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Centropyge potteri Jordan & Metz 1912, Potter's Dwarf Angel, named after Frederick Potter, the first director of the Waikiki Aquarium.  A viejo (old one) below in Kona. 2017
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General FAQs. Ask us a question: Crew@WetWebMedia.com
Updated 2/17/2018
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Earl Clay III, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Lynn Zurik, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Xenia Overgrowth Removal     2/17/18
WWM Team:
<Dan>
I thought I would share a solution to a problem I had recently with Xenia in my 1000 gallon reef tank.
<Oh, please do>
I occasionally see posts on WWM regarding explosions of Xenia growth in reef tanks overgrowing SPS coral. The common solution seems to be the isolation / manual removal of Xenia from the rocks which can be difficult if it is encrusting over a large area in an established reef. I had this issue at the end of last year and a $5 piece of black felt and some patience (10 weeks) took care of the issue! The felt can be easily cut to size depending on the area where you want the Xenia removed. The best part is, because the Xenia died off slowly, the tank didn't get shocked in the
same way that scraping causes. Here is the before and after:
<Neato! And no adverse chemical reactions... due to? Size/volume of the system, use of chemical filtrants?
Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>


Before


During                                      and                                       after

Berta fish wound     2/17/18
Hello, my Betta fish injured himself somehow I believe possibly by a tank decoration or something, however it has been about 3 weeks and the injuring just keeps getting larger and also looks white now , I will attach photos, is there any kind of medicine I can give him or put into his water (it is filtered and heated)?
<Mmm; yes... there are some antibiotics that might help; but I would try directly daubing this wound area (like w/ a Q-Tip or such) liquid Mercurochrome or Merthiolate onto this wound; lifting the Betta outside the system, not dripping the mercury containing material into the water>
I have read much conflicting information on "fix" medications and also salt. What is the best I can do for a speedy recovery.
Also he is eating okay I think it might be difficult for him to eat because the injury is right on his face, and he has normal looking poop . I feed him pellets.
I also think he has fin rot because he likes to put himself where the filter sucks in water, therefore, sucking in his fins.
<Mmm; then maybe the Antibiotic (added to the water) in addition. Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/BettaInfectDisF2.htm
Bob Fenner>

Re: Angelfish with a mark on its side- thanks!     2/16/18
Thanks a million Neale !
<Welcome.>
Will do as you say.
<Cool.>
I bought her with it so she had it before entering my tank.
<Ah! The plot thinnens.>
Only thing will be the whole community will be getting the treatment I'd say that won't do any harm though.
When I Googled Finrot/ ulcers in tropical fish. I found this UK product site..seems alright and has a diagnosis tool https://www.ntlabs.co.uk
<Ah yes, a good company; though my preference / experience has always been for eSHa products, which do (usually, and economically) deliver on what they promise. eSHa 2000 is, I believe, the Finrot product. Have not use NT Labs products myself, but they do seem to have a "Anti-Ulcer & Finrot" treatment!>
Just might be a useful reference/resource to give if people from the UK contact you.
<Indeed; and your message will be posted on the WWM website in due course.>
Doesn't stock in Ireland but I think I'm ok as I think I have the stuff already.
All the best, thanks again and kindest regards,
Linda
<Glad to help, and good luck! Neale.>

Fish with cloudy eye and skin-like film     2/16/18
Hello,
I love all the help you have given people in the past and I appreciate any help you can give me.
I have a 135 gallon reef aquarium with a yellow tang, Foxface, lyretail, potter's Angel and a ghost eel.
About two weeks ago, I purchased a pearly Jawfish. I have read that Jawfish don't do well in quarantine so he was on hold at the fish store for about 4 weeks so I could watch him.
It looked really good, healthy and active so I brought him home. That day, he started digging a home and things seemed fine. That was the last time I saw him. He was gone. I figured the ghost eel had an expensive dinner.
Today, he made an appearance! I couldn't believe it. He popped up out of a hole, actively eating, Yay!
Except, his eye is cloudy and looks like extra skin is laying over the top of it.
Is this a disease? An injury? What should I do?
<An injury...>
My parameters are:
Ammonia 0, nitrates 0, nitrates about 7, Ph 8.2, temp. 76 phos 0.04 and sg 1.025
Thanks for any help you can give me,
Deborah Baran
<I would hold off doing anything treatment/medicine wise here. Too likely to cause environmental issues for all. Instead, do your best to maintain good conditions and nutrition. Should solve itself in time. Bob Fenner>

Re: Fish with cloudy eye and skin-like film     2/16/18
Thank you so much and your reply was super quick. I'm still dumbfounded
that he popped out like that. The eel and him seem to be sharing a home.
<Happens. BobF>

Re: Saving Betta from possible Ammonia Poisoning   2/15/18
Hi Bob and Crew,
Sorry to trouble you again, but my Betta fish Samson seems to have gotten worse.
<Oh?>
I emailed last week about my sick Betta Samson, who we thought had ammonia poisoning. We got a new test kit and have been checking the water daily.
The ph is between 6.5 and 7, the temperature is 27c, no nitrites or nitrates ever registered. We have ammonia in our tap water (registers at 0.5ppm after adding water conditioner), so we use API AmmoLock.
<If I haven't stated this before, I strongly encourage you to treat and save new/change out water a week or more ahead of use>
We had swapped in the filter from our other cycled Betta tank, which seemed to be working on dealing with the tap water ammonia and were doing 25% water changes daily. For 3 days the fish was doing better. He was still
lethargic
and had a pale colour, but he started eating again and wasn't hiding or clamping his fins at all. He would swim out to see me when I came to the tank, he just needed to have a rest afterwards. He seemed to be on the road to recovery.
Then on Saturday he seemed to be a bit worse, so instead of the daily 25% water changes I'd been doing, I did 30% water changes. On Sunday he started acting very ill again, he would swim to the surface to breathe and not
have the energy to settle himself back down again, instead just falling onto whatever was below him (ending up hanging upside down from a plant at one point). He wouldn't eat, he wouldn't react to anything. I would have
thought he was dead except that his gills were still moving.
With nothing else to try, I set up a 1 gallon hospital tank with Methylene blue and moved him into that. I'm completely at a loss to explain why he has now twice improved and then become much worse very quickly. I would suspect water quality but the tank readings seem great and I had done a complete tank clean and 100% water change the last time he started getting worse. I have another Betta tank set up with the same parameters, same food, and that fish is thriving! Samson's been in the hospital tank for 3 days with 50% water changes. He's now able to sit upright again and decided he was willing to eat a small amount again last night.
I've checked Samson over several times with a flashlight looking for anything that could explain this weird cycle. I can't see any visible deformities, no scratches or scrapes, no broken fins. The only thing I can see that seems wrong is a greenish/brown colour on his tail fin that is not part of his normal colouring (when healthy he was a vibrant red). I've dealt with velvet in tanks before and this doesn't look anything like it to me. I'm not even sure this colouring is a sign of a specific disease or simply a change in colour due to illness.
I was hoping for some help in identifying what could be wrong so that I can begin a targeted treatment instead of just leaving him in Methylene blue and hoping that works. I'm assuming since this started with a broken filter that we are still dealing with ammonia poisoning but also possibly a secondary infection.
List of symptoms that I've seen:
-lethargic
-rapid gill movement (this is a new development in the last few days)
-loss of appetite (this comes and goes)
-struggling to stay upright (this also comes and goes)
-loss of colour
-greenish brown colouring on tail fin
<... nothing jumps out other than stress from all the changes>
Standard symptoms I have not seen:
-No gold specs
-no white growths
-no streaking or dark tissue
-no fin or body rot
-no eye glassing or swelling
-gills are not visibly swollen
-no trouble eating when he wants to eat
-no obvious weight loss
-no body swelling
-no raised scales
-no scrapes, holes or missing scales
-no bleeding
-pooping just fine
Any advice at all would be very much appreciated. I've dealt with sick Betta's before (I used to work in a pet shop that sold Betta's and I treated any that came in sick), but I'm honestly at a loss for what I'm dealing with here.
Thank you,
Kathryn
<I urge patience and caution here against doing anything else... Likely the best course of action is to do nothing further.
Bob Fenner>

120gal leaking from bottom rim!    2/15/18
Hello! I attached a photo to show where the leak was occurring.
<The old, original tank....>
I had purchased a brand new Aqueon 120 gal tank.
<Is this the same tank? The one shown in the pic?>

The silicone seemed fine, no pulling away anywhere. But as I was filling it up with water, by the time it reached past the bottom rim, I noticed water leaking. It was all around the top of the bottom rim.
<What? This is the new tank? Ugh!>

AS i quickly emptied the tank, I wiped up the water and it seemed to be originating from one spot (in the photo). I
see no cracks in the bottom of the tank, water has not pooled underneath thankfully (just whatever trickled down from the side). Is this just a resealing issue?
<Re? It's an original sealing issue. Take this tank back>

In this circumstance, what can I look for as the flaw in silicone... a small area with a gap?
<Yes; but it will NOT likely be obvious... I.e., the leak and Silastic will only show when there's water in the tank, lifting the seal>
Or maybe I wont be able to see it anyway?
<Likely, yes>
I'm concerned that at this size of a tank (48.5 × 24.5 x 29.5 about) I will have issue resealing the tank with the silicone drying too fast as I work with it.
<What language is this?>
Thanks for your time. If you need more pics, let me know.
<.... Have you read on WWM re Glass Tanks, Siliconing? BobF>

Re: 120gal leaking from bottom rim!   2/15/18
Yes, the tank in the picture is the new 120 gallon tank
I’m referring to with the leak. I posted another photo because I found what seems to be the point of leaking.
<Ah yes>
I meant a resealing issue as in I just have to reseal the tank.
<This is a poor initial job. Again; I'd return this tank>

Sorry for any confusion! I have read through WWM on other submitter’s leaking issues and resealing. There is always more to read though so I haven’t finished, but I will. In your opinion, could the structural seal have been compromised or can I only tell if that is the case by removing the inner silicone seal?
<What?>
Thank you for your time!

 

Re: 120gal leaking from bottom rim!   2/15/18
Aqueon is also telling me to return the tank, so I guess that’s that.
<Good>
Not sure how I’ll get it back out the house as I won’t have the same resources.
<Mmm; do you have friends, family that can help?>
What a nightmare. Could be worse.
I meant, if you could tell, is the hole just an inner silicone seam issue?
<Ahh!>
Or could it be seen somehow that the silicone joining glass panes is the reason?
<There is a defect in both seams; yes>
I attached an image I found to show what I mean. Thank you for your help.
<Welcome. BobF>

 

water quality and a Pleco behavior questions   2/15/18
Hi all, I have a newish 20 gal FW tank (cycled, planted (Anubias, J. fern, A. sword), sand, cholla wood, and 2 BN Plecos). I'm running an 80gph pump through two socks and two sponge filters, no aeration. (I haven't cleaned
any of that yet - I'm paranoid about washing away my good bacteria!).
<Ah yes; cleanliness is not biological sterility>
My tap water and tank water is measuring about 8.2 ph, KH 230ppm, but my GH is almost nil. I used my last API strip test to measure, which was verified by my API drops tests for other parameters (nitrates-0, nitrites-0,
ammonia-.1 and ph->8). I had a pack of 5 of those strip tests and was only using them to gauge the hardness after verifying it matched the other parameters measured by drops, or was close. The numbers on the hardness have not changed in the 6 weeks since I started the tank.
<Interesting; the KH should decrease with/in time>
My understanding is the KH (I measured that using a swimming pool test kit for alkalinity, which the pool test booklet says measures calcium carbonate and matches the strip test KH number)
<Yes; the "K" is from the German, "Kalk" for Calcium>
is good to hold pH steady, and that seems to be the case. I have 2 BN Plecos doing pretty good (except for behavior question below) in the tank. I have 8 Harlequin rasboras in QT, and 5 Nerite snails and 5 cherry shrimp on the way. Do I need to ratchet up that GH? Epsom salts? What won't raise the pH?
<Depending on what you might add to raise GH it might raise the pH or not.
For instance, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) would raise GH, but not elevate pH here. I would not add anything myself>
"Thing 1" (the Pleco) has started this behavior: he's stationary on a smooth rock, then he's either burping or farting, hard to say which but there's a big bubble, and he immediately races up to the surface and then back down to
his place on the rock.
<Many South American/Amazonian fishes are facultative aerial respirators... Able to gulp air. No worries>
I don't think "Thing 2" is doing this (the other Pleco), and it is happening sporadically - if I stand and watch, he may do it once, but I've seen him do it about 5 times altogether, over the past 3-4 days. I've given them a couple Pleco wafers every other day or 2, except the day I gave them a zucchini. What's up (literally) with the Pleco?
<Nada; no need for concern>
I've had them for about a week now.
THANKS!
<Welcome Barbara. Bob Fenner>

Pomacanthus Imperator HLLE   2/15/18
Hello Bob, I'm sorry to bother you on Facebook.
<No worries Andrew. Better to send all here though>
I've been dealing with issues with my Emperor Angel for about the past 90 days he came down with HLLE during quarantine
<Very common w/ this species>
and though the fish is eating well demonstrating good behavior and not aggressive the erosion has not subsided.
<Well, there are still advocates that claim aspects of water quality, nutrition, even carbon use are to blame.>
The fishes eating well on Nori Mysis brine mussels and clams as well as some frozen foods containing sponge material however no matter what I do in addition to adding vitamin supplements to the foods as well I cannot get him to shake the erosion.
-Andrew Tassone
<Time for the long read: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/hllefaqs.htm
And the linked FAQs files above... I would follow ALL suggestions. Bob Fenner>

Re: Angelfish with a mark on its side   2/15/18
Ahh. Doh!!!
Hopefully now attached, with my apologies.
<I see attached now; definitely an ulcer, treat as Finrot, with a reliable antibiotic or antibacterial (not salt, not tea-tree oil, etc.).>
Wish I had said my plan about the Perspex in advance to you before going to the trouble of getting it. Just one other Angel in the tank and they seem to be mates as they were working together with the eggs twice now.
<Then it's a mystery where the wound came from. Heater burn perhaps? Stuck on the filter inlet? Otherwise, this sort of ulcer is classic "Plec damage" when Angels are kept with Suckermouth catfish. Treated quickly, should heal well. It's a clean flesh wound. Cheers, Neale.>


7 Feb and 13 Feb

Re: New Super Nassarius Snail in iM fusion 10 Nano reef    2/15/18
Thank you for replying.
<Welcome John. BobF> 

Re: More Thorichthys issues     2/14/18
Thanks.
<Welcome.>
I can get Levamisole, and have treated before the planted tank with it for Camallanus worms with 100% effectiveness in just a single dose.
<Cool.>
I treated before the Thorichthys with it, but as you have seen, they keep dying, just yesterday i lost another one, the one i showed you before with the white poop coming out. The eye one is still eating and going as usual.
<All sounds a bit dispiriting.>
Just today, the biggest aureus (first aureus affected, by the way) is hiding in a corner, with very pale color, and not eating, and i could notice a slight white bulge out of this anus... so i assume... the same thing... i need to treat this guy and cure him. Im not sure Levamisole works on this... might try Praziquantel or flubendazole,
<Flubendazole generally regarded as the best of the fish-safe anti-Helminthics. It kills the eggs, whereas Prazi, and I believe Levamisole, are more 'irritants' that cause the worms to 'let go' of the gut.>
although ill have to get them as dog or human medicine, because i wont find it as fish medicine... most probably i will find tablets... does the fish have to eat this or can it be dissolved?
<It can be added to the water, or put in the food. The latter is probably best, but the former can work, assuming carbon is removed from the water. I'd also up the oxygen a bit, too.>
what a bout a bath in a high concentration of it? Levamisole was much easier to administer because it was a soluble powder that didn't need to be consumed, but not sure how i will find Prazi or flubendazole.
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

New Super Nassarius Snail in iM fusion 10 Nano reef     2/14/18
Hi,
i hope you are doing well. thank you for reading my question. I have a Nuvo fusion 10 nano reef. It' been up for 6 months. I just started adding coral in mid December after slow cycling for 3 months. I cycled with dry rock and
1.5" of "live" sand, adding small amounts of frozen and pellet food one a week. I do not have any fish, only coral and a few inverts, as I think it would be cruel to house a fish in such a small tank.
<There are some small gobies, blennies...>
I started out with a few soft corals and have added a couple peaceful LPS. and a skunk cleaner shrimp. Last Week I added 3 sexy shrimp and a super Nassarius snail. I am now experiencing what I think is a bacteria bloom caused by the new snail stirring the sand bed. I have the regular symptoms, cloudy water that tests good for PH, nitrate phosphate, etc. It's been about two days now like this and some off my corals are not opening. My water parameters have been and remain very consistent in the PH and other areas. My question is can I ride this out and will it balance back out, or do you think the tank is too small to have that type of snail stirring up the sand and I need to take it back. thanks for your time.
Kind Regards,
John Arenz
<I'd add some mechanical filtration... a small outside power filter would be ideal... or a small internal one, sponge or box filter... to ride out the particulate storm for now. All ought to settle down soon. Bob Fenner>

Handling Moneywort     2/14/18
Hi Guys,
<Shriram,>
I just got into to getting used to a planted aquarium. My tank is a bare bottom one with Angles and a discuss.
I added some black soil to one corner of the tank and got moneywort plant which was rooted in a small plastic cup.
<Is this Bacopa monnieri? An interesting plant, but quite demanding. Needs very bright light!>
My LFS asked me to place the soil in a bowl and place the plastic cup along with the plant in the soil and place the bowl in the tank.
<Can be done this way. Essentially like growing a houseplant in your aquarium.>
But instead I have placed the soil directly in one corner of the tank and placed the plastic cup half submerged in the soil.
<Or this. Is the "plastic cup" one of those with lots of holes in the side, so the roots can grow out? These often have the plant roots covered in a sort of mineral wool that looks like loft insulation! Yes, you can leave the plants in these pots, and after a while the roots will spread outwards into the gravel or sand.>
I have my tank light running usually a few hours in the morning and a few hours in the evening. I can see that the plant looks pale before the light is switched on and once after the light is switched on, it seems to look a little better. But I still feel that the plant may not be in its best health. I can also see some leaves floating around the tank once a while. I do not have a CO2 system for the tank.
<Bacopa monnieri is not difficult to grow, but it does need very bright light. It's normally grown by removing the stems from the pot, placing them loosely into the substrate, and letting nature take its course. Bacopa monnieri is actually a marsh plant, but will do okay in fish tanks given enough light.>
Please guide me in what can be done for the better health of the plant.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram
<Hope this helps, Neale.>
Re: Handling Moneywort     2/14/18

Hey Neale,
<Shriram,>
Yes you are right its kind of a small "plastic cup" with holes in the sides.
<Cool. These do work well. Many people remove them of course.>
I am now looking at increasing the period the aquarium light needs to be switched on to around 8 hours.
<Oh, definitely, BUT do remember: long light period is not a substitute for brighter light! Plants each need to certain intensity of light to grow.
It's a certain 'threshold' that needs to be exceeded. Moneywort is fairly demanding, as its light green colour would suggest. Darker leaf plants, like many Cryptocoryne, will handle less light.>
I have the heater temperature set to 26 C that is around 78 F. Do I need to make any changes to that. I currently house Angels and a Discus.
<26 C is a bit low for Discus, but ideal for Angels. Most people avoid mixing the two species. Angels will bully Discus, and carry some parasites that cause Discus major problems. Be careful!>
Mine is a 10 gallon.
<Not really big enough, long term, for Angels or Discus.>
Regards,
Shriram
<And to you too, regards! Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Handling Moneywort     2/14/18

My Angels and Discus seem to be nipping the moneywort. Is this common.
<No. They may simply be hungry.>
Thanks and regards,
Shriram
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Angelfish with a mark on its side     2/14/18
Hi Neale, Wet Web Crew,
<Hello Linda,>
Thanks for the tip about cropping, please find 2 images attached .
<Nope, nothing attached!>
The one labeled 7th Feb, was before a water change and is what the lesion looked like at the start of Jan. The one labeled 13th Feb is what the lesion looked like towards the end of Dec and again now after a water change. ( I bought the fish just before Christmas)
She has laid eggs twice since I got her. But the Pleco ate them :-( So I've got a piece of Perspex for separation in case it happens again.
<Do be careful sticking solid dividers into aquaria -- they stop water flow, which stops warmth and clean water being evenly distributed. Mesh or grid-like dividers are better, such as egg crate.>
I'm hoping these photos may help for a better diagnosis/prognosis/more advice for course of action.
Thanks again,
Linda
<Maybe try again with the photos? In the meantime, your range of options with regard to lesions are limited. Assuming this is not "Head and Lateral Line Disease" or "Hole in the Head", but merely a bacterial infection, then
a good antibiotic or antibacterial is the treatment. The key to success is isolating the injured fish from anything likely to peck at or otherwise damage its wounded area. Other Angels are prone to nipping at weakened
individuals given their territorial nature (as adults they are not really social, and can be quite mean tempered). Plecs are another potential source of damage, latching onto wounds and consuming the mucous as a tasty treat.
Hope this helps, Neale.>

Tank Leak Help; sand trtmt.      2/14/18
Having a terrible day and need some help figuring out what to do. I have a 220 gallon reef tank that has been running since 2001. The seam on the bottom right hand corner is leaking and I am replacing the tank asap. My
question is what do I do with the sand bed?
<Scoop it out (squarish plastic... like Tupperware, containers are great here. IF there's a bunch of gunk/mulm interstitially, rinse, throw away most of this, but save some (like 10%) of the substrate un-rinsed for reseeding>
I know I have to use new sand in the tank but how can I do this without clouding the water.
<IF adding some/new sand, RINSE this thoroughly. See WWM re instructions... small batches, clean bucket....>
Replacing the tank and moving all the fish and coral seem easy to me.
Actually looking forward to re-scaping everything.
<Ah, good>
Its the sand part and cloudiness that is making me nervous. I am concerned about killing all the coral.
John
<Should there be too much cloudiness, employ auxiliary particulate filtration for a few days... Outside power filters, more fine filter media/pads in your sump... Bob Fenner>

180 acrylic aquarium flat back hex. Cracked
<Lisa; small/er files please... hundreds of Kbytes, not megs>
Hello all I bought this aquarium from craigslist it was built by ATM it has some cracks along bottom around overflow box I contacted them they never got back to me. I am sending picks to ask what you thought I should do.
Thank you for your time Doug.
<Are these cracks on the bottom itself? Is the bottom doubled (already)? I would NOT fill this tank until another sheet/panel is annealed over the existing. Bob Fenner>

re: 180 acrylic aquarium flat back hex
It is in the bottom someone poured Weldon over it inside but nothing more it is a single layer of acrylic otherwise, I appreciate your quick response. It has a coral insert over back panel I'll have to remove to lay a panel over crack also what thickness do you recommend and should I cover entire bottom or just around the overflow box?
<The whole bottom... you can extend the throat of the through-puts (bulk head fittings) if need be, to fit both bottom thicknesses. The new piece should be at least the thickness of the current. BobF>
re: 180 acrylic aquarium flat back hex

Wow ok to thank you for you time and suggestions.
<Aye. I'd read through on WWM re Acrylic repair for cracks for more background. Bob Fenner>

Can't get enough of that funky WWM stuff?
Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
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