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FAQs about Seahorses & their Relatives 1

Related Articles: Seahorses & their Relatives, Fresh to Brackish Water PipefishesSeahorse Care Guide

Related FAQs: Seahorses & their Relatives 2, Seahorse Identification, Seahorse Behavior, Seahorse Compatibility, Seahorse Selection, Seahorse Systems, Seahorse Feeding, Seahorse DiseaseSeahorse Reproduction, Ghost Pipefishes

A Corythoichthys in captivity.

Referencing your site Hi Bob, I sent this back in April and never heard from you. I have lost several outgoing as well as incoming emails to the great void in cyberspace......sometimes I despise computers :).  <They are only tools> You have always answered everything I have ever sent, so I am figuring you either never received it, I never received your reply or you didn't reply for any # of reasons. <We answer all> So I am sending it again........in hopes that you never got it and not that you either didn't respond to discourage me from continuing to write to you with my incessant questions or that you responded and I never received it. <I will never abandon you> Hi Bob, Leslie Leddo here. You recently helped me quite a bit with a reoccurring Amyloodinium problem and some Jawfish questions. The email subject was title was "Will micro waving or boiling kill the cyst stage of Amyloodinium?". <I recall> I am sure you get tons of email questions and it must be hard to remember who is who...... <Yes> I am a Director/Moderator for Seahorse.org and I consider your site my first line staple resource. I frequently refer to your very informative site for my own information as well as when the info required to answer a post does not live within the boundaries of my gray matter or it is inaccessible at the time needed......LOL....ya know the memory thing. I was wondering how you feel about using links to your site or quotes from your site, in replies to questions asked by our members, on our Bulletin Board?  <These are fine... if useful> If this is something that is acceptable to you is there a particular way you would like us to reference the information used? <Acceptable> As long as I am asking would you be amenable to allowing us to reprint some of your articles in our library, with of course reference to you and your site. <Mmm, these should only be linked to what is placed on our site. We do sell content, but what is on our site is non-commercial public domain> Thank you very much, Leslie Leddo Oh PS I have been re reading through some of my FAMA issues and there are so many of your articles. I love reading them. I find your writing style very appealing. I always learn tons. Thanks for all you share. <A pleasure and honor my friend. I do remember the gist of this message. Strange you did not receive my first response. Be chatting. Bob Fenner> Thank you again so much, Leslie

Re: Seahorses, Aquatic Nutrition, UVs, Hi Bob, <Hello. Sorry for the delay in response. Have been away> Thank you for the responses to the questions in my last e-mail. Now in response to your question....... >How would you improve it?> I would like to see more species specific information for instance recommended temp ranges, size, minimum tank size, ease or difficulty of care, diet, availability in the hobby, reef safe, and any other tid bits tips or hints relevant to keeping the fish. I am a director on seahorse.org responsible for moderating the basic, tankmate and general forums. I refer to your site frequently for information needed to assist with my responses to posts. <Good ideas> Please do not take this the wrong way, but the information presented on seahorses seems dated to me as is much of the information currently available. Thank goodness for the Horse Forum column in FAMA. <Yes, dated and better source> I am so looking forward to your contribution. There are also a couple of books currently in varying stages of the publication process. One by Pete Giwojna. <Ah, a credible, lucid source> The advent of captive bred seahorses has made keeping them healthy, happy and thriving in captivity a reality. They are so much easier to keep now. <Immensely so> They were my first marine aquarium experience over 3 years ago and I would have never considered the possibility prior to Ocean Riders. Despite my problems in my other tanks I have done very well with the horses. I have actually found them to be easier than other marine fish or many of the FW fish I have kept. Please forgive me if you are aware of any of this information. There are 18 species currently being bred by 3 commercial aquaculturists, Ocean Rider which I have noticed mentioned on your site a few times, Tracy & David Warland of South Australian Seahorse Marine Services, and Ocean Oddities. 7 of the species are available to the hobbyist, at this time, from either Ocean Rider or FFE for between 39 and 150 dollars. The available species include, kuda, erectus, reidi, abdominalis, whitei, barbouri, and procerus. The additional 10 species are soon to be released, in the next year or so. FFE has also said they are expecting some CB pipefish any time now. The seahorses all readily accept frozen foods and are actually quite hearty and disease resistant. Most of us feed Mysis relicta, a completely freshwater species of Mysidae, manufactured and prepared by Piscine Energetics @ www.mysis.com. Are you familiar with the product? Many of the seahorse.org members are new to marine aquaria. They have been quite successful with seahorses and their appropriate tankmates. So, I would like to see more current information on seahorses that pertains to the CBs available now. <Thank you for this important information re Hippocampus husbandry> Karen Etling one of my esteemed seahorse.org curators is writing an article for your site I understand. I think that is great!! Chris Burns and Pete Giwojna both have written several articles maybe they would be willing to share them on your site for the seahorse enthusiasts. <We greatly welcome these inputs, links or other access to their ideas, discoveries> I have a few more questions if that is OK? <Certainly> Re: Leaving my tank fallow: Should I be changing the water and stirring and/or vacuuming the sand, during the 3 months it is fallow? If so how much would you recommend and how often? <I do encourage vacuuming during these times... on your "regular schedule", perhaps weekly to monthly per: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/water.htm> Do you have any suggestions for removing the residual greenish yellow tint, of the water, from the Greenex and Acriflavine? Prior to adding any new life I did several 100% water changes. I have used carbon and PolyFilters. <These are exactly my M.O.s> Re: a Jawfish, Opistognathus rosenblatti in particular I currently have a 0 grain size substrate in the tank along with some small shells and coral rubble. What would be the appropriate sand grain sizes to mix? <About one quarter the larger material, mixed into the upper range of the whole blend... will become more mixed with time> I am considering a tank for abdominalis, whitei and breviceps which are currently being bred and maintained by Tracy & David Warland of South Australian Seahorse Marine Services  <Met these fine folks at last years Aquarama in Singapore> in the same system at 71.6 degrees. Would 71.6 be to low to maintain one? <Is fine. The Baja species is found at this and quite cooler temperatures... the others reach comfortably into this realm> In reference to Jawfish recommended as seahorse tankmates on seahorse.org, you said "Most of the commonly available species, agreed" I wasn't quite sure from your answer if you would consider Opistognathus rosenblatti one of the commonly available species and thus appropriate for a seahorse tank? or better to choose another species? <O. aurifrons would be better. The larger species will likely prove to be too aggressive feeders to be kept with Hippocampines> I know they are usually pricey, but I see them offered much more frequently online these days and occasionally in the LFS.

Red Bubble Algae Causing Seahorse Problems? Hi Bob, <Hi Leslie, Craig here> Something very strange happens every time one of my seahorses (all captive bred) hitches to this small piece of red bubble algae, sorry I do not know what species it is. I have had red bubble algae in the tank with the horses before without any problems, maybe this is a different species. <Sounds like Cyanobacteria, not algae. Could be quite poisonous to these guys I suppose> So..... they act like they are stuck and trying to get free, but can't.....writhing, twisting, trying to pull away from it, and rubbing their body and head against it. Now, they do not do this at any other time at all. I have had 2 unexplained deaths of the smaller horses recently. When it was one of the small ones I just thought maybe they got their tail twisted in it. Last night one of my larger Ocean Riders got "stuck". I released her and removed the algae from the tank. She has always, from day one, been a very good and aggressive eater. After the incident last night, she ate one piece of Mysis out of the water column, continued to hunt, but just stared at anything else she came upon. This am she did not look quite right, she was hitched hanging upside down like a possum. The lights were still out when I left for work, so I will see how she is tonight when I get home. I am wondering if there could be something in or on that piece of algae that could possibly be stinging, stressing or injuring them in some way.  Thanks for you help, Leslie <Well, in Cyanobacteria, cyanide. Reduce nutrient load in tank causing Cyano, increase circulation in those areas affected (I know, be careful with too much) make sure your skimmer is clean and working in top form, water changes and perhaps filtration with a PolyFilter or? Get rid of the Cyano! (excess nutrient, low current) Craig>

Re: Red Bubble Algae Causing Seahorse Problems? Hi Craig, <Anthony Calfo with the follow up> Thanks for the rapid response. I guess I was not clear enough. I am pretty familiar with Cyano. I have had Cyano in my tanks on various occasions several times. There is no visible Cyano in this tank at this time. This is a piece of red Caulerpa I purchased from one of my LFS. Inland aquatics sells 2 varieties as well. It looks like the green grape Caulerpa, but is red. I believe it may be Botryocladia uvaria, as it looks very similar to the photo in Baensch Marine Atlas, vol 1 on page 233. <I am familiar with it an believe it to be relatively non-toxic although numerous fish toxins have been isolated in Caulerpas. Perhaps something here too although I doubt it> Are there any parasites, bugs or critters that can live in or on this type of Caulerpa causing the type of "irritation" to my horses that I described in my original e mail?  <not really... the macro is not a viable host. There is something concurrent about the "relationship" between the plants and seahorse (if at all) that we are missing. Do consider that it could be something altogether different. Have you tested dissolved oxygen levels by chance? Or do you shut off your skimmer or any other filter at night?> I am concerned due to the strange behavior as well as the 2 unexplained deaths. Thanks, Leslie <best regards, Anthony>

Recent developments in Singapore Hi Bob A Tropical marine Institute has been set up in Singapore. They are trying to raise clams and seahorses. Here is a link from the local newspapers http://straitstimes.asia1.com.sg/cybernews/0,1874,,00.html? <Hope they've contacted others in the field... this has all been done, and is being done now by others. Bob Fenner> Perry

Macro Algae in Seahorse Tank Hi there Mr. Fenner (or who so happens to read this at the time),  <<That would be JasonC, greetings...>> I just have a couple questions for you. I plan to buy an Eclipse 12 system devoted exclusively to a mated pair of seahorses. I am fully aware of the problem with normal seahorses, but these will be, of course, captive raised from ORA (Hippocampus kuda). I plan to get a decent amount of live rock as well as live sand. Since these guys need a form of "hitching post," I plan to add live macro algae to the tank. I realize the lighting is meager at best but shouldn't it be just enough?  <<Most macro algaes are fairly undemanding when it comes to lighting... they just need enough to photosynthesize. I'd bet it would do fine, although a minor lighting upgrade wouldn't hurt.>>  I am a big "naturale" fan and I could not stand to put synthetic ornaments. To me, they are quite "tacky." But anyway, is this sufficient?  <<I think so.>>  I plan to feed them enriched Mysis ~twice a day in order to meet their metabolic/nutritional needs. I also plan to carry out fairly frequent water changes about once or twice a month. I will be using the high quality seawater directly from my reef aquarium.  <<You might want to rethink that. Just use the same fresh mix water you produce for your reef tank. No need to put "used" water in the eclipse.>> Please give me your opinion if whether or not you think this setup should do well.  <<I think it will do well.>>  I appreciate your time.  Thanks in advance, Andrew <<Cheers, J -- >>

Ringed pipe fish questions? Hello WWM crew, I have some questions that I was wanting to know about the ringed pipe fish? <Very strange... I am actually scanning a Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus as I read this... bizarre coincidence!> One LFS has 4-5 in a 20 gallon reef tank for sale and I was wanting to know can you even keep one in a 20 gallon reef tank?  <Sometimes... when they're small... but does approach eight inches in length ultimately... in the wild> Could it be kept with an orange prawn goby as the only other fish I have 2 clowns but I could give them to the LFS if I could get a pipe fish? <Probably> Is this one of the harder pipe fish to keep or is it a little easier?  <Not easy in general... but some batches are pretty tough. Make sure these are eating> Do you know what this fish will normally eat? <Small, meaty (mostly live) foods> I only have the Prizm skimmer now but am going to upgrade to the aqua c remora hang on soon. Does this fish not like really bright light because I have the 175 watt metal halide? <Prefers not too bright conditions. This is TOO much.> Right now I don't think they eat any thing but the only thing they tried to feed them now was flake food can you recommend any other food to try for them?  <Leave them there for two weeks ONCE they start feeding> I read that sea horses don't like much flow and I don't have much just 1 power head aimed to the top of the water and the flow from the Skilter 400 because the Prizm doesn't really make any water flow? <Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tube-mfi.htm Bob Fenner>

Re: Cozumel's strange segmented worm-horse Bob, Thanks for getting back to me. I, too, was busy with the camera on some earlier dives. Nothing fancy, a $99 dollar Reef Master. But I did see, and photograph, a very unusual animal. I'll send you a copy via mail. It was a white-colored worm or eel-like creature, about 8 inches long and perhaps a half-inch in diameter. It was segmented and moved very slowly, like a freight-train backing up a hill. The snout was that of a sea-horse, tapering from large eyes to a slightly ballooning nose. I've never seen anything like it. Do you think you might be able to ID it if I send a photo? Something to add to the collection, ay! Thank, mon, best to all. Tommy <Do please send along... this sounds just like a too-common fireworm (Hermodice canunculata) of the region... I saw several of this description last week. Please see here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/polychaetes.htm Bob Fenner>

Marine Plants I am interested in seahorses and want to have the best plants for my aquarium. Can you suggest some plants for me, and where I could purchase them. <It all depends on your setup. Please see the following links regarding: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marvascpltfaqs.htm http://www.wetwebmedia.com/caulerpaalg.htm http://www.wetwebmedia.com/maralgae.htm Do search out the various online e-tailers regarding purchasing. We have many listed on the links page.> Currently I have dwarf seahorses. I have at least 5 that have survived. They are just getting mature enough to breed. It took me a while to provide enough food for them. I feed them about 3-4 times a day. I think by having a well planted aquarium, I will do better with growing them to adulthood. Thank you, Pete <You are welcome. -Steven Pro>

Freshwater dip for seahorses? Because seahorses and pipefish are very fragile, would you recommend dipping them before putting into main tank?  <Not the captive-produced ones... but I would/do at least isolate/quarantine all wild-collected syngnathiform fishes (pipes and horses)... and have found a few weeks apart from a display system to be a lifesaver, preventing the spread of parasitic disease> Even if they appear as healthy as a captive seahorse/pipe could be? I would hate to add more stress to the fragile little guys-Since seahorse don't really 'thrash' around, what time frame would the dip need to be?-Danielle <Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/acclimat.htm and the linked files at the top, their FAQs... Bob Fenner>

On your article about leafy Seadragons Do you know of any Australian locales that offer leafy Seadragons for sale? <As far as I'm aware these species are restricted for all but Public Aquarium display and research. Bob Fenner>

Re: Hi Bob, Water, Seahorses G'day, So all I really need is an RO unit, even to keep fish? <Yes my friend> Sorry to keep coming back to water. A friend recommended a company that he has bought a filtering system from. They told me that RO is not their specialty but I can buy one for $700. They specialize in Carbon technology (Carbon block filters). This reduces parasites, asbestos, pesticides, chemical contaminates such as lead and mercury. Do I need this thing? I don't want to die from drinking LA water. It doesn't reduce copper, arsenic, phosphates. <I use a two hundred dollar unit from Home Depot... this is what I suggest you get> Between you and me, what do you think about keeping captive raised seahorses? <It's fine... better than trying wild-collected for sure> The sites I found connected to Amanda Vincent and Seahorse Conservation said they don't think hobbyists should keep a seahorse even if it is captive bred. <They get their free money from various groups... I don't consider their opinions valid here> If getting dwarves from another hobbyist (they will probably be F1, parents caught from the wild) or getting some from Ocean Rider is going to contribute to them being endangered, I can pass. I don't want to contribute to the problem. Whatdaya think? <Not a contributor to reduction in the wild... In fact, my overall opinion is that Ocean Rider and others of their kind are supremely educating and stimulating the general public into awareness of the real world... while hopefully making a meager living. Bob Fenner> Madison

Adding a Hobbyist Site Link Dear Bob, <Hello Karen Welcome to the wonderful world of seahorses! A buddy over at reefs.org (our sister site) recommended your site which I have spent the better part of the evening surfing, much to my enjoyment. You have a wealth of information! Now that said, I wish to propose a link to my site, http://www.seahorse.org . Please check it out and if you feel it will add some value to your site, I'd be grateful for the link. Further, please let me know if you want an article on seahorse husbandry to add to your marine fish list, I'd be pleased to contribute. Best Regards, Karen A Etling Co-founder, Seahorse.org http:// www.seahorse.org  karen@seahorse.org  <Glad to do so on the morrow. Thank you for the notice. Bob Fenner>

Caulerpa and Seahorses Hello again! We are very impressed with your knowledge about marine plants. If is isn't too troublesome, we would like to ask for your advice on an issue or two. <I will try> We are writing to you from the Ft. Worth Zoo in Texas. Our exhibit deals with native marine life in the Gulf coast of Texas. The specific exhibit we are referring too concerns Hippocampus zosterae, dwarf seahorses. We are trying to find a marine plant that is compatible with the seahorses, relatively low maintenance, hardy, and a native resident to the Gulf. We have looked at many species of Caulerpa, but is not our only option. If you could give us any suggestions or comments or point us in the right direction it would be much appreciated. S.L. Stokes, Blanca Zarate, Fort Worth Zoo <Is the system large enough to support a Thalassia bed? This is the predominant plant that I have seen H. zosterae associated with... next perhaps Penicillus, Halimeda spp.... Please see: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/maralgae.htm Bob Fenner>

Questions (small marine system, nitrates, seahorses) Mr. Fenner I have a few questions, that I hope you can help me with. <I'll try> I have a 29 gal seahorse tank. has 35 lb. LR and about 5" of LS. 6 Sea horses, 3 shrimp, 2 starfish, crabs, misc. snails and some hitch hikers.3 corals, 2 sponges, & a plant. I have a cheap hang over filter, Prizm protein skimmer. My problem is NITRATES.......... I just added 40 lbs of LS (from Petco) total of about 5". Did a water change 8 hrs ago and my Nitrates are 30ppm already. They usually run @ 40ppm. I do a water change (20%) once a week. What can I do??? Need a better filter? <Possibilities... please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/no3probfaqs.htm and the links beyond> What is the time frame for the sand to start working? <Weeks> Kit for the sand? <Not necessary or advised at this point> I really don't want to put junk in my tank. (chemicals) <Then don't> Hope you can help. I have almost given up. Thank you, Joan <No worries. Bob Fenner>

Doryrhamphus janssi pipefish Hi, Bob, << not Bob, but JasonC, doing his best Bob Fenner impersonation, getting in some practice time ahead of Bob's upcoming dive trip >> I hope my mail is not bothering you but you've made the mistake if being both very responsive and very helpful (on my earlier Asfur angel queries). My question concerns the Doryrhamphus janssi pipefish. I'll confess I purchased one. However, the dealer had him trained on frozen food (which I checked in the store.) And he had been in the dealer tank for over a month and looks quite fat and happy. He has been eating like a pig in my seahorse tank. << so far so good... >> Some of the seahorse orgs on the web claim these pipefish are pretty easy. I was wondering if you have any experience with them or thoughts on keeping them? They seem to be good swimmers, much better than a seahorse and I'm wondering if my reef tank might not be a better place for it. I've been feeding twice a day. About right? Not enough? The tank is lightly loaded and has lots of Caulerpa and LR. A damsel I had in there stayed fat and happy even though I rarely fed it so there seems to be plenty of food floating around. << my take on the delicacy of these and their kin, the seahorses, comes mostly from capture/shipping related trauma. The fact that your pipe fish had been at the LFS and eating frozen food for a month are both chips in your and the fish's favor. The fact the it continues to eat, even better. My question to you, related to the potential placement in the reef tank is this: What is the flow like in your reef compared to the seahorse tank? Even if the fish is a good swimmer, it may well lose its competitive advantage in the more boisterous reef. The damsel, well it's a damsel and not a good indicator of survivability... they can endure a lot more than the pipefish. In any case, I didn't notice the size of your pipefish. The larger the fish, the larger the food it can eat - this from http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tube-mfi.htm >> Thanks, Marc << enjoy the pipefish. J -- >> Doryrhamphus janssi pipefish Hi, Bob, I hope my mail is not bothering you but you've made the mistake if being both very responsive and very helpful (on my earlier Asfur angel queries). <No worries> My question concerns the Doryrhamphus janssi pipefish. I'll confess I purchased one. However, the dealer had him trained on frozen food (which I checked in the store.) And he had been in the dealer tank for over a month and looks quite fat and happy. He has been eating like a pig in my seahorse tank. Some of the seahorse orgs on the web claim these pipefish are pretty easy. <Much more so in recent years, yes> I was wondering if you have any experience with them or thoughts on keeping them? <Haven't kept this species, but have seen it cultured (e.g. TMC in the UK). Have kept other Doryrhamphus spp. If received not too beat up, got to feeding, kept in peaceful settings do quite well> They seem to be good swimmers, much better than a seahorse and I'm wondering if my reef tank might not be a better place for it. I've been feeding twice a day. About right? Not enough?  <More frequent is better> The tank is lightly loaded and has lots of Caulerpa and LR. <Then it is likely feeding itself...> A damsel I had in there stayed fat and happy even though I rarely fed it so there seems to be plenty of food floating around. Thanks, Marc <Be chatting. Bob Fenner>

Seahorse problem I had Petland order me three Yellow sea horses. I received them yesterday. They were doing ok in the tank there, but were just laying around connected to feather duster tubes. When I brought them home I acclimated them to my tank and they became more lively, all but the male. The other 2 females were doing okay. I released them into my tank around 10 pm last night. Well around midnight last night my male died. One female is doing ok, but she just sits around with her tail coiled up beneath her, and has her face laying on the ground. She hasn't swam around yet, but has eaten a few ghost shrimp. Her ribs aren't full but they aren't bare like the other one. The other female has been laying on the ground on her side for over 12 hours. She won't eat, and she only moves if I pick her up and move her somewhere, then she will swim away from me. She tries constantly to stay upright but fails. She also has a red spot where her tail connects to her body. It looks weird and like it shouldn't be there. Well I've run out of ideas on what to do, so I hope that you can help me. ~~~Tomy~~~ <Doesn't look good... Due to the rapid onset of the red mark, the other behavior, loss I'm inclined to chalk up what you describe as "collateral shipping stress"... Seahorses and relatives do sometimes take a real beating in transport (have seen very large shipments arrive all DOA). Do contact your dealer and in turn have them contact their supplier re this shipment. I wouldn't "do" much other than what you are doing with the females here. Bob Fenner>

Seahorses, WWM Hi Bob....very nice site.......I really like it!! Where should I send seahorse enthusiasts...do really want them asking you all the questions??? <Hmm, actually, have friends at Ocean Rider that know most all that is pertinent (accurate, significant, meaningful) re the tube-mouthed fishes captive husbandry... But yes, please send any/all folks with general marine questions, or ones looking for "other" opinions/insights to WetWebMedia.com or our chatforum (many good folks there): http://talk.wetwebfotos.com/ Be chatting. Bob Fenner> Aloha, Carol <who is a principal at Ocean Rider>

Honorary Membership to Ocean Rider Seahorse Club! Bob, Hello my name is Susan and I run a seahorse club for Carol from OR and we wanted to extend an invitation to you as an honorary membership! <Ah, thank you> Please let me know if you would be interested in participating it is fun and easy! Just reply to this message and let me know if you would like to receive individual emails or a daily digest or no email! <The daily digest, please> More Later, Susan <Bob Fenner>

Seahorses Hi, I had searched through the wetwebmedia but could not find the way how seahorses are quarantined. Could you please tell me how seahorses should be quarantined? Many thanks. <Better than this... please see the "Ocean Rider" website link on our Links Page (on WWM). By and large I don't quarantine "tube-mouthed fishes" due to the stress and likelihood this will contribute to their starvation... plus the general lack of good it does. If you see obvious infestation, infection, yes... Bob Fenner>

Freshwater Seahorses My name is Charlie and I'm a freshwater enthusiast. My question is: Where can I obtain freshwater seahorses from and will their conditions be much different from freshwater fish? I would be setting up the tank specifically for them with maybe 1or 2 Ancistrus. thanks. <Hmm, haven't seen "freshwater" seahorses offered by anyone for many years... I would contact the folks on the Big Island of Hawai'i... I think their link is on the www.WetWebMedia.com site... or definitely in FAMA magazine... and ask them these questions. Bob Fenner>

Taxonomic status of Seadragons Hi there,  I have a question concerning some information on your page (http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tube-mfi.htm), under the subheading _Classification: Taxonomy, Relation With Other Groups_ you wrote... "Some splitting-type classifiers break the family Syngnathidae itself into two or more sub-units; for Nelson, the subfamilies Syngnathinae (pipefishes) and Hippocampinae (seahorses and Seadragons)." I was just looking up some information on the leafy Seadragons myself and, in Nelson's _Fishes of the World_, 3rd edition (1994), pp 300-301, he states that: "Two groups, once given taxonomic rank, may be recognized based on whether the brood organ is on the tail (the Urophori or Syngnathinae), as in most genera and including seahorses and the ghost pipefishes, or on the trunk (the Gastrophori or doryrhamphines)." Nelson then continues by stating that: "The intermediate forms and the various genera of Seadragons of Australia, which resemble seahorses but reach a larger size and have leaf like appendages, are placed in the pipefish subfamily." You didn't include your referenced material so I'm not sure if the Nelson reference you used is the same reference that I'm using. Is your Nelson reference older, or newer, or did you interpret it differently than me? Do you have any other references on syngnathid systematics? Thanks in advance for you help, Scott Murakami >> <Hmm, third edition, 1994, John Wiley & Sons... there's your excerpts on pgs. 300,301. And will check the site: WWM and add the mainly pet-fish references I have. Haven't done any look-seeing on computer search tools for the tube-mouthed fishes for a few years...  Did take a look at the insert on our website, http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tube-mfi.htm and a good part of the whole piece is missing. Thank you for bringing this to my attention. Will find orig. and amend. Bob Fenner>

Raising Babies I have kept two pairs of Reidi Seahorses with me almost over two years now, but I have no success to raise any of their babies which were born almost every two weeks apart. Any tip on how to raise them? <<Hmm, well just a note to send you along to places where you can learn how to:  Check out www.breeders-registry.gen.ca.us For rearing notes on Hippocampus reidi and how to culture their foods, and get the food to the young expediently. Bob Fenner>>

Seahorse Exhibit Hi Bob: I was visiting the local Shedd Aquarium in Chicago yesterday and they had a wonderful Seahorse (and relatives) exhibit. The most awesome specimens were the 8" Leafy Sea Dragons and some smaller Weedy Sea Dragons. Have you ever seen the Leafy ones for sale? I would love to get some but they are probably way to exotic for the home aquarium. Any info for me? Thanks, Jill <<It's been years... most are protected from collection... and pretty rare in their wild ranges... Bob Fenner>>

Freshwater Seahorses Hi there...I was told you might be able to help me...I have a friend whom has freshwater seahorses that he found in a small body of freshwater...do you have any idea what type of seahorse they could be...they are in freshwater...are about 1-3 inches in size....and are tannish brown. thanks <<Hmm, well, there are some known pipefishes... of the same family (Syngnathidae, the Tube-mouthed fishes) as the Seahorses (about twenty five species, all in the genus Hippocampus)... but except for a reference to them in Myers (1979)... of the possibility of a freshwater "horse" in Thailand, I don't know of any true freshwater Seahorses... Do ask your friend if these aren't Pipefishes, and whereabouts you folks are geographically. Bob Fenner>>

Seahorses in Florida Return of Paravortex is right!...I wish had known about your website earlier, I feel so stupid for not knowing about this turbellarian because of its being so common. I have been studying local Florida gulf coast seahorses and am going to set up a turtle and shoal grass aquarium as a species tank resembling their natural habitat. I haven't been able to dig up much as far as accurate taxonomy and feeding. These species are decidedly a rich mottled reddish brown and measure in at about 4 inches (when prehensile tail is relaxed an curled). and while am aware of the use of Mysid shrimp as a food staple for most larger Syngnathidae specimens, would you have any clue as to the food culture techniques and species classification of this particular seahorse? Thanks again, Chris <<Get thee to a large library online or off, and check out the many recent works by Amanda Vincent et al. on the tube mouthed fishes, and fabulous culture works by Frank Hoff, from FLORIDA!  Be chatting, Bob Fenner>>

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