein.
And the note concerning "what you want"; refers to whether you'll be happy w/ a slower boat under wind power, or that you prefer the fast motor boat of high energy input; along w/ the necessities of current/circulation, alkaline earth and other nutrient application.
To sum up: You COULD get by easily with the first fixture here; and IF you wanted more color, growth (with the concurrent maintenance mentioned); you could use the second.
Understanzee? Bob Fenner>

LED Technology 2/25/13
Hello Bob/Crew,
This is an interesting video although a bit lengthy, but shows where LED technology is headed.
<Thank you for this link. BobF>

Changing to LED 5/22/12
Dear Crew,
I have read many of the questions re: LEDs on your site ( keep up the great work!) but still have some left.
I have a 90 gal reef tank (surface area 16 x 47 ", about 18 " to reach bottom  gravel)  currently lit with  4x  48"  VHO (FR40 T12 actinic and super actinic, 2 each)  lighting and want to upgrade to LED. I would like to support medium light- requiring  corals (where can I get a classification for corals for the aquarium with light requirements?)
<Etailers such as Foster/Smith will indicate light requirements of the corals they sell.>
How many LED watts do you recommend?
<Watts isn't the factor but PAR in the PUR range is what you should be looking at.  A PAR level of 150 at the bottom of the tank will provide enough upward gradient to easily satisfy the corals you want to keep as well as most SPS provided the lighting covers the PUR spectral range.  Most of the better LED companies do concentrate on providing this.>
Any benefit of 3 watt vs. 1 watt LEDs besides less # needed?
<Generally these are for deeper tanks and/or those requiring a high PAR level.  The reflectors used also play an important role in light distribution.>
 and also would like to have non-white LEDs to bring out colors in my fish.
 Do you rec anything else besides blue spectrum ?  ratio of white to blue?
<All blue will not cover the PUR spectral range.  There are different Kelvin temperature LEDs so a ratio would depend on the Kelvin temperature of the white LEDs.  For a ballpark figure, I would want 60% 18K white, 14K for shallower tanks.  One particular company's ratio can be found in this product review posted on our site.
Does the moon light option really benefit the creatures ?
<No physical benefit that I am aware of.>
Does one need to put glass between the fixture and the top of the water?
<All depends on how well the LEDs are protected and/or how high the fixture is above the water.  The other thing to keep in mind is if you have fish that are jumpers such as wrasses.  I use no glass cover on my system, one less thing to clean and much easier to maintain.  I've have a Six Line Wrasse going on six months and so far, so good.>
Would hope to do this on as economical  way as possible.
<You can easily expect to pay over 600 bucks for a good fixture that will provide the necessary PAR/PUR for your size tank.>
thanks ahead for your help.
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>

Are currently available LED designs well researched? 5/22/12
<Hello Dan>
Two years ago I build an LED system (more of a proof of concept design) to prove LEDs would provide lighting that would meet the needs of a coral tank.  I was surprised that 260W of blue, royal blue and cool white LEDs worked better than 1200W of 14,000K MH and ancinic <actinic> VHOs over a 150G system.  I'm between tanks now, and I'm making plans for an 8' long reef tank.  I'm looking to improve my results in the next tank, so I've been doing a lot of reading on photosynthesis and the lighting needs of corals.  It seems that every bit of peer-reviewed data out there is pointing to two things:  Blue light (primarily 400-500nm) is good for growth (probably a photosynthetic adaptation due to the predominantly blue spectrum in water),
<Blue light penetrates the deepest, thus the effect.>
 and red light can cause bleaching or slower growth based on intensity.  My DIY plans will address these factors.
I was able to find this information fairly easily with a few Google searches, so I would imagine that commercial manufacturers of reef lighting systems would want to market systems that provide maximum benefit to the reef aquarists coral growth needs.  I'm seeing a lot of LED fixtures out there using UV, red and even green LEDs in their light fixtures.  Is this based on actual research, or is the reefing community being used as beta testers?
<The UV LEDs being used are high range UVs and are primarily used to bring out the florescence in corals.  The red and green are for color pop and have little to no effect on coral growth.  Most reputable companies choose and combine LEDs of the wavelength that will closely mimic the spectral range of PUR (Photosynthetically Useable Radiation) which is between 400-550nm and 620-740nm.>
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>
Dan in Colorado

Anemone and new LED lighting 4/18/12
<Hello Mark>
I have an established 180 gal tank with a 40 gal sump and another 40 gal along side, it is over 7 years and has been very stable, The water parameters are Calc-400,DKH-10,SAL-1.24.  I have a large Bubble Tip Anemone that is about 5 years old.  She has recently receded into a lower portion of the tank and is showing signs of stress.  Shriveled tentacles and appears to be turning inside out.  I recently changed my lighting from three 175 MH's to three Aquarium Illumination SOL Blues LEDs located 6" above the water line.  I was running them at 45% but after about 4 days the anemone started showing stress.  I have adjusted the lighting down to 35% but I am not sure if It is too much or too little light.
<A PAR meter would indicate if this is so but I would guess 35% would be too low.  When you stated 35%, did you mean you turned the blue down to 35% or the entire system?  I'm not familiar with what their controller is capable of.>
The tank seems less lit than it did before but this may be a function of the blue and royal blue LEDs.
<The Lumens and/or PAR may be high in this wavelength but does not appear intense to human eyes.  Our eyes are most sensitive to light intensities in higher wavelengths.  I would adjust to 85% and gradually increase by one percent daily.>
I also have a Bubble Coral towards the top of the tank that also may be showing signs of stress but it is not as obvious.
<Some Cnidarians will likely need to adjust to this "new light" and it may take some time to do so.  Have you asked Aqua Illumination for their input?>
Thank you in advance for your advice.
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>
Mark Benko

LED for coral growth? 2/25/12
Dear WWM,
<Hello Scott>
I have a question that I can't seem to make sense of.  When I look up PAR per watt, or Lumens per watt, T5's, MH, and LED's all come out in a very similar range.  Older LED's were much lower, but the new ones are catching up.  The question I have is: when people switch from T5 or MH to LED, they use 3 or 4 times less watts of LED's than they used with T5 or MH.  It doesn't make sense to me if the Lumens per watt are the same, then they should use the same wattage of LED's.  I've come up with various answers, but none seem right to me.  Do any of you know the answer to this riddle?
<Because of the LEDs low wattage,  manufacturers do not waste energy producing spectrums that are of no use to corals.  Instead, the spectrum is focused on the nanometer range most beneficial to corals which is called PUR (Photosynthetically useable radiation).  PUR differs from PAR because the basic definition of PAR is any light in a specific frequency range which is 400nm-700nm.  PUR is the usable portion of PAR and falls between two ranges, 400nm-550nm, and 620nm-700nm. 
Different photosynthetic species will have a different PUR range to which they respond and this has much to do with the depth they are found at in nature.   Attached is a spectrograph of what a well designed LED fixture should look like.  It's a very good idea to view spectrographs of LED fixtures before buying to insure the least amount of wasted energy.  If a manufacturer cannot provide one then beware.
Thank you for your time,
<You're welcome.  James (Salty Dog)>
Scott Tomko

Re: LED for coral growth?    2/25/12
Sorry, I forgot to attach the graph, I got sidetracked by our pup coming in the house with muddy feet.  What a mess.
James (Salty Dog)>

Lighting and IDs 1/27/12
Hi Crew,
<Hello Rick>
I am after your opinion about my Lighting - currently I have 3 x 120W banks of LEDs as in the picture attached (LED Current).
The tank seems happy enough although it has only been set up for a few months. All the stock in it are out of several nanos I've had scattered around the house for about 5 years.
I've very good coralline growth in the new tank and bulk live Pods and Mysis shrimp due to the 300Lt fishless sump.
The tank contains a full reef with Live Rock, Fish, SPS and LPS corals.
The water level from where the lights are mounted to the top of the aragonite bed is approx 600mm.
I am a bit concerned I've mucked up the ratios of the LED banks and was after your opinion on light spectrum.
The new banks I'm thinking of building will look like the picture "LED New"
Can I ask your opinion on the light spectrum and ratios I'm considering?
<Sure. The 20K LEDs are not much use for growing corals, at least the corals we commonly keep in our aquaria. I would not waste the energy on these LEDs but direct it toward the usable spectrum need by corals (420-700nm). I would not use any LEDs below 400nm as you are then getting into the UV range which could/can cause molecular damage to some animals in
your system.>
In addition to the lighting configuration I'm considering , I am also planning on building 2 x Black Light bars at 18 Watt each to help fluoresce the tank.
<Would not use this as well as they are well into the UV range and will be hard on the eyes with extended viewing of your aquarium. Depending on the intensity, the black light may even damage your eyes if looking directly at them.
At what Wave length will I be exposing the live stock / bacteria to dangerous levels of U/V radiation?
<Anything below 400nm. UV is in the range of 10-400nm. Below 10nm is the X-Ray spectrum.
Do you think 360nm would be ok, would the 400nm be just as effective, or could I go lower?
<I personally would not use anything below 420nm.>
Two more questions regarding an ID. See picture "ID".
This animal has gotten into my sump obviously through live rock, it doesn't do any damage (except eating the occasional baby Bristle Worm}. The animal lays flat on the aragonite and very quickly closes up as food touches or floats over it. It is an Omnivore as I've seen it eat anything from bits of algae to shrimp. It's had a few goes at larger Bristle worms but lets them go after closing around a portion of them, however, it has no problem chomping up the babies.
<Appears to be a Rock/Flower Anemone, an Actinia of some type. Bob may input here with a more accurate ID.>
The next one is a coral that I haven't found conclusively what it is, It may be some type of brain but the closest pictures I can find suggest a moon coral. I'm unsure where to place it, whether on the aragonite bed or on the live rock. The coral fluoresces beautifully at night under the moon lights and exceptionally with a jigged up 360nm LED.
<Appears to be a Faviid species, possibly a Moon Coral. May want to peruse here.
As always your advise is appreciated.
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>
Rick (who just got his open water license and is about to dive the GBR J )
<Lucky you!>

New LED Lighting 1/4/12
I have read your advice for years and appreciate your guidance. I went from a novice to an advanced aquarist with many inhabitants that I cherish and appreciate on a daily basis.
<Keeps us going!>
I have a very well established reef tank that is a typical 180 long (72"x24"x24"). I had two 400 watt MH lights (14k) and a 250 watt HQI (12k) in the middle. This was accented with 3 4 foot T12 VHO actinics.
Recently, I had a ballast fail on one of the 400 watt halides. I replaced it with a borrowed 250 HQI as a "fix" while I tried to figure out my long term goal. In spite of the advice given by people who may not know as much as they try to say, the 250 seemed inadequate in comparison to the 400 watt light based upon the short lived time I used it as a replacement. All of the foregoing lights were suspended at approximately 15 inches above the water.
<I see>
I house many SPS in many varieties (Monti and Acropora sp. including traditional as well as a rare and exceptionally colorful highly green and purple edged efflo). I am estimating about ten colonies all higher in the water column and some LPS like acans and hammers in the right spots lower in both flow and light. I have been fortunate enough to balance all of this with no issues and exceptional color but limited (thank god) growth.
The LPS (hammers especially) sometimes suffer from low nutrient levels but I have found ways to accommodate their needs.
<All right>
To the point. After the lighting issue, I decided to jump all in into the LED scene and purchased 5 Radion fixtures which I installed over the new years weekend. I believe this may be a bit much, but I care a lot about what I have in my system and many have been with me since day 1 and I am 8 years into the reef I have. I have been running the Radion fixtures on a curve with a 12 hour cycle that maintains an approx 12k spectrum throughout. I ramp up from 10 percent intensity to about 50% for the first 5 hours then maintain it at 50% for 6 hours before a steep decline to no light in the last hour. The polyp extension is good on all of the SPS and everyone is behaving well. My parameters are steady and things seem ok but I have no real guidance on acclimation from MH to LED lighting and I don't want to screw it up.
<Best done, moderated over time w/ measuring device/s... PAR, PUR meter/s.
Have you gone over Antoine's article here:
and the linked FAQs file above?>
I can see a huge difference in the type of light in the tank.
<Seeing is not reliable>
Not just the slight Kelvin difference. The LEDs are very much a different kind of light altogether. They throw some crazy light effects off the blue tips of Acros and just almost tire the eyes with their constant, what appears to be a, flutter or flux (at a loss for what I see, but its definitely different from anything I've seen. I don't recall seeing this on AI fixtures and they are the only other LEDs I've experienced so it may have something to do with the Radions offering more spectrum.
<Mmm, yes; or less actually... and certainly our/human capacity for registering such>
Its really cool to see but, again, it makes me realize I have taken a risk and jumped into something. I am not comfortable putting my tank at any kind of risk at all but I needed a light fix and the timing seemed right.
<Is likely fine... Think on the need/evolution of light-using life... most all are widely photo-adaptive>
To that end, does anything I am currently doing seem wrong in any way and how do I ramp up to more intensity?
<Mmm, adding more energy to the present fixtures (w/in reason) and/or adding more fixtures... ONLY if needed, again as measured by your appreciation and measure of useful photonic energy>
Also, should I even consider ramping up over time or should I leave things the same if it all seems good to go?
<I'd leave as is for now>
I realize I may have more PAR potential than I did before (may being the key because, even with due diligence) I'm the dummy that jumped in without definite knowledge). Given my limited understanding of the use and effects of LED lighting on the reef. Any advice is greatly appreciated and I am stressing that what I have done in the last few days will be determined in a couple weeks (as all things seem to be in my aquarium).
Otherwise, I went from running a 2 degree temp swing running a 1/3 hp chiller and a total of approx 1500 watts of light to a rock steady .2 degree temp variance if that and no chiller with 650 total watts if I run these lights at full intensity.
<Appreciable electricity savings>
I am hoping I am pleased with my electrical bill but I haven't seen one yet and I am hoping I am doing this right. Obviously, with the money spent, the inhabitants are my main concern, however, I feel a bit better about not being as much of an energy hog. Thank you in advance for some guidance on a topic that seems relatively unexplored. This is my first time I have written although I have referenced your great site for years. Perhaps that explains my long windedness but I really want to make sure I get this right and I have no basis for comparison of my approach to what others are doing.
Thank You!
David Salim
<Welcome David. Bob Fenner>

Re: LED Aquarium Light 55X3W.pdf from CIDLY LED 12/17/11
Hi Bob
How are you?
I get the mail from James but i can't reply him because of the bad connector.
Will you please forward the mail to him? Here is the mail below.
Glad to hear from you.
<Hello Ranson>
We would like to the reviews about our light in your magazine although we never did this before.
Here the Lumen is 5040 lumen.
<Mmm, if this is true, this is not enough light to support coral growth. Would have to be in the
20,000+ range. I would not be interested in evaluating/reviewing your fixture if your lumen value is correct.>
Sorry what the PUR value means? It means PAR value?
<No, PUR means Photosynthetically Useable Radiation. PUR differs from PAR because the basic definition of PAR is any light in a specific frequency range. PUR is the usable portion of PAR which photosynthetic life respond to, and different photosynthetic invertebrates can have a different PUR range to which they respond to.
PUR is a much more useful way to compare LED lighting than any other method providing the intensity is there (lumens). Most LEDs emit excellent PAR, but in many cases only 50% of the PAR is PUR. The higher the PUR the more effective the LED will be for supporting photosynthetic life. PAR value is only useful if the frequency range of the light falls into the PUR range.>
Sorry don't have the spectrograph of the nanometer range.
<Is very useful to have. I myself would not buy a LED fixture without seeing the spectrograph.>
One last thing, I fail to find the Reviews on the TMC LED in your website below.
Will you please give me more info about the led lights?
<Go here and scroll down to WWM Digital Magazine and click on it, then click latest issue.>
Best Regards
<And to you. James>

12k led lighting 12/8/11
So I've been looking through your web site for some time now trying to find out information for the most part I am able to find what I need and haven't had the need to ask anything directly. I have a big 200 gallon tank 5 feet long 2 feet deep about 18inches wide I believe, with the rest of the water volume being held in a built in sump running along the back. Currently its a fowlr tank that I'm looking in to upgrading to a reef tank I'm currently considering getting some Ultra Bright Reef Aquarium l.e.d.s (20" long and 12k spectrum) and am wondering if these l.e.d.s need supplementing in the form of actinic lighting?
<Mmm, no; but I'd look into TMC's product line instead. Read here:
and the linked files above>
My light system is currently 4 t12's 2 feet long with two blubs being black lights and two being 10k Coral life bulbs. I inherited the tank from my dad about 15 years ago or so and it sat in my house till i was able to set it up again about 5 months ago. With the current set up my dad was able to keep an Anemone for about 2 years until he passed my brother who was living with him at the time sold all the fish and gave me the tank. I know that the bulbs are out dated and am looking into leds for the energy savings. My plan was to get 2 of the 12k's ( and 2
470nm blue strips per light for a total of 8 led strips. would this cause bleaching/be excessive?
<Do you already have/house photosynthates here? Should be fine w/ acclimation of your existing photosynthetic life... Read here re:
Thanks in advance for your help love your web site
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
Re: 12k led lighting 12/8/11

Wow thanks for the quick reply Bob. I currently do not house any photosynthetic organisms, as I was told by my lfs that I would need "more intense lighting like that of m.h. to keep them alive long term."
<Mmm, not a fact... depends on what species... other sources of nutrition often>
As I don't feel its fair to keep them if I'm just going to starve them of the needed light. I did inform him of the nem my dad was able to keep till his passing and the lfs guy said that it was probably a low light requiring species.
That seemed plausible to me at the time. Thanks again for the info and quick reply. Ill keep reading your site as it if full of useful information.
<Ahh, this is best. Cheers, BobF>

TMC Ultra 1000HD LED 12/2/11
Hi Bob,
After using these LEDs for a couple of months now I believe they will support most, if not all photosynthetic animals. A light loving Tridacna crocea (pic attached) has been doing great the last two months under this lighting.
<Thank you for this. BobF>

Re: Lighting, Skimmers'¦and a dearth of info provided -- 11/15/11
Ah okay, as for the lighting I am lighting a 20 gallon tall. Will the TrueLumen LED light strip 12000k be good?
<<Not for more than providing some visual enhancement'¦these units appear to be no more than 'moonlights'>>

What corals could I grow under this light?
<<Nothing requiring any kind of PAR value. You really do need to do some reading/research. Start here and do also read among the links in blue (http://www.wetwebmedia.com/corllgtg.htm). In my opinion, you would be much better off with a suitable T5 or CF fixture for this size tank. Even MH (70W/150W), if the desire is for high-light requiring organisms>>
Would a Biocube protein skimmer be good for this system?
<<Not in my opinion (too small/too short a reaction chamber)
'¦though likely better than nothing, if only to provide some oxygenation/degassing. An AquaC Remora would be a much better option. And as before, please read here'¦and among the associated links (http://www.wetwebmedia.com/proskimrart2.htm). EricR>>

LED Lighting 11/3/11
Hi Crew and to my favorite responder Salty dog,
<Hello Sam, and Salty is with you today.>
I did some reading on WWM about LED's but the articles I read did not have dates. This technology is changing so fast I really think they should be dated.
<I agree, if it's an article I have written, let me know and I can give you a date it was penned.>
One general question I have is regarding the life of a bulb.
<They are actually semiconductors, no filaments.>
They are advertised as lasting for 50,000 hours. But that is when they burn out. How long are they good for your corals. I know it depends on the brand but is there any known range between best and worst.
<Because LEDs have no filaments to deteriorate from heat, Kelvin temperature and intensity are said to remain constant over the life of the LED. I doubt if anyone has ever tested an LED in real time for 50,000 hours. The rating is likely based on engineering data.>
Or do you wait till your corals tell you there is no enough light. I have a 24 gallon Aquapod with a variety of LPS. About six weeks ago I bought an LED fixture that has 3w CREE lighting for a total of 72w half white and half blue. Previously I had 96w T5.It really looks nice. It has two power sources each controlling half the lights. One controls the two outer lines and the other the two inner lines. So far I have one on 10 hours a day and the other only 5 hours. Most of my corals seem to like it. One open brain went from bright red to hot pink and I am afraid it is too strong so I moved it down to the bottom which is where they belong anyway. I am not sure if I want to extend the 5 hours of the second set. Any opinions?
<LED lighting can be tricky to the eye. Because quality manufacturers do not want to waste the energy on unneeded spectrums, the LEDs are generally bin picked to provide a range from 450-700 nanometers which is considered photosynthetic usable radiation (PUR), the range in which photosynthetic animals best respond to. This is also the range in which our eyes are not as sensitive to brightness but the LEDs are indeed very bright in that spectrum, we just do not notice it as we would with T5, HQI, and MH lighting. I can attest this with my own system. I replaced six 39 watt T5 HO lamps with three 30 watt LED tiles. The T5s appeared very bright compared to the LEDs, but an actual lumens measurement of the LEDs delivered 27,900 lumens compared to the 19,135 measurement of the T5s. So in some cases, depending on the power output of the LED fixture, it may be beneficial to acclimate your animals to the new light by gradually increasing the photoperiod a little bit every day.>
The other question is the optics. I don't know if I should use them or not.
So far I have them on. As I understand it they focus the light more. But since this is so strong for my tank maybe it would be better to diffuse the light.
<You can try this but a lot depends on the depth of your tank which in your case it may be better not to use the optics.>
Most of the fish took a few days to get used to it but my Royal gramma is behaving very strange. He used to swim all over. Now that there are shadows he pretty much keeps to the shadows and ventures to the lighted area only once in a while.
<Royal Grammas do not favor intense light to begin with so this behavior isn't out of the norm considering the increase in intensity.>
He was boss of the tank but now the other fish seem to like it that he keeps himself secluded.
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>

LED Spot lighting 10/29/11
Hello, it has been a while since I have asked a question directly. Most of the time I find the answers to my questions in the vast amount of information you have built over the years on your website. It truly is an asset.
<Ah yes>
My question today has to do with leds for a sparsely populated reef tank. I have a crocea clam that is about 5 years old now and has increased in size considerably over time under 175 watt 10k halides. It is by far, the most light demanding specimen in the tank. I have recently moved into an Incorporated town with ridiculous electric rates! I am an avid diyer so want to try my hand at an led fixture. Using known, quality products to create a light that fits my needs. My tank is a 180 with the clam in the middle and just a few other, less demanding corals, throughout the tank. My thought is, why buy 110 leds to light the whole tank when I only need the intense light in specific, permanent spots. I can use high quality leds with a more focused lens where needed, and light the rest of the tank with a lens that spreads the light more evenly, to less than normal reef standards. It would save energy, and look pretty neat in my opinion. I would always be able to upgrade in the future as well. I guess my question is, how much should I be using to focus on the clam?
<A good deal. In other words, I do think some simple reflectoring about the Crees will do it here>
It is 10" below the surface, I would think maybe 2 or 3 focused 3 watt daylight Cree leds should do the trick?
<Try this out... w/ a PAR meter to test>
I am certain there will be some adjustments, but want to shock the clam as little as possible.
Thank you for any input!
<Please do report back your observations. Bob Fenner>

Your recent query on BTA lighting
Marineland PAR Chart 10/16/11

Hi Simon,
I read your response on this query regarding the Marineland LED Strip.
Lighting: Marineland LED Reef Capable- 18- White 1 watt LED's, 3- Blue 1 watt LED's. Rated 130/12700 PAR/LUX at 12'
<Really? This seems high, is certainly enough>
I'd just like to inform you that the 130 PAR at 12" can be a little misleading. If the Apogee
meter were moved just three inches off center of the fixture, the PAR level drops dramatically, down to
61. As long as the BTA was no more than 12" deep and dead center with the lighting, it likely would be enough.
Marineland does print the chart on their packaging. See attached Word document.

Re Your recent query on BTA lighting 10/16/11
Hi Simon,
<Hi James>
I read your response on this query regarding the Marineland LED Strip.
Lighting: Marineland LED Reef Capable- 18- White 1 watt LED's, 3- Blue 1 watt LED's. Rated 130/12700 PAR/LUX at 12'
<Really? This seems high, is certainly enough>
I'd just like to inform you that the 130 PAR at 12" can be a little misleading. If the Apogee
meter were moved just three inches off center of the fixture, the PAR level drops dramatically, down to
<Ahhh, one of these 'blade-type' LED's - I am not a fan>
As long as the BTA was no more than 12" deep and dead center with the lighting, it likely would be enough.
Marineland does print the chart on their packaging. See attached Word document.
<Mmm, do we have the posters email address still handy? Perhaps we should forward this on to her>
<Thank you James, Simon>
Your recent query on BTA lighting
Hi Simon,
I'm sure the query has been deleted by now.
Re Your recent query on BTA lighting 10/16/11
Actually, I generally save about two day's back queries... You can search by the name, title, date, size. B

An update on my LED lighting changes (to Bob) 9/13/11
This message is regarding some correspondence I had with Bob recently. I had originally inquired as to over-saturation of light regarding my corals, and thought that reducing my photoperiod may in fact produce a better effect than my current duration.
Well, I took a crack at it. I reduced my photoperiod for my full lighting by 2 hours. I was previously running 1 hour of actinics, 10 of full light, and another hour of actinics. I now run 1.5 hours of actinics, 8 hours of full lighting, 2 hours of actinics. I've observed the changes in my Stylophora over the last few weeks, and have been pretty pleased. The rate at which I see new branches budding off seems to have increased, while the color is deeper (never was bleached out, but a bit too pale and I was growing concerned). The polyps seem fully extended more often now, and the color absolutely pops. Unfortunately, this was a rather subjective exercise, and no photo-documentation was performed (though I worked to change nothing else, trying to make sure this was my only true variable). But I suppose in this hobby that subjective success is still success, and should be welcomed warmly.
This colony was situated in an area with a PAR around 350, but I'm curious as to how that really works in the wild.
I know from measurements I've found that the PAR around natural reefs is exceptionally higher, but inconsistency in weather patterns has a lot to do with the average amount they receive in a day.
<And what part of the day... only "high" when sun is directly overhead really, and in shallow water>
I'd be quite curious to find out what the average PAR over the course of a day/week/month these corals receive in the ocean,
<Such data is available in the scientific literature. See WWM re searches>
and how that affects their health (say, if they had a few days of relative darkness due to cloud coverage, and then several with intense light).
Any good reads that can be found on this subject?
<Plenty... Am out in Fiji... so don't have my ref.s at hand>
I've read a great deal on light in captive systems, but this has only served to pique my curiosity of lighting in the wild.
<You can try searching on the Net, but better by far to make a trip out to a college, seek help of a reference librarian in doing a computer search.
Bob Fenner>

Reef lighting 5/27/2011
I have been using a 250 watt MH on my reef tank for over 3 years now, and with the prices of LED fixtures dropping rather rapidly the past 6 months, how do you guys feel about the LED systems coming out recently?
Nic in Wi.
<We have a few nice pieces on LEDs in our on line 'zine (CA) in recent issues. Read them, and the accumulated FAQs re: http://wetwebmedia.com/ledltgfaqs.htm
links above.... Bob Fenner>

LED lighting question 12/30/10
Hello WWM Crew,
<Hey Michael. Unfortunately, James is marked "out"... who is more up on LED, this manufacturer>
I have a couple of questions about Ecoxotic LED stunner strips. I want to add 2 to my red sea max 130d tank (which has 2x55W high output compact t-5 lighting) to give more light output and to add a dawn/dusk time period. I was going to do 2 453nm blue strips but I was wondering should I add maybe 1
403nm ultra violet and 1 453nm blue? or maybe even 1 8000K/453nm in the mix? Is the ultra violet light even going to help coral growth?
<Not really. Is for "night time fluorescence viewing pleasure" more than anything>
And last but not least which combo would you choose? I do want to grow both LPS and SPS in this system.
<One each, if getting two... one of their 8000K/453nm white and 8000K/453nm/white-blue units. Bob Fenner>
Re: LED lighting question/coral question
Thanks for the quick response you guys are great as always
I went to my local fish store yesterday and got the urge to possibly purchase some Acro aquacultured SPS frags or some LPS hammer coral frags ( I prefer aquacultured since they don't go tearing up reefs).
<Instead humans tear up the planet for generating power and salt mix....>
But I decided to first do a little research. They have their corals under some insane metal halide lights (
I think at least 6 which I think are at least 250watts or more) and they seem quite healthy. My tank is the red sea max 130d which has 2 x55watt t-5 10000k/antic lighting along with 2 Ecoxotic led stunner strips ( 1 is 8000K
1 is 8000K/453). If my tank can handle these corals would placement be high?
<To start with... a good idea likely>
or start them low and move them up?
<Only able to tell w/ testing... a meter>
also I have a MP10 wave maker in the tank on reef crest mode, If I'm not mistaken the hammer coral would not like the heavy flow but the Acro would?
<Both will do fine w/ semi-vigorous water movement... 10X flow easily 20X not too much>
and last question is feeding... they feed bottled phytoplankton once a week
<... a waste of resources. Please search/read on WWM before writing us>
just a few drips in the tank which is a huge coral frag tank. I just don't think the bottle stuff both phyto or other stuff is worth it
<We are in agreement>
and I would think it would just pollute my tank.
<Not this either>
What would you suggest to feed corals? Cyclopeeze maybe? and how often?
<... read what is posted/archived>
thanks in advance for all the help, you all are great and do a wonderful service for the reef tank community,
<Welcome. BobF>

Re: LED Article 8/20/10
Hi James,
I can't speak for articles that Bob buys in directly for WWM, but anything submitted to WWM Digital does need to be reasonably authoritative. If you haven't used an LED system that's not a killer, but you will need to convince readers that your still a trustworthy source.
<Understand, but the article wasn't intended for folks to look at me as the gospel of LED lighting, but to illustrate what is presently available to hobbyists with a short dip into energy savings, performance, and explanation. We have little to no information on WWM regarding this technology and I believed the article would fill this gap, at least for the time being.>
As a parallel, I'm sure Bob and I have both written about fish species we haven't kept, but we'll extrapolate from closely related species and include observations made by experienced aquarists we trust. But at the same time we don't write speculative pieces about species we know little about. I certainly don't write about keeping sharks in captivity, and I doubt Bob would write pieces on oddball catfish. WWM readers know and trust your name when it comes to marine fish keeping, and anything you write has to reinforce that impression.
<Agreed, and is why I plan on interspersing quotes/anecdotes in the article from respected/known people such as Steven Pro, Sanjay Joshi, etc.>
Like Bob, I think mentioning specific models is pointless.
<I felt readers would be interested as to what's out there presently, and their capabilities.>
One thing we can all agree on with nascent technology is that whatever is on sale this year won't be next year, and the models and price points will be changing rapidly as the technology becomes easier to produce and more manufacturers enter the market.
<Oh, I wholeheartedly agree, and even the folks at Ecoxotic state that the technology is changing/improving at a very rapid pace.>
I don't feel there's anything wrong with mentioning models and outlining current costs, but that shouldn't be other than a few lines, since that information will be obsolete within a year or two.
<Again, at the present time. My short comparison reflects energy savings based on a given kilowatt/hour rate, and realizing energy costs can/will go up.>
Instead, if I were writing this piece, I'd compare the available technologies, outline the costs and benefits,
<Seems to be I did this, at least on what is presently available. I also stated that quality LED lighting systems will generally use Cree and/or Edison Opto LEDs that are know for their high lumen/watt and excellent PAR ratings.>
explain how to reverse-engineer existing aquarium hoods,
<The article wasn't intended to be an instructional guide for hybridizing existing systems, although some LED lighting manufacturers do point this out in their ads.>
and state any potential problems that might occur by switching between lighting systems.
<With quality LED systems designed to support coral/clam growth, this shouldn't be a problem as their lumen/PAR specifications are very close, if not slightly higher than other types of lighting used for this purpose.>
Think about what people ask about LEDs when they come to WWM: How quickly do they pay for themselves? How many watts do I need for corals or freshwater plants? What's the equivalent watts per gallon number when choosing LED systems?
<Giving this information would be as dated as the 3 to 5 watts per gallon rule that we have used in the past. This will all depend on lumen output and PAR values, and is very similar to choosing HQI, MH, and T5 lamps. Every one watt LED does not produce the same lumen/watt, Kelvin temperature or PAR value, much the same as conventional lamps.>
How long do they last?
<That was stated in the article.> Can users replace or repair them in the same was fluorescent tubes and MH bulbs can be changed?
<This shouldn't be necessary. Quality systems use LEDs designed to last up to 50,000 hours (13+ years based on the average photoperiod), and after 13+ years, it is extremely likely that the hobbyist is going to want to upgrade to an even more cost efficient LED system. Personally, I cannot recall ever keeping a conventional lighting system for more than 5 years simply for the fact that even conventional systems are always improved upon.>
Do different colour LEDS provide any specific benefits?
<Would be no different than present systems, Kelvin temperature is Kelvin temperature.>
Essentially, I think a good rule of thumb for a WWM article is this: Am I writing something the Daily FAQ crew could send queriors to on a regular basis?
<I agree with you here, but this article is more of an informative introduction to LED technology that's presently available, and I also realize that this article will be quickly dated. It was intended to fill a gap at WWM.>
I hope this isn't too much to say, James. I'm really very enthusiastic about having an authoritative piece on LEDs in WWM Digital. But I also want that piece to reflect well on you as much as WWM.
<Understand, and do keep in mind that I did the best I could based on the present information that's available on this technology. I do thank you for your time and suggestions in this matter. Cheerio, James.>
Cheers, Neale
On 19 Aug 2010, at 22:34, Robert Fenner wrote:
> <Mmm, no more puns... I think what you have is fine thus far... just needs a bit more "meat" in the way of personal review/s, others input re this lighting modality. Makes, models not necessary or really desirable. Understanzee? BobF>
Re LED Light 8/19/10

Beware of LED lights manufactured in China. Can be low on lumens/PAR, and lamp life is much shorter. Wonder what made him think you were in the market for LEDs.
<Thank you James. BobF>

LED vs. Metal Halide Lighting/Reef Lighting 6/13/10
I couldn't find anything specific in your articles comparing these two light sources, and I'm looking to go LED.
<Because this innovative lighting is rather new, we do not have much information on this.>
Right now I am running a Hamilton 2x175 MH 10,000k / 2x110 VHO actinic over my 125 gal. with success, but would like to cut my power usage. I read in one place that LED has about the same lumens to watt ratio (about 90-93) with greater useful light energy, but cannot find more sources to verify.
<There are many systems out there ranging from simple LED strip lights to full blown modular systems capable of duplicating the light intensity of 400 watt MH systems.>
Can you guys help me? If LEDs are a practical alternative, what wattage should I have to replace my Hamilton?
<I wouldn't say that are a practical alternative at this point, as an LED system that would duplicate your MH system is rather pricey, but over time, the savings realized both in lamp replacement and power usage may well
justify their cost. I strongly believe that in the near future, prices will drop considerably on these systems.>
Also, my tank is 24" deep, so are LEDs going to penetrate deep enough to grow my corals? I have a large mix of soft corals, clams, polyps etc and would not like to harm them by cheaping out on elec. usage.
<AquaIllumination produces a modular system that would duplicate what you presently have in intensity/useful light. One 12" module consists of 24 LED lights and will draw about 75 watts from your wall. When you compare this to a 250 watt double ended HQI lamp, the light intensity is amazingly close, but the bad news is the 250 watt DE lamp, once warmed up, draws about 280 watts from your wall. Have a look here at pricing and detailed information.
Also read Dr. Sanjay Joshi's test review of this system and several others.
As you will see, the AquaIllumination system has by far the highest light output in terms of intensity.
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>

Solid state lighting experiences? Question? -- 06/10/10
Dear Crew,
Just wondering if any of you have experience of growing SPS corals under solid state LED lighting?
<None personally, but have studied, seen enough to make a resp.>
I currently have two T5 tubes (25W, one marine white one marine blue/actinic) and an array of four reef white LED Aquarays (containing both white and blue diodes) over my 66 US gallon (248l) tank. Currently the tank contains soft corals such as a large Sarcophyton near the top and numerous Zoanthid colonies lower down in the tank, all of which are doing very well, however the time has come to give in to my desire to attempt SPS corals (again - first attempt not successful and deemed that I was too inexperienced so concentrated on soft corals etc first).
<A good process, order>
Am aware of the intense lighting many of these creature require so want to make absolutely sure they receive the correct illumination to thrive and look their best BEFORE getting them - my planned stock (i.e. wish list) are: Acropora species, plating Montipora, Seriatopora, Pocillopora and (if I'm very lucky) one of the smaller clam species. Am happy with the flow they need and the high level of purity water-wise, however am struggling with the lighting issue given that I'm using a newer light system.
Many thanks once again for taking the time to read my ramblings,
<Mmm, do you have a specific question? If not, please peruse here:
the last two trays... I would become familiar w/ the term PAR values, and seek to provide a minimum value of "100" PAR at whatever depths you intend to situate all this life... and go with one of the two easier Tridacnid species... Bob Fenner>
Dear Bob,
Many thanks for replying, my curiosity is to whether corals with high intensity light requirements such as the bushy Acroporas (specifically Acropora kirstyae) would not just survive but thrive under LED lighting?
<They can indeed... I have observed them in several hobbyist and commercial settings doing so>
I'm aware that my current lighting wouldn't be sufficient for such creatures, however am torn between increasing the number of LEDs over the tank (cheaper in the long run in terms of electricity usage, but not certain if the corals would be at their most colourful/good rates of growth) or opting for a (more traditional) set up using metal halide
lighting (expensive to run, but if correct lamps used for Kelvin/PAR ratings then excellent and proven results). Given that my tank is 101 cm long, 41cm wide and 61cm deep I'm currently favouring a rig using two 150W halides plus two T5 actinic lamps plus blue LEDs to give a moonlight effect to the tank.
<Mmm, the "moonlight" is for your appreciation... Sufficient wavelengths/band-width of such "blue" spectra are provided (though masked in appearance) by your "white" lighting for functions' sakes>
You really must be sick of all the lighting questions you receive (!),
<Heeee! Not yet... the field is, uh... (groan!) very illuminating... and much in flux (Sorry, can't help m'self this AM)>
all I can say is that the WWM site has been absolutely invaluable to me and I'm continuing to learn more and more everyday, and in so doing finding out that I actually know very little indeed!
Many thanks,
<It's an investment... and only time and your perception, judge can and will tell in time whether this or t'other (MH) was "the" route to go. I do think/believe that w/in a few years, LED lighting will greatly improve in ap.s in our interest and the cost per unit decline abruptly and greatly.
Cheers, BobF>
Re: solid state lighting experiences? LED choices 6/10/2010

Dear Bob,
<Big C>
Thanks for the info (have to admit to having a chuckle at the jokes too) - think I'll probably go with halides for now and wait for the LED technology to move on a little more before fully committing to it in the future
<I do believe I'd go this route at this time as well... considering your system shape, desires...>
- out of interest, what LED arrays were in use in the successful reef tanks you've witnessed previously?
<The "oldest" is an Ecoxotic system from 2007, but there are several... esp. seeing what's on offer a couple weeks back at Interzoo (a biannual tradeshow in Germany)>
Interested as mine are Aquarays from the UK company TMC,
<Ah yes... am familiar, friends with a few of the older timers there... Saw them also at IZOO>
however am aware that these are by no means the only LEDs out there (and, frankly, if I CAN find a good LED alternative to halides in the present I'd happily jump on board!).
<Time will tell my friend. BobF>
re: solid state lighting experiences? 6/10/2010

Thanks Bob, good to know about the future possibilities showcased in Germany
- hope you have a great day,
<Thank you dear; you as well. B>

LED Moon lighting 12/16/09
Hello WWM team,
<Hello Dave>
as I am very very new to salt water aquariums I am interested in your thoughts and comments on the idea of LED blue moon lightings.
<Purely aesthetic, of no use for plant/coral growth.>
<You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)>
Dave Woo

Re: Stocking Levels and a few newbie questions. -- 11/03/09
Hey Josh, and thanks for the fast reply!
I've cut out some of the things in this reply to shorten it a smidge.
<Hello again Jeff.>
I was thinking a mix of lighting would provide the best results, but the PC's are planned to go over the 'fuge (on an opposite light cycle from the main tank) and over the main tank for both actinic to make the Zoas pop, and they seem a good compromise to me of light versus power consumption and heat generation.
<Excellent, over the refugium makes a bunch of sense, I thought you were discussing placing all three types of lighting over the display... wouldn't be a bad thing just unnecessary.>
The metal halides were planned as part of a dual light fixture that I would use the power compacts, but turn the metal halides on for fairly short periods during the day. (A few hours). I figure in a couple of years if all goes well, I may want to move into some more difficult to keep corals, and I would rather have the lights there and not need them then repurchase them a bit down the road.
<Excellent, very good move.>
The LED lighting still seems to be what I call an "early adopter" solution...I would do the whole thing with led's if I could find some solid reviews on a fixture, but the led market seems to be evolving pretty fast right now. The idea of punting the metal halide makes me smile; the tank is that much closer then.
<It does look like LEDs will be the way to go, but I don't think we are quite there yet, there are great advances being made though. So I think the Halides would be a better option at this point.>
Scratch one calcium reactor, and replace with dosing as needed. Check.
<I think you will be happy with that decision considering the corals you are planning to keep.>
Check. Freshwater planted tanks mean that I am used to green tanks, and I don't mind them. I know if I put things in slowly, it will balance out all the better, so they will go in slowly in small groups at a time.
Will do, and thanks again! I'll rip into my plan book now and start a firm stocking list.
<Excellent, you seem to be on the right track.>
<Good luck, Josh Solomon.>

LED Lighting question 3-05-09 Team, Hope you are all well. <Am almost fully recovered from an obnoxiously long lasting respiratory infection...so a lot better than I was!> I am seriously looking at LED technology. Expensive. Wow. Benefits? Seem to be many. <Definitely - I'm a big fan, and am looking to start a DIY LED project for my nano reef soon> PAR, penetration, dispersement of lighting - these are the issues. Dependent upon the brand and technology, PAR and spectrum are solvable if not on par (no pun) or better than Ushio grade halides. <The great thing about LEDs (especially DIY ones) are the reflector options...excellent depth penetration is possible if the light is reflected correctly. PAR is a non-issue with the new Cree and Luxeon LEDs> Coverage is slightly odd and can be almost like spotlights - but that is solvable. <Definitely> But the main issue I have found is output relative to depth of penetration. I am in discussion with one maker right now who states that while the depth of penetration of a 'bank' is similar to a 150w halide, 2 banks will provide an effective output of a 250w halide. <Sort of - depends on how and where one measures and what measurements one uses> My question, based on my brand of logic - why would 2 banks of LED's with the same output power and configuration alter anything other than dispersement of the light; as it seems to me that both would reach the same plateau of actual depth penetration? They are not enhancing or augmenting each other at all; it would be a broader range of coverage versus any PAR or LUX or penetration enhancement. <Again, sort of. You want to do an apples to apples comparison between LED banks and a metal halide in terms of what, PAR at a given depth per given watt? Lighting is difficult to compare, and we as hobbyists approach lighting with a very "ballpark" attitude. Luckily for us, photosynthetic organisms are adaptable to light variations to some extent. To continue with the comparison though, the "throw" or "penetration" of the LEDs would be the same for one bank or two I believe, but the amount of lighting at a given depth would be greater, as would the coverage. PAR would also increase to some extent, because of the additional light. Lux is a relatively useless measurement in terms of photosynthesis, because it is a measurement of perceived brightness by the eye. LEDs work just fine for the home aquarist> Am I missing something? I admit to not being a spectral analytics scientist. :) Would like your opinion before I go deeper toward plunking down several thousand $$ to replace a $700 MH lighting system :) <I'm by no means an expert, but I do find light (and photosynthesis) to be interesting, and have read a bit on both subjects. For what it's worth, consider the cheaper DIY alternative to commercial LED lighting systems. Nano-reef.com has some excellent thread about LED lighting, and I'll link them here. I hope the links below will come in handy. - http://www.nano-reef.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=186982 - http://www.nano-reef.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=188686> Take care, <You too, and I hope I've helped. I'm going to do some research to get some definitive answers regarding light addition and water penetration> Bill <M. Maddox>

LED lighting 6/29/08 Thank you in advance for the help ! <You're welcome, I hope!> My question pertains to coral viewing and growth under different Kelvin ratings. I will be buying Aquailluminations LED lighting system and have not been able to find an answer to my question on the web. These LED systems allow color temp control from 6500K to over 20,000K at the twist of a knob. <A nice feature.> I know that optimum growth is usually achieved in the 6500K range, but it is less than visually appealing compared to higher color temps. At 14-20,000K the corals look great but growth and light output (PAR) is much reduced. <Yes, it is very much reduced for the same wattage light.> If corals are grown in the 6500-10,000K range ( fast growth ) most of the time while I'm not there to see it anyway, will the colors displayed under the higher Kelvin ratings still show up when I go to view the tank and change the color temp higher for viewing reasons? In other words - do the corals need to grow under the high color temps to display this pigmentation/coloration or is it always there and just more visible when viewed under the higher Kelvins....? <The coloration in the corals themselves will change under different lighting long term. Sometimes drastically, but most of the time just a bit. At the same time a coral can look like a whole different animal in an instant with a change in lighting. If that new lighting were left on it for a few weeks and then the old lighting put back over it, the coral would very possibly not look as it originally did. I suppose running your bulbs at 6500K for part of the day and say 14000K part of the day would yield some coloration in between. I have seen systems with 6500K Iwasaki bulbs that only come on for 3-4 hours a day just for growth while a second set of MH that are much bluer come on the rest of the day. When you think of the logistics and price of doing this, the LED fixtures all of a sudden seem like a deal!> Thanks, Greg <Welcome, have fun, Scott V.>

Is wattage per gallon the best method? 11/30/07 Happy Holidays to you at WWM! <And to you Dan> I've been thinking about all of the advice given to reefkeepers regarding lighting needs of stony corals. The answer always seems to involve watts per gallon or watts per square foot of tank surface, regardless of lighting source (i.e., MH, NO, HO, VHO, PC). Something tells me that while this may be adequate, wattage alone not necessarily the best solution for optimum coral growth and health.< the wattage rules are for base guidelines only.> Wouldn't it be better to recommend a solution that is stated in lumens per area or volume? <This is why PAR readings listed on the by the manufacturers of the bulbs are so important. PAR is the most important for the photosynthesis.> Would it also be a good idea to base the recommendation on the spectral needs of stony corals?< This is where the color spectrum of the bulb comes into play. The Kelvin rating indicates the color "temperature" of the bulb , but will also relay where in the color spectrum the bulb is. LED lighting by Solaris has the most stable, and correct spectrums for corals.> I'm sure there are other variables, such as tank depth, color temperature, bulb type, differences between manufacturers' bulbs, etc. may come into play, but it seems some sort of charts or calculators can be developed to recommend poor/good/better/best/overkill lighting solutions based on whatever tank parameters are used as the basis for the calculations.<Dr. Sanjay Joshi has made many of these very charts. The problem is one bulb from one manufacturer will have different PAR readings from different ballasts. So it is very hard to say what spectrum and PAR you will actually be at from just the "Bulbs" perspective. My personal experience over the last 25 years has me to believe that 6500K bulbs offer the best growth rate, then 10,000k bulbs which also look whiter, then the 12-14,000K bulbs which are much bluer to the eye, and then finally the 20,000k bulbs which are the bluest. The 20,000K bulbs also do not last as long as the lower kelvin bulbs and have lower PAR readings. Again, this is why the LED technology is so promising.> I'm not sure whether this may be too complicated to resolve. Ideas? <As technology continues to improve, there should be more progress in the LED market that will make the color spectrum and lamp choices much easier. Thanks-Rich.. aka.. Mr. Firemouth> Dan

Re: Night Light/Moonlight - 07/09/07
 Hi WWM Crew / Mich, <Hello again Alan.> Thanks for the reply. <Welcome!> Another question is do fishes actually sleep at all or they just simply rest? <They do sleep, but not how you or I might. I think we would consider it more of a resting state.> Thanks again <Again you are welcome!> Regards. Alan <Cheers, Mich> LED Lighting Source 6/30/07 WWM Crew, I've just ordered a 300G (96x24x30) tank that will initially house fish and live rock only. It's been 5 years since I set up my last tank, and many opinions and technologies have changed in that time. With respect to lighting, is it premature to say enough is known about the benefits of LED lighting, and if not, are there reasonably priced products out there? <The former, yes... the latter, not IMO. This is "a wave of the future"> I found this product http://www.ledlight.com/detail.aspx?ID=148 which the owner said would be his most applicable product for an aquarium. There are several size and color options, though not sure if they meet the needs of an aquarium. I'd appreciate your opinion/recommendation. If LED isn't appropriate yet, my plan is T5 HO lighting. Thank you, Brian <Mmm, need more info... the CRI, incandescent "color" of the photonic energy mostly... Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marsetupindex2.htm The trays at the bottom... and ask this purveyor re the questions above. Bob Fenner>

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