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FAQs on Loricariids, South and Central American Suckermouth Cats 1: Social Disease

FAQs on "Pleco" Disease: Loricariid Disease 1, Loricariid Disease 2, Loricariid Disease 3, Loricariid Disease 4,
FAQs on "Pleco" Disease by Category: Diagnosis, Environmental, Nutritional (e.g. HLLE), Infectious (Virus, Bacterial, Fungal), Parasitic (Ich, Velvet...), Trauma, Treatments,

Related Articles: Loricariids, OtocinclusFrom Pan-ack-ay to Pan-ack-zee, A Detailed Look at the Bizarre But Beautiful Panaque Catfishes by Neale Monks

Related Loricariid Catfish FAQs: Loricariids 1, Loricariids 2, Loricariid Identification, Loricariid Behavior, Loricariid Compatibility, Loricariid Selection, Loricariid Systems, Loricariid Feeding, Loricariid Reproduction,
Other Loricariid Genera: FAQs on: Ancistrus, Baryancistrus, Genera Farlowella, Loricaria, Sturisoma, Rhineloricaria: Twig Plecostomus, Genera Glyptoperichthys, Liposarcus,  OtocinclusPterygoplichthys, Sailfin Giants among the Loricariids, The Zebra Pleco, Hypancistrus zebra, Hypostomus, Peckoltia: Clown Plecostomus, Lasiancistrus, Panaque, Pseudacanthicus, Scobanancistrus, L-number catfish,

Many Loricariids are social... until reproducing!

All can, will suck on other fishes IF hungry, given the opportunity (e.g. slow moving fish like fancy goldfish)

They are easy prey for more aggressive tankmates (e.g. most sizable cichlids)

Red bumps/ sores on Bristlenose Pleco /RMF      8/23/16
I noticed today that my Bristlenose Pleco has two lumps/sores on it and wondered what it might be. It lives in a 240 litre tank with harlequins, rosy tetra,
<Best kept in a school, can be/come nippy>
phantom tetra, minnows, Oto's, Synodontis catfish,
<Mmm; which species? Might be picking on your Pleco>

Cory catfish, 2 small Pakistani loaches, 2 small clown loaches. The tank is 6 months old. Ammonia is 0, Nitrite is 0 and Nitrate is 20. The Bristlenose has been in the tank for about 3 weeks and is about 2 and a half inches long. I have tried researching antibiotics in the UK but do not know what is good to use if it becomes infected.
<Am referring you to Neale Monks here... he is a Briton... and think he will suggest eSHa's line>

There is nothing sharp in the tank. Thank you for your time.
<Saw your pic... could be a trauma at work here (as I suggest above); or?
Bob Fenner>
Re: Red bumps/ sores on Bristlenose Pleco /Neale       8/23/16

Sorry. I forgot to attach a picture.
I noticed today that my Bristlenose Pleco has two lumps/sores on it and wondered what it might be. It lives in a 240 litre tank with harlequins, rosy tetra, phantom tetra, minnows, Oto's, Synodontis catfish,
<As Bob has mentioned, Synodontis spp. can be boisterous. Much variation though. Synodontis nigriventris is a schooling species that is fine with Ancistrus spp., and even "gentle giants" loners like Synodontis eupterus are pretty good. But there are some species in the trade that are less reliable; Synodontis nigrita for example is often sold as Synodontis nigriventris when young, but grows twice the size, isn't sociable, and throws its weight around quite a bit!>
Cory catfish, 2 small Pakistani loaches, 2 small clown loaches. The tank is 6 months old. Ammonia is 0, Nitrite is 0 and Nitrate is 20. The Bristlenose has been in the tank for about 3 weeks and is about 2 and a half inches long. I have tried researching antibiotics in the UK but do not know what is good to use if it becomes infected. There is nothing sharp in the tank.
<Oh yes there is! That substrate looks horrific! Definitely not catfish friendly
. Catfish like to stick their heads into the substrate, thrash about a bit, and extract any bits of food they can find. Fine "pea" gravel or smooth silica sand are ideal. I'm wondering if these "sores" are actually more like cysts or blisters, perhaps even viral, but undoubtedly related to the environment somehow.>
Thank you for your time.
<I would recommend eSHa 2000 as a good all-around antibacterial. Don't forget to remove carbon (if used) while medicating. I'd also review the substrate and strongly recommend changing it. Not only is it much too coarse, it's a bright colour guaranteed to make your fish "fade" their colours and look washed out. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Red bumps/ sores on Bristlenose Pleco      8/23/16
Thank you for your response.
The catfish is a Synodontis Petricola which was sold as a Pictus Catfish.
He isn't aggressive.
<Indeed; definitely one of the better Synodontis. But does have rather specific environmental conditions. Hard, alkaline water for example, which makes it an odd choice for life alongside tetras! That said, if yours is thriving in soft or medium hardness water, then obviously not a big deal. Flip side, if your water is very hard, keeping tetras can be tricky.>
He lets the Pleco in his cave. The Pleco is still very small.
<Can we not call him a "Pleco" or "Plec"? He's a Bristlenose, genus Ancistrus. Although they belong to the Plec (UK)/Pleco (US) family, the Loricariidae, they're no more closely related (or similar) than, say, house cats are to lions. Much better to think of his specific needs rather than those of a "Plec". In other words, he's relatively small (to 14 cm), prefers coolish conditions (22-25 C), needs a secure hiding place, and feeds primarily on algae and tiny invertebrates rather than scavenging for leftovers. They're actually MUCH better aquarium fish than the Common Plec, but they aren't interchangeable. As your specimen shows, they're a bit more delicate. Whereas the Common Plec is able to survive in oxygen-poor habitats in the wild by breathing air, your Ancistrus comes from quite fast-flowing streams where the water is shallow, well-oxygenated, and as mentioned earlier, relatively cool. Ideal companions for tetras in this regard, many of which come from similar habitats.>
It is also very active. I was watching the tank in the dark and the only thing it avoided on it's endless laps around the side of the tank was the clown loaches. I have two and they are about 5 centimetres long. I had 3 but one died. I was told they are peaceful fish but these are new to the aquarium (3 weeks) and seem aggressive. Is it normal for them to attack other fish?
<Yes. All Botiine loaches have the potential to throw their weight around. On top of that, Clowns are social (to the point they misbehave in groups smaller than 5) and get extremely big, certainly over 20 cm, and I've seen specimens 35 cm long and almost as round as dinner plates! While they do grow slowly, long term, 240-litres isn't nearly big enough for the species.>
There are 6 black phantom tetras, 6 white finned rosy tetras and 6 rosy tetras. They generally all stay together. They are not overly aggressive but I have seen one go to nip a tail of a different fish.
<Quite so. Tetras are normally well behaved, but like a lot of schooling fish, can be nippy if bored. None of your tetras are serious nippers like Black Widow tetras or Serpae tetras, but if they misbehave, adding a few more of the species in question often fixes things. In a tank your size, I'd be keeping at least ten of each. Their impact on water quality will be minimal.>
The gravel is a pea gravel but seeing it enlarged so much in the picture I do agree it does look incredibly sharp and not fine enough for the catfish so I will change that.
<Understood. Garden centre smooth silica/silver sand or the finest grade gravel is easily good enough and very cheap. Just needs a lot of washing, and check that it's lime-free. If using sand, just a thin layer, a couple cm, is all your need unless your tank has rooted plants. Search WWM re: sand in freshwater aquariums for more. As for gravel, this is the substrate of choice for most, being nice and dark, and so bringing out the best in the colours of the fish.>
Other than the substrate is there anything else that usually would cause cysts or blisters that I should change? The water parameters are fine.
<Really hard to say. Blisters usually indicate either heat damage (such as burns if the catfish hides wedged by the heater) or else physical damage (including scratching on the substrate, bites from other fish, and even clumsy handling by the owner). Usually they heal in time, and while treating as per Finrot with something like eSHa 2000 is useful to stop any bacterial infections, good water quality is the main thing. Viral infections (such as Lymphocystis) often go along with some type of environmental stress, from the wrong water chemistry through to heavy metal exposure. No actual treatment is needed, as these viral infections tend to clear up after a few months or so (sometimes a year or two!) but again, reviewing the tank is a good idea.>
Thanks again
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: Red bumps/ sores on Bristlenose Pleco        8/24/16
Some really helpful information thank you.
What size tank is suitable for clown loaches?

<A tricky question. Let me direct you to the Loaches.com website if you haven't already seen it:
Anyway, they suggest a minimum tank for a school of adults around 6 x 2 x 2 feet, which works out at about 650 litres. That's a big tank! While it wouldn't be the best way to keep them, I think you could probably get away with a trio in 450 litres, but with the proviso that these loaches are prone to being either nervous or aggressive when kept in too-small a group, and the benefit of a really big tank is the potential to keep 5+ specimens, which is the best approach. For sure these fish grow slowly, and it can be several years before they're even 15 cm long, in which case a tank around the 450 litre mark would work okay. But when all is said and done, these are a demanding species not well suited to the average aquarist (or the average budget!) despite their wide sale. If you remember the Red Tail Catfish debacle of the 1980s, much the same thing pertains to Clown Loaches; i.e., far more of them are bred and sold than can properly be looked after. Pangasius Cats, Silver Sharks, Oscars, even Common Plecs fit into this category too.>
I don't want to buy more in the hope that they settle down and not be able to care for them when they get bigger.
I am a bit worried because I did suspect that one had injured another of my fish that died.
<Personally, I'd hang onto the ones you've got, but with a view to rehoming them once they become too big. Maidenhead Aquatics are a chain of stores in the UK that are very good at rehoming fish. Indeed, the branch in Crowland (near Peterborough) actually specialises in loaches!>
I do have other tanks but they are smaller. I have a 120 litre with 2 musk turtles (under a year old) and 2 sucking loaches which are larger than the turtles.
<Do they all get on? Given how nasty the Sucking Loaches can be at times, keeping them with Musk Turtles makes good sense!>
I don't really want to put them with the turtles in case they feel a bit peckish and decide they want a snack. I have a 90 litre with female Betta, 3 Otos and 3 sterbai Corys in it. If I moved them into the larger 240 litre tank would it be adequate for the clown loaches until they started to get larger?
<For a while, yes; but I think once they go to, say, 10 cm, I'd be looking to rehouse them. 240 litres is a brilliant size for a community tank. Can't be beaten, in fact. It's just bad luck that Clowns are too big for community tanks. There are any number of smaller loaches, like Yo-yo loaches, that would work better.>
Lastly I have been looking on the internet at different substrate, mainly soil as there is a layer under the gravel. It is very expensive and wondered whether there was a cheaper alternative.
<Heavens yes! If you're setting up a serious planted system with CO2 and all the rest of it, then a proper plant-specific substrate is probably a good idea. But if you're just sticking in a few hardy plants (Crypts, Amazon Swords, Vallisneria, etc.) then plain gravel is just fine. Just remember to stick plant fertiliser pellets into the substrate near the plants every month or two. That's all you need to do. Plants normally fail because of lack of light. If the substrate is at fault, their leaves still grow but go yellowy, in which case you add fertiliser to the water or, I think with better results, as pellets for their roots to 'suck up'. In fact unless you have super-fast plant growth, a rich (i.e., expensive) substrate will more likely spur algae into becoming a pest. If you really want to pamper your plants, leave them in their rockwool-filled pots, and the hardy plants will happily spread out from these, sending runners or daughter plants out all over the gravel. Easy peasey! The thing to remember about aquarium plants is that the easy ones are basically weeds, and need no more fussing over than dandelions, though just like weeds, they grow in sunny spots away from competitors, hence the fact light is the limiting factor.
Don't forget also that Java Ferns, Java Moss and Anubias couldn't give a rip about the substrate because they aren't stuck in the ground but stuck to rocks and woods, and obviously floating plants don't care either. In other words, the fact plain gravel is what you want/can afford is NEVER a reason to worry about not having a nice green tank!>
I used to have sand in one of my smaller tanks and found that difficult to clean.
<Understood. But you don't actually need to clean sand. If you use it in a tank with plants, their roots send oxygen down into the sand. Snails or catfish will skim the top layer, especially if you choose snails that burrow but don't breed quickly, such as Tylomelania species, or Assassin Snails. Set up thus, sand should basically stay clean, though it will darken a bit in time, and that's fine. The idea of "bad gasses" coming from deep sand is a bit of a myth -- look up deep sand beds in marine tanks, and you'll see they're actually a good idea, and the freshwater hobby is a bit paranoid about them!>
The Bristlenose's name is Mr. Plexy so that is why he was referred to as Plec and I agree he is different to the common Plec and quite lovely in his own right.
<Even better when this species starts breeding!>
Thank you.
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Red bumps/ sores on Bristlenose Pleco      8/25/16
Wonderful advice Neale.
I have separated the Clown loaches and the Pakistani loaches from the community tank. Unfortunately too late as not sure which of them attacked my Betta and it has died.
<Could be either, to be honest. But Bettas are, basically, bad choices for most community tanks. Sticking one in a community tank is like keeping a Pug alongside a pack of wolves, on the theory they're all dogs. We've bred Bettas to such a degree they don't really work with ordinary fish.>
As for the sucking loaches and turtles they actually are really good tank mates. They are both full of attitude and won't take nonsense.
<I bet!>
Have lots of space and hiding spaces too. I have very clean turtles as the loaches clean them regularly haha.
<I was going to ask you about that! Mixing fish with turtles is done, but it is tricky, and only certain combinations work. I think you've hit on one of them! Cheers, Neale.>

Pleco question... hlth... aggr. damage?  -- 02/07/08 Hello Neale, I've been big fan of your answers on WWM for long time. Excellent job, THANK YOU. <Very kind of you to say so.> I have a question about my leopard Pleco L085. <Do we really me L85? L85 is Baryancistrus sp. "Gold Nugget Plec", whereas Pterygoplichthys pardalis is one of the (several) species called "Leopard Plec" in the trade. I'm going to assume you mean the Gold Nugget Plec.> It is currently in 55 g tank with 2 Severums and 2 blood parrots. (I know you don't like them, but I have them, enjoying them and taking care of them). <It's not that I have something against Blood Parrots, they're just not my taste. Like fancy Goldfish and Pit Bull Terriers. I'm sure they're lovely pets. Just not for me!> Pleco had been in the tank for about 10 months and it's about 6 inches long. My water parameters: Temp-80'C pH-8.0 NH3-0 NO2-0 NO3-10-25ppm (50% water change/week) <All sounds fine, though very slightly warmer than I'd tend to keep them. There's no real advantage to temperatures above 25C/77F for most tropical fish, and indeed some positive disadvantages (faster metabolism, less oxygen in the water). But if this works for you, then great.> Food: Frozen food for algae eaters (I think you know what it is)-4 times/week <Actually have no idea! But sounds useful!> Algae wafers- 1 every night Fresh vegetables-occasionally I also have big peace of wood in the tank. <I would mix this up a little; Baryancistrus spp. are omnivores rather than herbivores, and appreciate things like bloodworms, chopped seafood, even the odd bit of whitebait. That said, most fish seem to thrive on good quality algae wafers (such as Hikari Algae Wafers), and my Synodontis pretty much eat nothing else.> Problem is that my Pleco is only fish in the tank who very often has torn fins and tail. (Could it be due to occasional fight for space and food with my parrots?) <Hmm... could indeed be scuffling with the cichlids. But don't rule out [a] water quality issues and [b] heater burns (catfish are wont to lie against heaters if that seems a good hiding place). So check these other issues as well. In any even, giving the catfish a nice burrow where the other fish can't harass it should fix this. Clay pipes and flowerpots are ideal. Get one big enough for the cat, but not for the cichlids. Problem solved hopefully, as the catfish will basically stay completely out of sight while the lights are on.> Also very often it has big gray spots all over the body. These spots disappeared when Pleco start swimming or eating. But when it is just lay down on the gravel it all covered with these spots and fish looks terrible. <No idea what this could be. If we're saying it changes colour from yucky to nice depending on whether it's swimming, that's one thing. But if we're looking at patches of dead skin or something that come off when the fish moves, that's another issue entirely. Really need a picture to understand this. It's also worth mentioning that the adults do somewhat lose their contrast as they mature. This is pretty normal with Loricariids, especially the ones with white spots on a black background. It's very obvious on Ancistrus, for example.> I tried to find any info about this in the web with no luck. Your help would be appreciated. Thank you again, Mark <Hope this helps, but honestly am a bit mystified. Cheers, Neale.>

Sick Sailfin Pleco With Bloat  - 10/21/06 I have a rather large common-Sailfin cross Pleco that is showing signs of discoloration and his armor it starting to stick out. I have tried krill shrimp to boost his color. I have treated with a medication made for many illnesses including parasites and scaling. I even tried feeding him algae wafers. I am all out of options. I have seen that one of my fiddlers is missing. Can a Pleco eat a fiddler by accident? If so can this make him sick? He is a male. < Plecos eat anything including algae and a fiddler crab if he thinks he can get it down.> I was also  wondering if I need to get him a mate or another larger Pleco? <No not needed.> I have a tiny tot, the baby Pleco which is the same breed as he is. He by the way is fat and  happy. I did put my Bettas in the tank with him while I cleaned their tank and  the female is a bit more aggressive than the male. Could they of stressed him  out? < No, not really.> I feel I am running out of options he's not even full growth potential  yet he's supposed to get up to 18 inches and he is only 10. Could it be old age? < Not likely.> He  is a rescue fish from a lady that didn't want anymore. Do I need to get him  more tank mates? < No, that is not the problem.> Please help in stuck up the creek without a  paddle... < I think that your fiddler crab may have died and you Pleco tried to eat him. The hard exoskeleton of the crab is probably lodged in his digestive system somewhere. Bacteria in the gut are now working on the skeleton and breaking it down. In the process they are developing gas and distending the gut of your Pleco. Try treating with Metronidazole and hope he is able to move this waste through his gut.-Chuck>

Bristlenose Plec dis.   9/9/06 I have a male Bristlenose catfish, two years old he is four and half inches long. He is in a 300 litre tank, he used to be kept with Neons, Glowlights and platies. He was very happy, I fed him on catfish pellets, algae wafers, bloodworms, brine shrimps and daphnia. Now he is living with tinfoil barbs. he's not as happy and hides under the filter, he is only getting the catfish pellets and algae wafers, as the tinfoil barbs eat everything else first, I have noticed that he is not cleaning the tank as well for the past week. And he has a lump on his snout in front of one eye, I have telephoned all my local aquatic shops, no one seems to have heard of this before, I'm very worried, to me is looks like a cyst, apart from this his colouring and general condition is very good. I hope you can help me, as the children are very fond of catty! Wait to hear from you, Sue < As your Pleco roots around for food he probably injured himself on a piece of wood or rock. The area may be infected. I would recommend treating him in a hospital tank with Nitrofuranace or Kanamycin as per the directions on the package.-Chuck>

Pleco with skin disease?   8/18/06 Hello, <Hi there> I have a Bristlenose Pleco who seems to be losing his colour.  When I first got him, he was dark brown, but now patches of his skin are a lighter tan colour (I would send a picture, but it's very hard to coax him out into the open when it's light out, and he hides whenever anyone goes near the tank anyway). <Mmm....> He's in my cichlid tank, and ammonia and nitrite are both 0, nitrate is always less than 10 ppm.    This change is very recent; he was fine a couple of days ago, and he's been pigging out on algae, but his colour certainly doesn't look healthy.  What could be causing this, and how do I go about treating it? Thanks! <Not likely that this is something "treatable"... either just a behavioral/physiological change from the animal being exposed to bright light, light colored gravel... or a fright reaction to the aggressive behavior of its tankmates. I would not "add" something to the water here, but consider moving this animal to other quarters to check this hypothesis. Bob Fenner>
Re: Pleco with skin disease?   8/19/06
Thanks Bob, <Welcome Kate> Now that you mention it, I think you might be on to something with the "fright reaction," although the problem isn't his tankmates, who ignore him (except when they steal his food), but it might have been my fault.  I had to remove every single rock (!!!) in the tank to catch one of the fish the other day, and I imagine the Pleco was quite disturbed by this turn of events. <Oh yes>   Also, the rocks in question are white (or at least they are now that the Pleco has finished cleaning them), so maybe it is just a "camouflage" thing.  Thanks for setting my mind at ease. Kate  

Pleco suddenly died of unknown causes... incompatibility with goldfish 7/11/05 Dear Crew: <Hi there> We have a ten gallon fresh water tank.  We have two fancy goldfish, (a moor and an Oranda) and we had one small brown Pleco, about an inch to an inch and a half long. <... a tropical fish... that gets way too large for a ten gallon world> Today, our Pleco, Jonathan Swift, died. He was badly discolored. He was blanched, and his fins were mutilated.  This morning, he was completely fine, and his fins appeared to be in good condition. Swift was always very active and happy, but shortly before he died he started to sit in a corner. He refused to eat any wafers or algae in the tank.  He did not have any sores, but when we lifted him from the tank, he had green slime on his undercarriage. <Good descriptions> We think our other two fish, Huckleberry Finn and George Orwell, might have nibbled on Jonathan Swift post-mortem, causing the fin damage, but we cannot be entirely sure. <Plecos are "armored cats"... hard to see damage> We tested the waters for Ph, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, Alkaline, and hard water.  All levels were normal except our hard water. We are currently working on fixing that problem, though it has never been a problem before. This is our first tank, and we are still in college. We hope this is not a result of dorm living. We take very, very good care of our fish.  We do 30-50 percent water changes weekly and change the filter every two weeks. <A bit too much... I'd limit changes to 25% maximum> We have live plants in our aquariums, and they are doing very well. <Good... and good use> Concerned about the loss of our Pleco, Hilary and Paul University of Dayton <Maybe just a weak specimen... I would go with something more suitable for a cleaner-upper with your goldfish though... Perhaps a large species of snail... Bob Fenner>

Under-the-weather Africans/Plecostomus Hi, <Hey, Mike G here.> I have a question that has been bothering me for couple days now. I have 55 gal. tank with African cichlids (14 fish). <Sounds like a tiny bit too much to me, but not terribly crowded.> They are constantly rubbing on the rocks, I can't figure out if they are sick or not, nothing out of unusual that I can spot. <Rubbing against the rocks usually signifies a parasite, possibly Ich or Velvet. Do take a peek at our disease pages for disease identification help.> But the issue is the Pleco in the same tank. A few days ago I noticed that it has a strange eye which started swelling and becoming cloudy and sort of fuzzy. <Not good. Such a problem is commonly brought on by poor water quality (high quantity of dissolved nitrogenous wastes.)> The same thing seems to break near its upper fin.  <I'm thinking he's got a bacterial infection.> The other eye is OK. I don't know if I have an outbreak of something or Africans are slowly killing my Pleco? <I highly doubt this was brought on by the African cichlids.> My tank is equipped with Eheim filter and the water is changed every 3 to 4, so I don't think I have water issue. <I personally think it is a water issue. Such symptoms are usually brought on by poor water quality. Do a 15-20% water change, and pick up a broad-spectrum antibiotic. I prefer and recommend MelaFix by Aquarium Pharmaceuticals. Good luck, Mike G>

Re: My Burtus (Plecostomus) is sick Ok here's the deal.  He started getting a patch of skin area that went from black to human skin color.  Now he has 2 areas and they are bigger it is above the tail fin.  Now it is starting to look like it is getting raw.  I don't want to have to treat the tank because I have a pair of mating Jack Dempsey's and a Red tail shark.  Jack and Jacqueline leave Burtus alone since they only care about locking lips at this point.  I do have a 10 gal that can be set up.  But if I treat Burtus in it can I put the babies in it after a quick clean.  We are still learning about the baby business so I don't want to take any chances.  Oh the tank is about 30 - 35 gal (homemade) so is more square than rectangular. Please help!!  He is eating and swimming fine.  Thanks Vickie P.S. We use artisan water and start right on weekly to bi monthly water changes. No underground system. Just a carbon filter and a white one (I can't remember what it is filtering) that I cut to fit. <He does need to be isolated and medicated with an all purpose medication, probably something like Melafix. Also check out http://www/wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwfshparasites.htm to see if any of those fit what he has. As long as you clean the 10g you will be fine re-using it for the JD babies. Good luck! Ronni>

Injured Pleco Our 6in. Pleco jumped out of the tank in the middle of the night.  We found him very dry and brittle but still alive.  We put him back into the tank with the two Oscars but his scales are all falling off and he looks kinda red under them and his top fin has totally fallen off.  He seems to be feeling and eating good but looks like hell and is getting worse.  Any advice for getting him better and is it safe to keep him in with the Oscars will they get sick two? <Wow, that's one tough fish! You really need to isolate him and medicate him. Probably with Melafix or some other such medication designed for treating injuries. Stress Coat may not hurt either. Ronni>

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