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Related FAQs: Marine Angelfishes In General, Selection, Behavior, Compatibility, Systems, Health, Feeding, Disease.  

Related Articles: Marine Angelfish family Pomacanthidae, Apolemichthys, Centropyge , Chaetodonoplus, Holacanthus, Pomacanthus, Pygoplites Angelfishes of: Baja, Red Sea, Caribbean

The Best Marine Livestock series:

The Best Angelfishes For Marine Aquarium Use

Bob Fenner Study before you buy
Angelfishes for  Marine Aquariums
Diversity, Selection & Care
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

The family Pomacanthidae currently comprises nine genera with eighty eight (and counting) species. These fishes bear a stout spine on the gill cover (Pom = "cover", acanthus= "spine") liable to get tangled in nets, poke livestock and you. This is often stated as an easy distinguishing mark between them and the closely related butterflyfishes.

Natural and Introduced Range

Circumtropical; prominent species in shallows to a few hundred feet on rocky and coral reefs worldwide. Most are found in the western Pacific, with only nine species in the Atlantic and four in the eastern Pacific.


From a few inches to a couple of feet. I have heartbrokenly seen piles of foot and a half Pomacanthus angels on docks in Singapore and Thailand, on their way for human consumption, and just as miserably witnessed too small and too large specimens of even the best and better species offered in the trade that had little chance of "making it" in captivity.

Here are my re-statements of facts and opinions regarding which are the good, okay and dismal species of angelfishes for aquarium use, with scant notes following on how to go about picking out the best of the (most appropriate species) specimens offered.

Captive Suitability Scoring:

After long thought, investigation of others declared opinions, and handling thousands of these fishes over the last thirty some years in the trade I?ve come up with the following scheme of "scores" for each on its likelihood of surviving the rigors of aquarium care. To a degree this information is necessarily historical (what has happened, may not be the general trend to come), and is subject to "improvement" on the keepers side as a consequence of providing larger, more stable quarters and more diligent husbandry. But, by and large a relative score of one (1) indicates the "highest and best" survivability under captive conditions; let?s say most of the specimens of this species collected surviving more than three months. A score of two (2) is indicative of a mortality of more than fifty percent between one and three months. Lastly, and sufficient for our purposes, a three (3) is the worst score, with more than 50% of the species perishing before a months time of capture. I entreat you to leave the latter group to the sea, or at least to study and provide the best possible circumstances for these animals.

Yes, I know other authors, even highly respected scientists? ratings are different than mine, and your dealer(s) probably consider my "judgments" too harsh. My advice is indeed, not to rely on what?s stated here and/or any one other source of information. Before purchasing these (or other livestock) do your best to gather as much pertinent "accurate, significant, and meaningful" information as you can from reading, other hobbyists and the industry.

Genus Apolemichthys: Species

This genus is a mixed bag of suitability for hobby use. By the species most are of moderate hardiness; the best of them are semi to very expensive, and the most commonly available has a dismally poor survival record in captivity. 

Apolemichthys armitagei Smith 1955, the Armitage Angelfish (1). Reportedly very hardy. Only found in the Maldives and Seychelles in the Indian Ocean, and infrequently.


Been to both locations, and never seen it.

Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus Burgess 1973, the Goldflake or Golden-Spotted Angelfish (1). A fantastically beautiful and hardy species, found scattered about in islands of the central Pacific. To ten inches on the reef.

Apolemichthys xanthotis (Fraser-Brunner 1951), the Red Sea Angelfish (1). Small enough at six inches for home aquarium use. Restricted in range to the Red Sea around to the south, Oman's coast into the Persian Gulf.

Apolemichthys xanthurus (Bennett 1832), the Indian Yellow-Tail Angelfish (1). A darker version of A. xanthotis. Found around India's southern point and the Maldives. Also to about six inches in length.

Best Genus Centropyge: Species

This genus makes up the bulk of what are termed "dwarf" or "pygmy" angels in reference to the 2-4" maximum size for most. Some are great for aquarium use, others dismal. Difficult species may require a haremic living condition; large system with one male, a few females; or have novel, demanding feeding requirements. Others are simply poorly adaptive to aquarium conditions. One to a tank is the rule, and the system should be well-established (e.g. have filamentous algae growth). Also of note: Pygmy Angels are very sensitive to copper treatments.

Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922), even more orange than the sympatric Centropyge argi and Centropyge aurantonotus, the African Pygmy Angel (1) can be easily discerned as the only one of the three with a light colored, yellow-transparent caudal fin. Coastal eastern Africa up to the coast of Oman.

Centropyge argi Woods & Kanazawa 1951, the Cherub or Atlantic (Caribbean) Pygmy Angel (1). To 2.5" overall. Bermuda on down to the coast of Brazil.

Centropyge aurantius Randall & Wass 1974, the Golden Pygmy Angel  (1) is a real striker. It's a shame that this species hides so well, necessitating extensive breaking of coral and drug or poison use in its collection, and hiding for so much of the time in captivity. Western Pacific Ocean, Indonesia to Caroline Islands.

Centropyge aurantonotus Burgess 1974, the ( Brazilian) Flameback Angel (1) is very much like the more northerly Centropyge argi with more orange color on its back, at a much higher price. Found in southern part of the Caribbean Sea. Note the dark blue caudal fin, distinguishing it from C. acanthops.

Centropyge eibli Klausewitz 1963, Eibl's Dwarf Angel (1), is an excellent aquarium species, especially coming from Sri Lanka, its principal source, though found all over the eastern Indian Ocean over to the Maldives. Closely related to Centropyge vroliki of the Pacific, with which it hybridizes.

Centropyge ferrugata Randall & Burgess 1972, the Rusty Dwarf Angel (1), is a winner occasionally brought in from Japan and Taiwan. It adapts very easily to captivity. Western Pacific, Japan to the Philippines.

Centropyge hotumatua Randall & Caldwell 1973, Hotumatua's Dwarf Angel (1). Found amongst a string of south Pacific Islands. A smaller dwarf species at 3 inches maximum length.

Centropyge interruptus (Tanaka 1918), the Japanese Pygmy Angelfish (1), a gorgeous and tough dwarf. Found in the northwestern Pacific Ocean off southern Japan eastward.

Next trip to the Waikiki Aquarium, for sure!

Centropyge interruptus Picture   9/6/2010
Hi guys, I'd like to offer the use of my female Centropyge picture for this page :-
The pic was taken during acclimation, she is a 4 inch specimen. I love the work that you people do for us reefers, keep up the great work.
<Thank you for sharing Indy. Will post w/ credit to you. Bob Fenner>

Centropyge joculator Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1974, the Cocos (Keeling, island in the Indian Ocean) Pygmy Angel (1). Very rare in the trade. Found only in the eastern Indian Ocean about Cocos and Christmas Islands.

Let's go.

Centropyge loriculus (Gunter 1874), the Flame Angel (1), is a staple in the ornamental marine trade, with some 5,000 individuals collected and sold worldwide every week. Western to central Pacific Ocean.

Centropyge nahackyi Kosaki 1989, Nahacky's Pygmy or Dwarf Angel (1), for the professional collector Tony Nahacky of Hawai'i (now of Fiji). Found almost exclusively on Johnston Atoll in the mid Pacific, occasionally strays are found in Hawai'i.

Centropyge resplendens Lubbock & Sankey, the Resplendent Dwarf Angel (1), is rarely seen as its known range is around St. Helena & Ascension Islands, marooned in the mid-Atlantic. A real dwarf species, to two inches in length.

No pics from TMC, or Jim Stime? Yah!

Centropyge vroliki (Bleeker 1853), the Pearl-Scaled or Half-Black Dwarf Angel (1), is one of my standard, "marine aquarium service account species". Very hardy. Indo-west Pacific Ocean in distribution. Closely related to, and hybridizes with Centropyge flavissimus and Centropyge eibli. See below.

Best Genus Chaetodonoplus Species

These ten or eleven species share a few features; they?re attain about the same size (7-10 inches), are all good-looking, of medium to high cost, and of medium survivability as far as use as aquarium livestock. Semi-aggressive, so should be placed in the system last, as with all large angel species. Should you invest in a Chaetodonoplus, assure yourself it is eating; all eat sponge and algae matter in the wild, and provide plenty of cover.

Chaetodontoplus conspicillatus (Waite 1900), the Conspicuous Angelfish (1). A beautiful and expensive centerpiece for folks with a large aquarium (hundreds of gallons). To about a foot in length. Australian east coast out to New Caledonia.

Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Gunther 1867), the Scribbled Angelfish (1). A more common import from the genus. Best started at 4-5 inches to wean over wild foods (sea squirts, sponges). To twelve inches overall in the wild. North coast of Australia to New Guinea.

Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844), the Blue-Striped Angelfish (1). Becoming a more common import. Ranging from southern China's coast up to southern Japan. To eight inches in the wild.


Best Genus Genicanthus: Species

Genicanthus are termed "swallowtails" for their accentuated caudal finnage. Though these fishes are known to feed largely on zooplankton, most have dismal survival records in captivity. Even the best of this genus generally succumb to "stress" diseases after a few months. Most of the mortality is due to their deep water (more than one hundred feet) and isolated ranges (hence poor airline service), as well as rough capture and handling. Starting with smaller, non-injured specimens is paramount. The eleven (10 described, one not) Genicanthus Angels are protogynous hermaphrodites (females turn into males), display striking color and finnage differences between the sexes, and mostly females are offered in the trade (more common in the wild).

Genicanthus personatus Randall 1975, the Masked Angelfish (1). Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Rare and cooler water animals, but can live in tropical systems. Shy, need plenty of rock cover. To eight inches total length. Male and female shown from Waikiki Aquarium.

Best Genus Holacanthus: Species

This genus is mostly suitable as species for aquaria. The majority are literally "tough as nails" (the African H. africanus, Clarion H. clarionensis, Queen H. ciliaris, Blue H. bermudensis, Passer, H. passer) but one does extremely poorly as a rule (the Atlantic Rock Beauty, H. tricolor). All require daily greens in their diet to flourish.

Holacanthus africanus Cadenat 1951, West African Angelfish (1). Seldom seen in the trade due to its range: off the coast of tropical western Africa. To seventeen inches long in the wild.

Haven't been there... yet.

Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876, the Blue Angelfish (1). Often confused price-wise with the Queen Angelfish, whose juveniles have bent mid-body bars and adults are much more colorful overall. Hybrids between the two abound. Patchy distribution in the tropical west Atlantic. To thirteen inches or so in length. Juvenile and mid-size adult in captivity shown.

  Holacanthus clarionensis Gilbert 1891, the Clarion Angelfish (1). Found at the tip of southern Baja on down to scattered islands as far south as Clipperton. To eight inches in length. A rare beauty that demands a well-deserved high price. Juvenile and adult at Socorro Island, Revilligigedos.

Holacanthus limbaughi Baldwin 1963, the Clipperton Angelfish (1). Only recorded from Clipperton Island in the tropical east Pacific. To about nine inches in length. 

Next trip with Marty, Gerry, and crew.

Holacanthus passer Valenciennes 1846, the King or Passer Angelfish (1). Juveniles act as cleaners of other fishes. To about nine inches in length. A great, hardy fish for a large marine system. Mid Sea of Cortez on down the Pacific coast to the Galapagos. Juvenile in aquarium, adult in Cabo, Mexico.

Best Genus Pomacanthus Species

These are the largest marine angels, some species attaining two feet in length. As such they require large quarters (at least one hundred gallons) and should be kept one specimen to a tank. Like all pomacanthids, it is best to acquire one of about late juvenile to sub-adult size (3-5"). All require daily "greens" in their diet, and are initially shy on introduction.

Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787), the Blue-Ringed Angelfish (1). An oft-neglected beauty, that is surprisingly (to some) hardy. Indo-west Pacific and east African coast. To about eight inches overall. Changing juvenile and sub-adult in captivity.

Pomacanthus arcuatus Gray 1831, the Gray Angelfish (1). A beauty as a juvenile (shown). Tropical west Atlantic, Bahamas to Brazil. To a foot and a half in length, friendly and long-lived in captivity. Juvenile and sub-adult in the wild.

Pomacanthus (Arusetta) asfur (Forsskal 1775), the Arabian or Crescent Angel (1). A fabulous beauty and centerpiece for very large systems. To sixteen inches in the wild. Red Sea on down to Arabian Sea and around Horn of Africa to Zanzibar. Juvenile and adult in captivity.

Pomacanthus chrysurus (Cuvier 1831), the Ear-Spot Angelfish (1). Found from the southern end of the Red Sea, down Africa's east coast to South Africa, but rarely in the trade, and that's a shame. To about thirteen inches in length. 

Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787), the Emperor Angel (1). Widespread in the central and western Pacific into the Indian Oceans coasts and Red Sea. To fifteen inches total length. Shown are a juvenile of about four inches in captivity and an adult in the Maldives.

Pomacanthus (Arusetta) maculosus (Forsskal 1775), the Yellow-Band Angelfish. Very similar as adults and juveniles to Pomacanthus asfur, with told apart from their clear tails and smaller yellow body patch. To eighteen inches long. Red Sea, Persian Gulf to east African coast. Adult in captivity pictured.


Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787), the French Angelfish (1). Another standard in the aquarium trade. Beautiful and hardy, and large (to fifteen inches in length and a foot tall). Tropical west Atlantic from the Bahamas to Brazil. Pictured: a three inch juvenile in captivity, foot long adult in Belize.

Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831), the Koran or Semicircle Angelfish (1). A beauty from throughout its wide range, Indo-west Pacific eastward to Africa, but not the Red Sea. To about thirteen inches in length. Shown below: two, five and twelve inch individuals, the first two in captivity, the adult in Fiji.

Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill 1862), the Cortez Angelfish (1) Susceptible to the scourge that is HLLE, but a beauty as a juvenile to mid-adult. To about fifteen inches total length. Tropical east Pacific, from upper Sea of Cortez down to the Galapagos. A juvenile in captivity and adult in the Sea of Cortez.

Marine Angel Selection: General to Specific


Very generally; for small species get one that is 2-3 inches in length, the genera of larger angels, about 3-5 inches. Smaller individuals tend to be too beaten up in the processes of collection and transport and too-big one's adapt poorly, refusing food and displaying unwanted behaviors.

Red Markings:  

Bloody color around the mouth, fins or body flanks is definitely a bad sign. I would not consider such a specimen for purchase. The scales should be flat, smooth and clean on the body.

Bright Eyes:  

Both eyes must be clear (no scratches or white marks), and not-bulging. One or two overly-protruding may be indicative of physical trauma (beating or poor decompression) or internal parasite/disease problems. Avoid these specimens. See example pic.

Mental/Emotional Problems & the Possibility of Poisoning:  

Look at the prospective purchase; is it looking back at you, reacting to your presence? It should be. Psychologically damaged and poisoned (cyanide is not an anesthetic) specimens may look 'perfect' color and body-wise; but are generally lethargic. You can even reach into their tank and touch them sometimes. Don't even think about buying such a specimen. Healthy angels are vigorous, aware animals that require skilled two-net capturing techniques.


Is it? Ask to see; more than once; types of food you intend to utilize.

Source is Important: 

Why should you spend more money, at times much more money, for the "apparent" same fish that?s cheaper from elsewhere/anywhere? Two very legitimate "reasons". One: because the species may do much better on average coming from area "A" than "B". As an example, the Regal Angel, Pygoplites diacanthus, actually does pretty well when purchased within the "right" size range coming from the Red Sea. It doesn?t generally live at all coming from every where else.

The second reason has to do with "rewarding" folks for doing good work, i.e. getting you specimens that live, though they may cost "apparently" more initially to all parties. Think about this. How much cheaper is a fish that dies in a short while? As a consumer voting with your dollars, what are you stating/encouraging by purchasing such animals?


If you read other's accounts (you should) of which are good, okay, and lousy marine angelfish species, you'll quickly find there is no end of differences of opinions. Be aware that what's enclosed here, of a necessity, are vast generalizations concerning animals that are individualistic. You may get an "impossible" species to eat out of your hand; or an "easy-care" variety might possibly succumb from nothing on the way home from the shop. What is stated are general trends for the species, sizes and current sources for these animals. You can and will greatly improve on your likelihood of keeping livestock live by researching how to pick out healthy specimens from the best location sources and providing them with optimized settings.

Bibliography/Further Reading


Allen, Gerald R., Roger Steene & Mark Allen. 1998. A Guide to Angelfishes & Butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research. 250pp.

Chlupaty, P. 1978. Marine fish; angelfish. Aquarium Digest Int?l. #19.

Emmens, Cliff W. 1983. Large Pacific angelfishes. TFH 3/83.

Emmens, Cliff W. 1985. Smaller Pacific angelfishes. TFH 6/95.

Fenner, Robert. 1995. Three amigo angels from Baja. TFH 7/95.

Fenner, Robert M. 1998. The Conscientious Aquarist; A Commonsense Handbook for Successful Saltwater Hobbyists. Microcosm, VT. 432pp.

Giovanetti, Thomas A. 1989. Getting acquainted with Red Sea fishes. TFH 9/89.

Gonzalez, Deane. 1980. Angels of Hawaii. FAMA 7/80.

Hemdal, Jay. 1989. Marine angelfish; color and style. AFM 8/89.

Kuiter, Rudie H. & Helmut Debelius. 1994. Southeast Asia Tropical Fish Guide. Tetra Press, Germany 321pp.

Lobel, Phil S. 1975. Hawaiian angelfishes. Marine Aquarist 6:4, 75.

Miller, Gary. 1985. Angelfish of the Caribbean. FAMA 8/85.

Moe, Martin A. 1976. Rearing Atlantic angelfish. Marine Aquarist 7:7, 76.

Randall, John E. 1996. Shore Fishes of Hawai?i. Natural World Press, Vida, OR. 216pp.

Stratton, Richard F. 1994. Practical angels. TFH 9/94.

Taylor, Edward C. 1983. Marine angelfishes- thinking small. TFH 5/83.

Tepoot, Pablo & Ian M. 1996. Marine Aquarium Companion: Southeast Asia. New Life Publications, FL. 358pp.

Toyama, Dean. 1988. The angelfish of Midway Island. FAMA 11/88.

Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes, pt. 3; Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae). TFH 12/84.

By Genera:

Genus Apolemichthys:

Burgess, Warren E. 1973. Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus; a new species of angelfish (family Pomacanthidae) from the Pacific Ocean. TFH 8/73.

Pyle, Richard L. 1989. Griffis? angelfish, Apolemichthys griffisi (Carlson and Taylor). FAMA 3/89.

Pyle, Richard L. 1989. The armitate angelfish, Apolemichthys armitagei- Smith. FAMA 4/89.

Pyle, Richard L. 1989. The goldflake angelfish, Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus Burgess. FAMA 5/89.

Genus Centropyge:

Baker, Donald E. 1983. Centropyge shepardi: a recently described pygmy angelfish from Guam. TFH 12/83.

Campbell, Douglas G. Marines: their care and keeping. Centropyge, pts. I,II. FAMA 3,4/83.

Carlson, Bruce A. 1985. Centropyge heraldi Woods & Schultz, 1953; an unusual variety from the Fiji Islands. FAMA 4/85.

Fenner, Bob. 1995. A diversity of aquatic life: My favorite dwarf angelfish- Centropyge loriculus. FAMA 10/95.

Fenner, Robert. 1998. Perfect little angels. TFH 4/98.

Howe, Jeffrey C. Original descriptions: Centropyge narcosis Pyle and Randall, 1993. FAMA 7/97.

Kosaki, Randall K. & Dean Toyama. 1987. Gold morphs in Centropyge angelfish. FAMA 7/87.

Kuhling, D. Undated. Centropyge, dwarf angelfish who must eat their greens! ADI Marine # 38.

Lamm, Darrell, R. 1984. Spawning of the coral beauty angelfish. SeaScope Summer 84.

Michael, Scott W. 1996. Pygmy angelfishes- diminutive, but beautiful, & Some possible pygmy angels for your marine tank. AFM 1,2/96.

Moenich, David R. 1988. Pygmy angelfishes: the genus Centropyge. TFH 1/88.

Moyer, Jack T. 1989. How many species of pygmy marine angelfishes are there? TFH 3/89.

Pyle, Richard L & Randall K. Kosaki. 1989. The black-spot angelfish, Centropyge nigriocellus Schutz. FAMA 10/89.

Pyle, Richard L. 1990. The Japanese pygmy angelfish, Centropyge interruptus (Tanaka). FAMA 3/90.

Pyle, Richard L. 1992. A hybrid angelfish, Centropyge flavissimus X eibli. FAMA 3/92.

Pyle, Richard L. 1993. The golden angelfish, Centropyge aurantius, Randall and Wass. FAMA 11/93.

Randall, John E. & Anthony Nahacky. 1988. The keyhole angelfish. FAMA 4/88.

Stratton, Richard F. 1989. The bicolor angel. TFH 2/89.

Takeshita, Glenn Y. 1976. An angel hybrid. Marine Aquarist 7:1,76.

Wrobel, David. 1988. The dwarf angels of the genus Centropyge. SeaScope Spring 88.

Genus Chaetodonoplus:

Campbell, Douglas G. 1978. Chaetodonoplus angels... uncommon rulers of the reef. FAMA 6/78.

Chlupaty, Peter. 1982. Chaetodonoplus duboulayi- an Australian angel. TFH 5/82.

Hemdal, Jay. Chaetodonoplus personifer (McCulloch 1914). FAMA 11/85.

Michael, Scott W. 1995. An aquarist?s guide to the angelfish genus Chaetodonoplus. SeaScope Spring, 95.

Parker, Peter & John Gribble. 1994. Rediscovering the Ballina angelfish, Chaetodonoplus ballinae

(Pomacanthidae)(Whitley, 1959): two new fish records for Lord Howe Island, Australia. FAMA 8/94.

Genus Paracentropyge:

Pyle, Richard L. 1992. The peppermint angelfish Centropyge boylei, n.sp. Pyle and Randall. FAMA 7/92.

Genus Genicanthus:

Carlson, Bruce A. 1982. The masked angelfish, Genicanthus personatus Randall 1974. FAMA 5/82.

Conde, Bruno. 1993. A double sex inversion in Genicanthus lamarck (Pomacanthidae). SeaScope Spring, 93.

Debelius, Helmut. 1981. Latest discoveries about the angelfish Genicanthus caudovittatus. FAMA 4/81.

Howe, Jeffrey C. 1992. The masked angelfish, Genicanthus personatus Randall 1975. FAMA 2/92.

Michael, Scott W. 1997. Swallowtail angelfishes; the Genicanthus species are a different sort of angelfish. AFM 4/97.

Pyle, Richard L. 1990. The masked angelfish, Genicanthus personatus Randall. FAMA 10/90.

Genus Holacanthus:

Bellomy, Mildred D. 1975. Rock beauty. Marine Aquarist 6:7, 75.

Campbell, Douglas. 1981. Marines: their care and keeping. Holacanthus-Apolemichthys pts. 1,2. FAMA 3,4/81.

Fenner, Bob. 1990. The queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris. 5/90.

Fenner, Bob. 1995. A diversity of aquatic life- Clarion angels, Holacanthus clarionensis Gilbert 1890. FAMA 11/95.

Kerstitch, Alex. 1987. The king angelfish (Holacanthus passer). FAMA 6/87.

McKenna, Scott. 1988. Keeping the rock beauty angel. TFH 7/88.

Michael, Scott W. Holacanthus angelfish; their behavior isn?t very angelic. AFM 10/97.

Moenich, David R. 1990. Marine angelfish: Holacanthus; once a saltwater aquarist becomes skilled in the marine hobby, angels are a challenge worth taking on. AFM 8/90 or FAMA 11/89.

Phillips, Merry E. 1993. A special angel (H. tricolor). FAMA 9/93.

Stratton, Richard F. 1988. The king angel, Holacanthus passer. TFH 8/88.

Stratton, Richard F. 1989. The queen angel. TFH 6/89.

Weiss, Mark. 1986. The cosmopolitan clarion. TFH 9/86.

Genus Pomacanthus:

Burgess, Warren E. 1982. The blue-faced angelfish. TFH 7/82.

Campbell, Douglas G. 1978. Euxiphipops; a delicate challenge. FAMA 8/78.

Campbell, Douglas G. 1978. Pomacanthus annularis; the blue ring angel. FAMA 9/78.

Campbell, Douglas. Marines: their care and keeping; Pomacanthus. FAMA 9/81.

Chlupaty, Peter. 1982. Cortez Angelfish. TFH 7/82.

Fenner, Bob 1995. Expensive, gorgeous and hardy, the Yellow-Band Angel, Pomacanthus maculosus. FAMA 4/95.

Fenner, Bob. 1995. An emperor among angelfishes, Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch, 1787). FAMA 3/95.

Fenner, Robert. 1996. The French Angelfish, Pomacanthus paru. TFH 4/96.

Fenner, Bob. 1998. The large angels of the subgenus Euxiphipops. TFH 10/98.

Kerstitch, Alex. 1981. Cortez Angelfish, Pomacanthus zonipectus. FAMA 10/81.

McKenna, Scott. 1990. Keeping the flamboyant French Angel. TFH 1/90.

Michael, Scott W. Angels of the reef; meet the genus Pomacanthus. AFM 9/97.

Moe, Martin A. 1997. Spawning and rearing the large angelfish Pomacanthus sp. Aquarium Frontiers 4(3):97.

Ranta, Jeffrey A. 1995. The emperor of the aquarium. TFH 12/95.

Shen, Shih-Chieh, 1998. The first record of a hybrid Pomacanthus semicirculatus X P. imperator,

from Nan-Wang, Southern Taiwan. TFH 11/98.

Spies, Gunter. 1988. The emperor of the reef: Pomacanthus imperator. TFH 11/88.

Stratton, Richard F. 1992. The gray angelfish, Pomacanthus arcuatus. TFH 3/92.

Genus Pygoplites:

Fenner, Robert. 1995. The Regal Angelfish, Pygoplites diacanthus; tips for the conscientious aquarist. TFH 2/95.

Angelfishes for  Marine Aquariums
Diversity, Selection & Care
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