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FAQs about the Brooklynellosis Disease and Clownfishes 3

Related FAQs: Brooklynellosis 1, Brooklynellosis 2, & FAQs on Brooklynellosis: Diagnosis/Symptomology, Etiology/Prevention, Cures That Don't Work, Cures That Do Work, Treatment/Products/Manufacturers... & Clownfish Disease 1, Clownfish Disease FAQs 3Clownfish Disease 4, Clownfish Disease 5, Clownfish Disease 10, Clownfish Disease 12, Clownfish Disease 13, Clownfish Disease 14, Clownfish Disease 15, Clownfish Disease 16, Clownfish Disease 17, Clownfish Disease 18, Clownfish Disease 19, Clownfish Disease 20, Clownfish Disease 21, Clownfish Disease 22, Clownfish Disease 24, Clownfish Disease 25, Clownfish Disease 26, Clownfish Disease 27, & Clownfishes in General, Clownfish Identification, Clownfish Selection, Clownfish Compatibility, Clownfish Behavior, Clownfish Systems, Clownfish Feeding, Clownfishes and AnemonesBreeding ClownsParasitic Marine Tanks 1, Marine Parasitic Disease, Parasitic Reef Tanks, Cryptocaryoniasis, Marine Ich, Marine Velvet Disease, Biological Cleaners, Treating Parasitic Disease, Using Hyposalinity to Treat Parasitic Disease

Related Articles: Surviving Brooklynellosis by Mike Maddox, Clownfish Disease, Brooklynellosis, ClownfishesMaroon Clowns, Marine Parasitic Disease

Salt Water Disaster Brooklynellosis? <More likely the big "C">     6/2/17
Love love love your site. Used it for years in freshwater tanks (I have been in hobby since 2005.)
Recently, in November of 2016, my husband and I decided to dip our toes into the kingdom of salt water.
Our first tank is a 60 gallon tank with a canister filter. We hope to upgrade within the next 12 months to 120 gallon.
<Yikes... Mmm; too small for a Powder Blue Tang or Emperor Angel>
Our set up was no live rock, coral, or anything, we started from scratch with fake coral and plain sand. Took almost 4 months to completely cycle (we eventually added two clowns and a school of Blue Chromis to finish
Tank has been doing well. Went through algae bloom after cycle and then all readings stabilized. We then made several mistakes.
Tank set up and water changes with tap water. But we had no adverse effects on our readings or livestock.
We purchased a Foxface Rabbitfish in March and he has been doing well.
Added two cleaner shrimp in April and a Power Blue Tang. Everyone was happy and healthy.
<This, PBT is extremely susceptible to Cryptocaryon; likely what this is here>
Added a juvenile Emperor Angel in beginning of May and he was amazing.
Added a Flame Angel two weeks ago and all was well.
We perform 10-15% water changes weekly depending on nitrate levels. We feed frozen (brine shrimp and Emerald) and NewLife Spectrum Algae Max rotating by hand. We also feed Sea Veggies on a clip daily.
Saturday, May 29, 2017, we did a 15% water change. Water was extremely cloudy.
<Yikes; whence forth the cloudiness?>
We had original carbon still in our canister and we were told by LFS that it really isn't necessary. Opened canister to retrieve since it had been in there since November and had leakage (lost 50% of tank water before it was corrected!!!)
Did another water change and all the debris in the canister backwashed into the tank to replace lost water when canister hose leaded/malfunctioned.
After 24 hours, water chemistry was: PH 8.3; temp 78; Nitrites 0; Ammonia .25; Nitrates less than 10 ppm.
However, fish became very stressed. Emperor showed immediate signs of what looked like Ick for a few hours but cleaner shrimp and time corrected problem.
Next day (Sunday) we lost Flame Angel.
Monday all other fish looked "ok" but not the best.
Water chemistry continued to show Ammonia .25 so Seachem Stability was added at loading dose per bottle LFS instructions.
Lost remaining Chromis.
Tuesday, water chemistry continued as above, all fish were nibbling, and hiding in tank.
Yesterday, Powder Blue Tang developed what looks like Brooklynellosis? (I have attached pic). He died last night.
<Almost assuredly Crypt>
This morning did fresh water dip on Emperor which revived him for a spell, then he died today.
One clown died today.
Invertebrates look unharmed. Foxface Rabbitfish shows signs of a few white bumps, but not covered like other fish.
On inside of my tank, on glass, is a swarm of organisms that look like tiny white rice granules....
In hindsight, we know our classic mistakes and have paid a very high and painful price.
However, I also should have listened to my gut as the Tang was exhibiting signs of infection and my research did not yield any response and we thought maybe just normal parasites that shrimp removed.. He was scraping
his side on objects and had white bumps that would come and go near his gills. I have attached pics.
Remaining in tank today are:
1 clown
1 Foxface Rabbitfish
2 Cleaner shrimp
1 hermit crab
Any help, suggestions, would be greatly appreciated.
<At this point, I'd do nothing... no treatment; just wait. Do NOT add any more livestock>

Water parameters this morning are: PH 8.3; Temp 78; Nitrites 0; Ammonia .25; Nitrates 10 ppm.
Also, can you recommend a few good books on fish health, disease, etc that may help educate us moving forward? we have Bob's The Conscientious Marine Aquarist and another salt water book but these are mostly with generalized set up and stocking.
<I like Jay Hemdal's "Diseases of Marine Fishes" as a recent, easy to understand, straight-forward guide here>
Needless to say we are devastated. We feel very sad at the agony and loss of our fish and all our hard work in vain.
<I do understand. Better for you to read/study for now; develop a routine/S.O.P. for selecting, isolating/quarantining new livestock...
Putting together a hardier assemblage going forward>
Thank you.
Cori Cassady
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Brook or velvet     10/20/14
Hi, crew
Could you tell me if my clowns have Brooklynella or marine velvet? Pictures attached. Thank you.
<My guess is on Brook and/or Cryptocaryoniasis... def. not Velvet. I would treat w/ quinine per WWM.
Bob Fenner>

Brooklynella      8/27/13
Hi Crew,
     I am positive my fish have Brooklynella. I did in fact read all of the write ups on the website about the disease, and am currently treating my affected (and still alive) fish with formalin as directed on this site.
<Good; with provisions... for aerating/oxygenating water, flushing out metabolites (ammonia esp.)>

Unfortunately, most of the affected have already died, and the death toll includes: one Picasso clownfish, masked swallow tail angel female, male watanabei angel, male bellus angel, and skunk tilefish. The other fish that showed heavy parasite infestation, and are still alive going on 30 hours in the qt, are one Picasso clown (the male of the pair), bellus angel female, and a gold spotted Rabbitfish. The latter fish are definitely not symptom free by any means, but aren't dead either, so I still have hope. Also, I have multiple fish that still have not shown any signs of the disease, and these include: leopard wrasse, male pylei wrasse, female pylei wrasse, joanelli wrasse, opercularis hogfish, masuda hogfish, and finally the oddball out of the wrasse family- a yellow tang. All of my fish have been pulled from the DT, and were put into two different quarantine tanks, one tank being for the seemingly healthy fish, and the other for the obviously infected ones, even though I do realize that they have all been exposed.
<Yes; had you considered CP/quinine as a treatment?>
Both tanks are being treated the same though, regardless of symptoms, or lack thereof. My only concern with not putting them all into the same tank, was that I was afraid that having the seemingly  healthy fish in such close contact with the heavily parasitized fish, that would increase the chances of the parasite to attacking the healthy fish. Considering this was merely my logic, and not really based on any evidence, I figured I should ask someone who could provide me with an answer. Do two quarantines make any sense or sound beneficial at all in my situation?
<More tanks, separating fishes are better than one large one... for psychological reasons; less stressful. But both systems will/would have plenty of intermediates, parasites present>
How long until I can consider the asymptomatic fish resistant to the parasite, because it has now been 4 days since the initial fish showed symptoms, and all of my wrasses (and one tang) have yet to show a single symptom?
<Safely? A couple of weeks>
 Assuming I do have two quarantines set up, should I continue medication equally in both the symptomatic and the asymptomatic tanks?
<Definitely yes>
Thank you for your time,
<Steady on. These trials are tremendously stressful for you, aquarists, as well as the stock. Bob Fenner>

Re: Brooklynella    8/28/13
Hi again,
   I am going on 50 hours now with my fish being in the qt tank being treated for brook, and the parasite is still holding on
<Have you confirmed this Protozoan through sampling, use of a 'scope?>
 to the 3 fish mentioned (bellus angel, clownfish, and spotted Rabbitfish), but I am seeing improvement, and all 3 have begun eating again!!!!
<A good sign>
Last night I did a FW dip on all the fish since they were all eating, and I moved all of them to a new quarantine tank, and plan on sterilizing the first one, and rotating between the two every couple days unless you would suggest differently?
<Mmm, is one approach>
They are still being treated with the formalin and malachite green combination product called Quick Cure, as mentioned in the article on this site. The concentrations in the medication, when used as directed, keep a really low level of formalin and malachite green in the tank, and it is not the recommended dosage that would be used in a shorter dip (for obvious reasons.) In order to combat that aspect, I have also done 1 dip per day on the affected fish only in a higher concentration of 200ppm formalin dip lasting up to 30 min,
<With mechanical aeration I hope/trust>
 as long as there are no signs of stress on the fish. I only do the affected fish in the dip, simply because I would rather not aggressively  "poison" the fish that are still showing no signs of brook anymore than I am already doing with the low concentration of formalin and malachite green that is in the qt tank already. While I have read many different options on how to treat the fish, I feel as though what I am doing must be working, because the 3 fish that have survived thus far were laying on the bottom of the tank, gasping for air, pale, frayed fins, white coating over eyes, and thick stringy mucus coming from their bodies, and really just moved to a qt as a final resting place, based on the appearance of the fish and most literature agreeing that its nearly impossible to save a fish once the infestation gets to this point...... and they are still alive going on just over 2 days now being in treatment. The other fish that got to this point, either did not make it into the qt before they perished, or died within hours of looking as heavily infested as I just mentioned. While in my last email I had some little "miracle" fish that were not showing any signs, the yellow tang did apparently contract the disease recently, as a fw dip showed the parasites leaving the sides of the fish,
<You can see them? I think these may be flukes... Trematodes. You can't see Protozoans w/ the naked eye>
 along with the pallor seen with the other infected fish. On a better note, to this point, none of my wrasses have yet to show a single symptom, but are still being treated with the formalin and malachite green, but not getting the more intense formalin baths at higher concentrations. As for my previous question about how long it would take to show signs if they were going to, I was not really talking about the "to be safe" answer, but rather just the likely hood that one of my wrasses would all of a sudden develop symptoms, considering they have not shown any signs thus far, and are in extremely close contact with the heavily infected fish?
<Depends on what they are infested with>
 I am obviously going to still follow the "to be safe" answer of two weeks, but if their chances are good that they will not contract it at this point, that would at least make me feel a little bit better. I have plans to fly to florida this weekend for MACNA, and I am very concerned of leaving my sick fish in the hands of a completely inexperienced aquarist.... my husband.
<I would enlist help (for him) from others whom you know>
As for the quinine compound, I have read into it as much as I could on this site, and I wish there was an article write-up like the other medications have.
<Ahh, have to "get off my duff" and write this. I have a (several years long) writing schedule. Very enjoyable; but will outlive my time here>
There are only a couple concerns I have with switching medications:
1. If what I am doing is working, should I risk switching meds?
<I would not switch>
2. I cannot seem to find this medication locally like I did formalin, and that would leave mail ordering. Considering the speed of the disease, it seems as though by the time I got the medication, I probably would not need it for this infestation. I am still planning on ordering it though, simply to have on hand, but didn't know if there was any reason that I should attempt to get the med NOW?
<No; not likely>
3. Also, most of the reading on your site has seem to suggest using the formalin first, and if the fish are showing resistance to the brook, then use the quinine to treat, but I am trying to get the rationale of this recommendation. Of course, being in the healthcare field, I have to understand the "why?" before I proceed with treatments :-) For instance,  I could understand if the fish themselves were not being treated by one med, then switching to another would be necessary, but in this instance, the "resistant"  fish are not showing any signs of the disease at all.
Last question, for now at least, I have a bit of an issue with one of my wrasses. I was initially putting all of the fish in the heavier dips of formalin, doing half of the fish first, and then the other half. The fish dips were done in a darker colored 5 gallon bucket, and because of the heavy aeration added with the formalin, I somehow missed a wrasse from the first half of my fish, and he ended up going through the formalin duration for 65-70 min by the time I got the other fish out and realized he had been in the bucket since the first half of fish went in, and remained throughout both 30 min treatments. Well, he is definitely showing signs of formalin toxicity or overdose, and has been laying on the bottom, breathing heavy, and even attempted to swim, but merely flops along the bottom. I am positive it is not the Brooklynella doing this, because there are no other symptoms, and the fish was perfectly fine prior to getting an overdose of formalin. I do realize the toxicity of formalin, and why its use should be limited to necessity, but not really what (if anything) can be done if a fish is overdosed?
<Nothing really; other than keeping it in an optimized, stable setting>
Are their any chance of recovery, or is the fish brain dead from hypoxia?
<There is always a chance; hope. As long as the animal is still alive>
With a Methylene blue bath be of any benefit to provide more oxygenation to the tissues?
<Might help incrementally>
Thank you for your time,
<And you for sharing. BobF>
Re: Brooklynella    8/28/13

Hi again,
  I have not confirmed the culprit with a microscope, but am positive it is not flukes.
<... how? As in, how can you be (so) sure? I have lectured many times on fish health issues; I can't tell w/o sampling and microscopic examination; sometimes not even then>
 Along with going to nursing school, I work at a LFS that gets transhipped fish in regularly (not by my choice obviously), and I am constantly doing FW with Methylene blue dips to remove flukes.
I am very familiar with the oval shaped flukes, that turn white and fall off, leaving a rice crispy looking parasite at the bottom of the dip.
<An apt description>
When I mentioned seeing the parasites coming off from the fish in my instance, it is really the mucus layer and slough that I am seeing coming off from the fish, and that is what I am calling "the parasite" being Brooklynella. I have attached two current photos of my fish during day 3 of treatment (both are still alive), one being my bellus angel body showing the extreme pallor and fraying fins, and the other of my clownfish in a Methylene blue dip also showing the thick mucus covering, slough, and frayed fins. The diagnosis was pretty clear to me, based on the symptoms of my fish matching word for word to nearly every description of the disease that I could find.  I have also pinpointed the initial culprit that brought in the disease, and feel as though I should share some back-story so maybe
others can learn from my mistakes. Four days prior to the massive casualties, I received a male watanabei angel from an online retailer, a fish that I had been wanting for years. Upon arrival, I did a shorter than normal FW dip of 4 minutes because of the possibility of damaging the swim bladder in the Genicanthus angels,
<...? Such dips, exposure to freshwater shouldn't damage any fish's gas bladder>
 and then the fish and placed it into a QT tank. That is where my good practices ended. On day two of the fish being in the QT,  it was acting rather erratic and pacing in the QT tank, but it was eating, not flashing, breathing normally, and not showing any obvious signs disease (except the erratic behavior).  I thought it was stressed simply from the confines of the small qt (I think you know where this is going).....
<Unfortunately so>
so against my better judgment, I moved him to my display tank. For the rest of day two, the fish actually seemed better, swimming about the tank. Well that all changed on the morning of day 3, and the fish simply stayed on one side of my tank, simply staring at itself in the glass reflection, and stopped eating. By nightfall of day 3, the fish began breathing heavily and bobbing at the top of the tank, which I then attributed to signs of swim bladder damage (very common with this genus for the readers who did not know),
<This is so... and most all cases do to either improper "needling" or bringing the swallowtails too swiftly to the surface>
and the fish was dead by morning. I considered it to be merely an isolated incidence, and really thought nothing more of it, other than being devastated that the fish I had wanted for so long did not make it. Two more days went by without incidence, and then other fish began acting abnormally, such as my male bellus angel listlessly swimming in the stream of a powerhead towards the top of the tank barely moving from one spot for hours on end, and he had never done this prior. In hindsight, that was merely my "calm before the storm", because the next day he was in hiding along with many other fish, breathing heavily, with a stringy slime coming from their bodies, and others were simply dead, seemingly fine and eating one day prior. Considering the speed of the disease, and the fact that my clownfish were extremely heavily infested (but still alive), I quickly searched for information on Brooklynella to confirm my diagnosis, and every sentence I read convinced me more and more that I was correct, even down to the angelfish that can be known to carry this disease (which I had never heard of prior, only heard of clownfish).  Needless to say, I learned a very big lesson, and I am sad that my other fish suffered from my negligence, because I did know the importance of a quarantine tank, and even had it set up prior to the fish's arrival. Of course, I hope in sharing my story, it will save someone from making the same mistake that I did.
Now, back to the initial reason of writing you... questions!
My female bellus (as shown in the picture), is still the worse looking of all my living fish in the qt. Her color is very pale, her eyes are still cloudy, and her fins seem to still be fraying. She does indeed look better than when she was moved into the medicated tank, but I am wondering how much improvement should I reasonably expect after 3 days of being in treatment? 
<The exposure to formalin and malachite alone can result in these symptoms.
I'd cease further treatment>
The only thing that seems to be getting worse on her are the fraying of the fins, is that normal for this disease, or possible secondary bacterial infection of some sort?
<Can't tell>
 Would you recommend putting an antibiotic in the qt to combat any secondary infections, and if so, which antibiotic?
<I would not use/administer an antimicrobial>
Also, she seems to tolerate the formalin much more than the others, and often seems much better after the higher dosage baths, but is it never acceptable to do more than one formalin bath in a day for just that fish?
<Not a good idea>
For the other two fish that show lesser symptoms of the disease, how many days into the two week treatment are usually necessary before the fish should begin to "look" normal?
<A few days post exposure>
 Obviously, treatment would still continue for the duration of the two weeks just to be sure everything was gone, but I would like to know at what point I should expect to see major results, or consider switching to another medication.
<I would cease all medicating here>
Thank you again!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

full size pix

Brooklynella  6/22/13
Hi crew! 
On Thursday, May 30 I introduced a sea urchin to my 80 gallon reef tank after 4 hours of drip acclimation utilizing over 3 gallons of water. I did not QT (always fatal words) and you guessed it...disease.  Four days later I saw what looked like a pimple of the side of the Flame Angel. I figured injury from the urchin.  The next day I saw 3 white spots on the Flame's tail and was acting kind of jerky.  On Wednesday June 5 there were a couple of spots on his pectoral fins.  I pulled him, the watchman goby and a mandarin dragonet out and put them in a QT leaving the main tank fallow.  I began tank transfer method to treat for Ich (side note: I put the mandarin in a separate QT as they are somewhat resistant to Ich I figured the less exposure to the infected fish the better).
<Smart move>
 On the third transfer (10 days after started tank transfer) the Flame was covered in mucus, losing color in his face, not eating and lethargic..all signs of Brooklynella.  I did
some quick research and decided on Formalin dips.
<A good route>
  It is 3 days after the last dip and both fish are looking good and eating great.  I plan on leaving them in the QT for at least 5 more weeks.  In the mean time the mandarin is still in the QT shows no signs of anything. I am feeding bottled copepods and trying to train him to eat other food.  My question: When can I put the Mandarin back into the main tank?
<Mmm, whenever you deem it's prudent... I'd wait as long as I could practically>
I'm going on vacation in the middle of July and was going to put him in before I left which would give the tank 5 1/2 weeks of being fallow.
I know longer would be better but I'm concerned he will starve. Also seeing how the disease was caught relatively early and only 1 fish showed signs perhaps the virulence is low. 
I <have> done so much research on this protozoan however, there isn't much scientific information out there,
<Au contraire!
There not much scientific work that is "pet fish search easy"... A huge amount in reality. See WWM re searching, computers, the services of a reference librarian in a large (college) library>
such as life cycle, reproduction etc.  I couldn't confirm Brook via microscope but I did rule out Oodinium.  Sorry this is so long.  Please let me know if I didn't cover something or if you have questions.  Thank you!  Jennifer
<Mmm, well; not too long... and much we might go over; but I don't know what you already are aware of... I'd proceed, knowing what you've related, with your stated plan. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brooklynella  6/22/13

Thanks Bob for the super quick reply! As far as the life cycle I've read that is comparable to Cryptocaryon but that is coming from a hobbyist. I do have access to a marine biologist. I'll see if he has any research papers/ info. I'm just concerned that 5 1/2 weeks is not enough time and I don't want to start the clock over.
<Mmm, understood; and longer would be better; but this is a stage in which you'll only gain a small bit more advantage with more time going by; and your fishes will suffer for the duration in QT>
I did forget to mention that I went back to the LFS the sea urchin was purchased. The tank next to where the urchin was housed contained 2 clowns that had Brooklynella. 
<Ahh; and you have read on WWM re this Protozoan I take it>
Thanks again Bob!  Jennifer
<Welcome. B>
Re: Brooklynella  6/22/13

Oh yes, I have read everything scientific I can get my hands on. I just can not find anything as to the duration of the free swimming stage,
<Mainly temperature dependent... can be a few to a handful of days>
 how long the binary fission takes and if there is a stage where the protozoan can go dormant.
<Variable and yes...>
All of that information will aid in analyzing and weighing the odds of reintroducing the Mandarin. I have a little more time to do some research.
Thanks again! Jennifer
<I want to aid your understanding... And encourage you to adopt a "balanced view" of disease (parasitic in this case) and health... the myriad of factors that can be formulated, to degrees manipulated in keeping livestock healthy. Towards that end, please go through this article:
And here re parasitized systems:
Bob Fenner>
Re: Brooklynella  6/23/13

Thank you. I did read the referred websites. I have been diligent (to the point of irritating my husband) in maintaining stable and pristine water quality in all 4 QTs currently running.
<Ah good; w/ the exception of the bothered conspecific>
 I also am feeding Rod's, Mysis shrimp, Nutramar Ova and Spectrum pellets all dosed with Selcon.
The lighting is kept low and all have PVC. I will say the Flame Angel looks great and he is returning to his old self. 
Thank you again and I will continue educating myself. Jennifer
<Thank you for sharing yourself; experiences, reflections, speculations. Am given to even suggest, very fresh, chopped, squeezed garlic/Allium; added to foods. B>
Re: Brooklynella  6/24/13

Ahh, yes, garlic is occasionally added.
<Mmmm, cogitating furiously. B>
Re: Brooklynella  6/24/13
Re: Brooklynella  7/3/13

Hi Bob
 I am hoping you can give me a successful path in treating my flame angel.

Quick recap: fish showed signs
<... and microscopic confirmation?>
of brook on 6/15. Commented with formalin dips (actually used Quick Cure due to  formalin unavailability). I did 3 dips every other day.  Four days later he started showing signs.
<Was this fish returned to an infested system?>
I tried dips two days in a row but he did not handle that well so I went back to every other day.  Today he is showing signs, face color fading, twitching and piping. I've read where you recommend Chloroquine phosphate for Brooklynella. I do have some on hand. Is the dose of 20 mg/l recommended for a fish exhibiting signs of disease? I'm too the point I will try anything. Thank you, Jen
<... Yes to the CP treatment. See WWM for background. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brooklynella  7/3/13
The fish was not returned to the same QT.  He was put into a sterilized tank with fresh saltwater at the same parameters after each dip.
<And STILL the protozoan wasn't eliminated through the dip/use of QuickCure?! Dang!>
 I will begin CP treatment tonight. Thank you!!
<Welcome Jen. Steady on. BobF>
Re: Brooklynella  7/3/13
I know! Carrying on:) CP going in now. Jen

Dilemma: Risk possible existing Brook or keep fish in hospital tank with nitrite?   1/15/12
Hi everyone,
I need some help as to which decision is best...
Long story short, I purchased a Blue Spotted Jawfish which died 11 days after purchase.
<... Please see my article re this Opistognathid... the brave folks at TFH recently ran it... a month or two back; not a tropical fish, not suitable for most aquarium set-ups>
 Then my Picasso Clown died of Brook 5 days later (realized BSJ now was carrier of brook and was not qt'ed).
I immediately started a hospital tank when Picasso first showed symptoms and treated all fish with formalin. The rest survived.
I have kept the main tank fallow for past 4 1/2 weeks. The problem is I have been battling a raised (.25-1.0ppm) nitrite level in 10g hospital tank.
<Very common hazard of QT>
I added API Stresszyme last week and again today and I have been doing 25% - 50% water changes every 3 days or so and can't get to 0. Today's readings .25 ppm nitrite,  Ammonia 0, Nitrate 5.
<May have to change out near 100% daily...>
My 1 clown stopped eating today and has been hiding in PVC a lot more lately. I believe due to the stress of the nitrite level.
<Could well be>
The water parameters in main tank are all great. Do I take a chance and put stressed clown in main tank, taking the chance that the parasite isn't completely killed off and knowing that I may fuel another several weeks of tank going fallow or continually do water changes in hospital tank till nitrites get and stay at 0?  
<I would move the fish... considering the worse option, likelihood... And treat the system (if possible...) w/ a Quinine Compound... Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/brookyescuref.htm
and the embedded links.>
Thanks much!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Dilemma: Risk possible existing Brook or keep fish in hospital tank with nitrite?   1/15/12

Thank you so much for the quick  response!
I read through the suggested reading, and from what I gathered, the recommended treatment of Quinine for main tank will not be a good idea due to Derasa clam, GBTA, and various coral in the main tank.
<Ahh, unfortunately this is so>
I also have a baby Clown, and a Yellow Clown Goby in hospital tank which are still doing ok and not showing signs of distress(yet). Should I just move the non-eating Clown to main tank and see what happens and for how long before I add others?
<Mmm, a tough call>
Or move them all now?
<T'were it me, I would risk this... perhaps running through a freshwater dip (w/ aeration if adding formalin) en-route>
Thanks again for all your help, means a lot! 
<Glad to assist your efforts. BobF>
Re: Dilemma: Risk possible existing Brook or keep fish in hospital tank with nitrite?   1/15/12

Right, catch 22 situation. I'm hoping for the best. Today is water change day on the main tank. I'll do that now and start acclimating the 3 fish back home. Cross your fingers!
<Hard to type/key, but okay>
One last question, I've learned my lesson to always QT before adding to the main tank. Last night I read through WWM on hospital/Qt tanks to see if I missed something regarding my nitrite levels. Should I expect to do daily water changes during their stay?
<Good word: expect, yes. Have pre-prepared water... or move from a clean system>
100% ones?
<As large as necessary, prudent>
 I'm trying to learn as much as possible to avoid future stress, death, and disasters.
<Welcome. B>

Brooklynellosis, rdg.     12/24/11
Hey Wet Web Media Crew! Sorry I'm not sending you on better terms.
Unfortunately, I believe my pair of Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish have come down with Brooklynella.
<Mmm, unusual. Was this fish exposed to wild-collected Clowns?>
I had my first Clownfish (female) alone in my 30 gallon tank with 20 gallon sump for about 4 months. I decided to add a smaller male Clown a few weeks ago, to hopefully get a mated pair. After about a week in the acclimation box, I introduced the male clown. The two bonded quickly, and showed no aggression, living together peacefully for about 3 weeks. The male seemed to be behaving oddly from the beginning though, and never gained his full color or appetite. I did not quarantine the fish, as he was tank raised and had come from a reputable LFS whom I have bought from many times before.
<I see... do see WWM re; other species can "catch" and vector this Protozoan>
I now realize this was a bad decision. Within the last few days, the male Clownfish has begun to show more symptoms of Brooklynellosis. He had a very faded color, no appetite at all, a sort of grey patch of scales on his side, and was very lethargic. Unfortunately he died yesterday before I was able to carry out any treatment. My female clown now is also sick , I believe with the same illness. She does not have faded color, but is hiding all day, and will not eat anything, even garlic soaked frozen brine shrimp. I have been giving her one 5-10 minute dip per day in freshwater with adjusted Ph and temperature, and returning her to the display tank.
<... which is infested>

Her symptoms do not seem to be getting any worse, and she is still alive which is good.
<But more and more debilitated by the parasite and dipping procedures>
The one thing I have not been able to figure out through my reading on W.W.M. and other sources, though, is whether or not Brooklynellosis needs to be treated like Ich in that a fallow time is necessary to completely kill it.
<Is one, likely the most popular approach... vs. "nuking" an infested system, treating it.... My fave is currently the use of Quinine compounds>
 I ask you this as I have two fish waiting for me at the LFS to go in my tank tomorrow for the kids as a Christmas present.
<? will die from the same disease>

So my question to you is, do I need to remove all fish from the tank and leave it fallow to completely kill the Brooklynella, or will treating the fish alone completely kill the parasite?
<Either can>
 Thank you very much for any help, keep up the great work W.W.M. crew!
<Time for you to go back and (re) read: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/brooklynellosisart.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brooklynellosis  12/24/11

Thank you for the help Bob. The fish was exposed to wild caught clowns, which is where I believe it contracted the parasite.
<Ah yes>
The system it was in also housed a large (I believe wild caught) pink skunk clownfish. My female clown is more active today than she has been, but still will not eat. I am continuing the freshwater dips until new treatment arrives.
<... you haven't read where you were referred... do so>

I have ordered Paraguard by Seachem and some Rid Ich + by Kordon as it is a compound of Malachite Green and Formalin.
 I am having the LFS hold the new fish until this issue is resolved. So my plan was to move the female to my 10 gallon QT tank and treat with the Rid Ich + for a week. Also if needed I will carry out dips of a more concentrated solution of the Malachite/Formalin compound. Will this be an effective treatment against Brooklynella? Also once returned to the display tank, is it possible she will become re-infected? Thanks again for all the help, Bob, and Merry Christmas!
<And you. B>
WetWebMedia Crew" <crew@wetwebmedia.com>
Subject: Re: Brooklynellosis   12/24/11
Sorry, I went back and re-read your page <pages> about Brooklynella
. I guess I only saw the part about preventing it, not if it has already entered your display. So the freshwater dips won't be happening anymore, and the clown is in my 10 gallon QT with no substrate and just a few pieces of pvc pipe. I plan to do one 15-30 minute dip per day in the Formalin treatment. My last question though, which I do not believe is addressed on your page (correct me if I'm wrong) is does the main tank need to be left fallow for a time also?
 Or will treating the fish in a separate QT be enough to keep it from becoming re-infected upon returning it to the main tank?
<... no>
I was not able to find this information anywhere, because as you stated, there is very little information about this parasite in the first place.

 Thank you very much for your patience, Bob.  

Clown Fish - Brooklynella?   6/10/11
I have a yellow stripe clown (2.5")
<Premnas... at this size, almost certainly wild-collected (as opposed to
tank bred, hardier)>
for 5 days. Along with the clown I have the following that I also have for 6 days (got all last Saturday).
2 azure damsels (less than 1")
2 green chromis (less than 1")
1 Kaudern's Cardinal (2")
1 Bicolor dotty back (1.5")
1 Coral Beauty Angelfish (around 2")
<?... I would not have bought all this at once...>
All are in a 55 gallon QT I have set up since December. Bare bottom and only some pvc. 2 HOB Filters on it.
All fish seem fine except the clown. The clown looks like it is breathing a little heavy. It looks like a white film over his mouth just below between the eyes (a very small area). I do not see anything anywhere else on the body. it looks almost as if it is a little bit of skin that is coming off from rubbing against something (some of the film peeled off so it is not there).
<Mmm, not good>
I got all fish but the clown from Live Aquaria. The clown I got from a LFS.
<... and would NOT mix livestock in quarantine from two places... You're learning...>
They said they had him for about a month.
<But, mixed in w/ other livestock that may well vector...>
Could this be Brook or something else?
I do plan on treating all the fish with Prazipro and then Cupramine, but nothing else.
<... copper won't cure this Protozoan>
Should I treat the QT for Brook?
<I would, yes>
Also, If the clown does have it, can I assume the other fish in the same QT will have it? Should I treat all the fish in the 55 gallon QT just in case?
<The others are less susceptible, but...>
Is the Quick Cure listed at: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_6/volume_6_1/brooklynella.htm
<Not that I see... MikeM suggests: "QuickCure (a combination of formalin and malachite green sold to treat Ich and crypt, and available at almost every pet store)". You're on the brink of making a potentially deadly mistake... Formalin is a cure, but is very toxic/dangerous to use... READ and understand thoroughly what you're about here before proceeding... It WILL kill off all nitrifiers...>
I could go get a 20 gallon and treat the clown separately, but then my concern is the other fish have it and in 2 months when I want to introduce any into my display, I will also be introducing the parasite.
If I do set up another QT for the clown, how do I know that my other fish do not have it even if they show no signs. Again, my concern is at some later date introducing a fish showing no signs of Brook but having it, into my display.
<Welcome... Bob Fenner>
Re: Clown Fish - Brooklynella?   6/10/11
Thanks, but I am not sure what you would recommend at this point. Assuming it is brook, it is in my 55 QT. Do I have a choice but to treat the 55 QT?
<... Yes, but... Do READ here: http://wetwebmedia.com/brooklynellosisart.htm
and the linked files above... and soon... part. re "Cures"... I would get/use a Quinine cpd. (CP) SOON, instead of the biocide. I too suspect this is Brooklynella (IF Velvet, all fishes would be dead by now), IF Crypt... Again, there's just too much to mention to you to re-key it here.
Read. BobF>
Re: Clown Fish - Brooklynella? 6-10-11

thanks again. so you would recommend treating all the fish in the 55 with a Quinine cpd?
<... yes>
I read those links which is great info, but I am still not clear.
also, do you know where I can get a Quinine cpd?
<... this is posted. B>
Re: Clown Fish - Brooklynella? 6-10-11

Thanks. I will search again for the link to quinine. I did not find it before.
<... linked to where you were referred...>

Parasites and Fish Mysteriously Dying 9/3/10
Several days ago, I noticed that my clownfish developed Brooklynella. By the time I discovered it, it was too late and he died in QT. Shortly thereafter, I noticed that my Naso Tang began developing a few small white spots. I moved him to a separate QT, dosed it with copper and he seems to be doing fine; spots gone almost as fast as they appeared. I will keep him isolated for at least another 3 - 4 weeks to ensure he is cured. I had a Gamma Loreto and a Yellow Headed Goby who were both fine when I quarantined the Tang. Both have mysteriously disappeared in the past few days - up until that point they looked fine and had no visible symptoms.
<Possible Brook victims.>
I can't find any remains so I assume my cleaner shrimp and hermits have eaten them.
I assume they contracted Brooklynella or Ick.
The only livestock left are a mandarin dragonet and CUC (snails, hermits, shrimps). Water parameters are
good and there have been no changes to my readings for months. Here are my questions: 1) At night, when I use a flashlight to check things out, I see small ant like creatures crawling around. They move too fast to identify.
They look like they are either light brown or gray in color and about the size of ants. Are these a concern or can they be contributing to my fish dying?
<Doubtful, most likely copepods and amphipods, harmless to beneficial microfauna.>
If they are a problem, how do I get rid of them?
<I would not even attempt too.>
2) How can I tell if my tank is infested with parasites due to Brooklynella or Ick?
<Impossible without a microscope, both parasites are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Best to just assume both are present if any fish has shown symptoms of the diseases.>
If it is infested, I am reading that I may need to "break the cycle" and keep it fishless for 6 to 8 weeks.
How "fishless" does the tank need to be?
One LFS says that mandarins are resistant to parasites and are not suitable hosts for parasites such as Brooklynella.
<Less likely to be heavily infested due to their thick slime coating, but not resistant and still able to host the parasites even if at a lower level.>
Another says all living things including LR can serve as a host to parasites.
<These are obligate fish parasites, but can be transported from tank to tank on anything wet.>
I don't know who to believe.
If I need to break the cycle before I add my Tang back to my main tank, can I leave my mandarin and CUC in my tank or are they possible hosts as well?
<I would not leave the mandarin in there, likely will defeat the purpose.
You may have to buy bottled copepods for him while in QT.>
Not sure it is practical or safe to move my remaining live stock to my 10G QT for 8 weeks (along with my Tang whose been dosed with copper).
My QT is too small for a mandarin and it would have no rock to graze on and my inverts would perish in a copper treated tank.
<Likely need a larger QT tank.>
Just in case it matters, I have about 120lbs live rock in tank and 60lbs sand. No corals. Some Chaeto
in sump. Last addition made to tank was the Tang about a month prior and was fine until after the clownfish got sick.
<See here for more http://www.wetwebmedia.com/mardisindex.htm .>

Not sure if this is Brooklynella  5/24/10
Hi Crew...
I've had my ocellaris for a year (introduced into the tank with another one, but that one died 6 months later). It's no The ocellaris was previously in a 45g fowlr, under t8 bulbs. Moved him to a 125g in February, which did not have lights for 3 months. I now have temporary lights on it (a 2 bulb 30" t5--SunPaq). That's when I noticed his color not as bright (due to lack of lights?).
<More likely nutrition>
No behavior problems outside of silly clown behavior. I got another ocellaris 2 weeks ago (I don't think it was tank bred hence my worry of brook). The color difference is noticeable -- the new one is much vibrant than the first one. They have not had violent struggles, and in fact, they seem to be sorting themselves out peacefully.
I came back from a 4 day vacation (I had a sitter handle feeding them pre-measured food).
I noticed the first clown is looking very slightly ashy. But he's eating (he is not spitting out the food he's taking in), not hiding, not being shy, not swimming funny or rubbing on things, no heavy breathing or hanging around the surface gasping for air. I also remember last week seeing white stringy thing out of his bottom (which your site indicates it's a sign of a parasite). Haven't seen it since, though.
It's been 7 days since seeing the white stuff, and my clown is behaving as clowns do.
If this is brook, would it have killed him by now?
<Likely so>
And if it was the other clown who introduced it, would it have taken 2 weeks to manifest itself in the 1st clown?
<Not likely at all>
The newer clown has no signs of illness whatsoever; on the contrary, it seems very healthy and vibrant. If it had introduced brook, would it have died by now?
<... yes>
Or can it just be a carrier?
<Not really... weaker individuals may "show" symptoms sooner, worse... but all Amphiprionines will become infested in time>
It's just the first clown that seems a bit off. He was doing this thing with he diamond goby though, that seemed odd, even for a clownfish....
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6nYkmEvJAM (feel free to remove that link if I'm not supposed to post videos; but it shows the odd behavior). He did this many many times over 3 days. I haven't seen him do this since I got back though. Don't know what to make of the whole picture.
Other fish (3 Chromis, 1 Banggai, 1 Firefish, 1 diamond goby) appear to be healthy. A month ago I had a sick Tang with a parasite (probably Paravortex, but never found out) that I removed from the dt, but he died in QT. No signs of similar symptoms on anyone (tang had black spots).
Parameters: ammonia and nitrites 0ppm, nitrates: 10-20ppm. Chaeto in the sump, lots of flow. Should I risk qt'ing the clown if he otherwise seems healthy?
<Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/brooksympf.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Brooklynella -- 02/02/10
I want to start by stating how awesome your site is for the hobby.
<We share!>
I have a store fish system that consist of 25 tanks and roughly 1200 gallons of saltwater.
<Wow! Shrank from ayer>
I have discovered that I have Brooklynella. the other systems that are in the store is a single 300 gallon tank containing soft corals, a single 400 gallon tank with sps, and a 250 with cured live rock. what would be your
recommendation on correcting this?
<Chloroquine Phosphate... see WWM re>
Do these parasites host on Wrasse?
<Can, yes>
thank you for your time!
<Certainly welcome. Bob Fenner>

Brooklynella in my Picasso Clown? 1/27/10
Hello again,
I feel like I'm always writing with bad news, and today is no exception.
<Uh oh.>
I was given a 24 gallon Nano cube with some Chaeto, about 4 hermit crabs, about 6 snails, several odd clams on my live rock, an unidentified urchin the size of a baseball.
<Nice, but you will probably want to find that urchin a bigger home.>
The tank had been set up in my home for about 9 weeks, before I adopted a pair of Picasso clowns from my local pet store the day they arrived, at about 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch (very small) about three weeks ago.
<Generally a bad idea to get fish right as they arrive, give them time to recover from transport and make sure they are eating, not carrying anything exceedingly pathogenic.>
All ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels were undetectable, coralline growth substantial. Last night I noticed the bigger of the clowns had a white fuzz/spot on its side. The fish is so small I couldn't tell if it was mostly on it's side or more on its gill. I have a tiny 3 gallon I can set up to treat him, I feared it's marine velvet, but when I went for medication to another LFS (who I've had better luck with) I was told it was probably Ich, and highly discouraged to use chemical treatment at all.
<Doesn't really sound like velvet, plus if it was most likely your fish would already be dead. Several possibilities here, perhaps ich or Brooklynellosis, Lymphocystis if it is just a single, relatively large spot, or just a physical injury. A picture may help here if you can get one. Ick, Brooklynellosis, and velvet all need to be chemically treated. >
They recommenced I increase the temperature in the tank to speed the parasite's cycle.
<This alone does nothing but increase the virility of the pathogen.>
They said I could do a freshwater dip, but that it might be difficult on such a small fish.
<Of limited use here, and not any more difficult on a small fish than a large when done correctly.>
I increased my temperature from 78 to 82, and this morning the little fish just looks worse.
<Not good.>
The other clown isn't swimming with the sick one, and has a robust color and appetite.
The ill one wasn't close to the surface -not gasping for air or floating- until I fed them this morning, and in trying to eat she kept having trouble steering herself and was easily overtaken by the current. Her color is faded, and her eyes look yellow. I'm reading tons of things online and came across Brooklynella being common in Picasso clowns.
<Generally less common on captive breed fish ("Picasso" Amphiprion ocellaris) than wild caught fish.>
Is this worse than Ich?
<Generally is more lethal if that is what it is.>
Should I do/have done something different? As always, any advice is appreciated.
Thank you in advance,
<From your description it is hard to say what it is, see here to try to diagnose you fish, then you can develop a more directed approach.
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/clnfshdisart.htm >
Re: Brooklynella in my Picasso Clown? 1/28/10
Thank you for your reply Chris.
Unfortunately, I was unable to help the fish before she died.
I did end up treating the other fish just in case.
Now I'm just being vigilant.
Thanks for your help, and after looking at the pictures, I'm pretty sure it was Brooklynellosis. Also, if you know of someone looking for a baseball-sized urchin, I'd love to get the guy a bigger home. I like in Idaho- not too many reefs about.
<Check out our message board and some of the other larger boards on the Internet, I would bet there are lots of fellow hobbyists locally to you how could give it a good home.>

Adolescent Picasso with Pair of False Percs? -- 1/27/10
I just had a very young Picasso clown die on me, and I'm a little worried the other one will be lonely. He doesn't play around the tank like he used to.
I'm watching to make sure he's not sick as the other one just died, I think from Brooklynella,
<... if this, than the other will very likely die soon as well>
so I've dipped the living Picasso and I'm watching him.
<Do please understand that the "system itself" is infested... Dipping, otherwise curing the hosts and returning them to this system will not save them>
He's eating, swimming, but not playing like he used to. I'm wondering if it'd be better for him to be alone in the tank for a while, or if I should put him in my main tank which has a pair of Ocellaris clowns.
<!? I'd hold off on doing this, and NOT mix anything wet twixt the systems IF you suspect a parasite here>
It's not a big tank; only 29 gallons, but there's lots of live rock places for him to hide, and the pair seem to stay on side (hosting in the sand no matter what else I offer them, any explanation for this?)
<Substitution for Actinarian host>
Intuition says not to put the tiny, snack-sized Picasso in with the 1 year-old Ocellaris pair, but I'm reading mixed messages online. You thoughts?
<I would not do it. Rhinecanthus spp. need much more room than this... See WWM re>
Thanks in advance (again,)
<Welcome in number, kind. BobF>

Fast Stocking; Repeated Mortality - 6/19/08 I'm on the verge of having a break down! I'm very patient when it comes to fish tanks, but I keep losing fish, and I don't want to keep getting fish just for them to perish when they hit my tank. I would rather them go to a tank that they can thrive. <An understandable- and noble- desire.> Can you please help me get to the point when my tank is that tank? You are probably getting tired of hearing from me, but here goes, I'll give you everything, so you know where I am. I have a 75 gallon tank with a Remora Pro, and an Emperor 400. I only run the Emperor for about an hour or so a week, with just a generic filter pad with no charcoal in it. I'm just using it to pull some debris out of the water. <I'm curious as to the reasoning behind this...one hour a week can't be doing any good, and you're probably cooking strange things in that filter pad during the six days it doesn't run. I'd just plug it in and let it run...an aquarium of this size will need filtration, as you are aware.> And I dump out the Emperor once a week at every water change, and rinse out the filter pad. I also have 80 lbs of live rock, which I have built up against the back wall of the tank, I don't know if this is advisable, but I did it because I have 2 Hydor stage 4 power heads and a stage 3 all blowing off the front pane of the tank, and it seemed to strong of a current for my softies, so now with the rock against the back, I get the same water movement and it seems less abrasive to the corals. I have a Coralife power compact with two 65 watt 50/50 bulbs which i leave on from about 7 AM to about 11PM, I work 12 hour days and the tank is next to our bed, and I like to watch the fish to wind down at night. <Far too long. Consider reducing to a 12 or 8 hour photoperiod, from 11 to 11 or so> And I have a Stealth heater. For water changes, I do 12 gallons every Friday morning. <Good> I use a python to drain the water, and then I mix tap water with Oceanic Salt Mix and Prime water conditioner about 15 minutes before I put it into the tank, or once the salt is dissolved. <Search wetwebmedia.com re saltwater mixing and aging. Many components of synthetic salt remain caustic- and therefore toxic- for a significant period after they appear to be dissolved. It is much better to mix the water 1-2 days in advance.> For livestock I have 3 Green Chromises, a Chalk Bass, a Lawnmower Blenny, a Sixline Wrasse, a Serpent Starfish, assorted hermit and snails, a Sally lightfoot, and 3 Emerald crabs. All of these I have had for about 6 weeks. I also have a African Pygmy Angel I added last week. For corals, I have 4 rocks with Mushrooms, a Toadstool Leather coral, a Xenia, and a Pineapple Polyp. I also have some Feather dusters, how many, I'm not sure, they're starting to pop up in different places, which is very cool. I also have some unidentified corals starting to grow on the live rock. For food I use mostly San Francisco brand frozen Emerald Entree, and frozen Spirulina Brine Shrimp. <Many of these fish are omnivores or obligate carnivores. Mysis, squid, krill would all be better substitutes for the brine shrimp, which have little nutritive value.> I like this brand because it seems to have less gelatin. I put about 3/4 of a cube in a Dixie cup with just enough water to cover it, and add Garlic Extreme in the morning, and pour all the contents into the tank. At night I do the same thing without the Garlic Extreme. <This is a LOT of food> The food seems to break up by itself once it's it the tank, as opposed to the Formula 2 I've tried which seems to stay chunky and get caught in the pre-filter of the Remora, or in the powerheads. <Formula 2 is designed to be gelatinous, cut to size...> This is what my water looks like, Ammonia is at 0, nitrates 0, nitrites 0 <I don't trust these readings- not with as much as you are feeding and the trouble you're having. Even in the best kept of systems there will be nitrate. Are your test kits fresh, and from a reputable source (Salifert, SeaChem make fine tests)? I would consider purchasing new and carefully retesting nitrogenous wastes> ph 8.4, SG 1.25, calcium 380 ppm, 11 dKH, and the temperature is at 76. Now the alkalinity varies through the week, it will get down to as low as 7dkh, then I will add Kent Marine Superbuffer and it brings it up to about 13dkh. <Too quick a change. Regular, smaller additions to keep alkalinity constant will improve the health of your tank inhabitants> Everything else stays consistent, I just started measuring calcium, it was 420ppm at the last water change and now it's 380ppm. Now for the problem, aside for what's in the tank, I can't keep anything alive in this tank. I really really really want a Kole Tang. I have tried 3 Kole Tangs, one dies and I buy another one, I'm not trying to keep more than one in a tank. <Too small a tank, and a lot of aggressive tankmates. I'm afraid your dream of a Kole tang will need to remain such until you have another, larger system.> I can't seem to get them to eat, I've tried frozen Emerald Entree, frozen brine shrimp, romaine lettuce and Spirulina flakes. The last one I bought was dead this morning, it was the largest one I bought and it was full colored. The fish store had it more about two weeks before I bought it. I bought it this past Friday, on Saturday it lost most of it's color, last night it was full of ich, and this morning it was dead. <Read WetWebMedia re ich, velvet, Brooklynella...you may have a serial killer> The other fish I keep trying and losing are Clown fish. The most recent ones I bought were Tomato clowns, these were the second pair of Tomato Clowns I've tried. But I have lost many other Clowns before these guys. I also purchased these fish Friday, they seemed to be doing fine, then this morning when I woke up, they were both dead also. <Again, you have a heavily stocked tank, and are adding things fast. Slow down, plan carefully, and know your aquarium's limits.> Also, aside from the dead fish, it keep getting micro bubbles from my Remora Pro. <Does happen, yes> I taped a sponge to where the water enters the tank from the Remora, and this seems to have helped slightly. I contacted the folks at Aqua C and they said if I'm using a water conditioner like Prime, it can also cause the micro bubbles, which seems very likely. My question is, would you suggest not using a water conditioner at all? <not if you have chlorinated water> I also have a 75 gallon African cichlid tank that has been established for about two years now, I don't use the water conditioner with that anymore, it seems to me that there is enough of a biological filter in the two Emperor 400 filters I have on that tank, and in the lace rock and substrate, to handle any impurities that might be in the tap water. I'm not sure bio-filtration has anything to do with chlorine, <Chlorine is a biocide, toxic to all life> but my fish are very bright and healthy and they get a water change once a week also. I would just really like to get rid of as many micro bubbles as possible. So please, if you can possibly shine some light on what I'm doing wrong, I would greatly appreciate it. If you can be as critical as possible, it would be much more helpful for me. <Gives those water parameters another test, and we'll see if there is a serious problem there- as I suspect> Thanks again. Marc <Benjamin>

Re: Fast Stocking; Repeated Mortality - 6/19/08 Thanks so much for the help. <Welcome> I was wondering, if I run the filter all the time, would you suggest filters with charcoal, or just the filter pad. <Just the filter pad. Carbon is something that is generally used more for removal of accidental toxins (broken bulbs, spilled chemicals, etc> than a continuous product> Also, if I was to add a pair of clownfish, and I still wanted to add one more colorful fish, what would you suggest. <Nothing. Your tank is pretty full> Now that I'm not going to be adding the Kole Tang. Thanks again, <No problem> Marc <Benjamin>

Re: Fast Stocking; Repeated Mortality - 6/19/08 Thanks for the help. <No trouble!> I didn't run the Emperor all the time because I was under the impression that the filter pads hold on the materials those create nitrates, so I would put it on for an hour a week, just to get rid of some debris. I would rather run it all the time, but do you think if I clean out the pads at each water change, would I be pretty safe from creating unwanted nitrates? <Nitrates will be produced no matter what; they are the product of nitrogenous waste from fish. Ammonia excreted from the gills and fecal material is oxidized to less toxic nitrite, which is further oxidized to nitrate. Without the production of nitrate, life in an aquarium would be impossible. All this to say, nitrate is simply to be removed via water changes- you can't avoid making it.> Now, would it be a big benefit for me to use charcoal filters in my filter, as opposed to just fiber pad? <No> I was told the Remora Pro would be all the filtration I need. <Not necessarily...significant bacteriological cycling is necessary for as many fish as you have, as well as something to remove particulate matter from the aquarium.> Now the only reason why I didn't make up my water a couple of days ahead of time, was because I thought you had to have an extra heater and powerhead. <Would be best> I have two 6 gallon buckets, I can make up the water on Tuesday and then do the water change of Friday. Is it ok to mix it, even though there wont be a powerhead mixing it up? <Would be an improvement over just mixing and dumping in. If you could drop an airstone, it would be even better> Also, is there a better water conditioner you would suggest to use instead of Prime? <Prime is good, IME.> I found out my fish were dying because of ich. When my first Kole Tang got the ich, I was told all tanks have ick, it's just a matter of the fishes immune system dropping for it to catch it. <Well, this is true...augmented by other factors> I was told it was very common for Tangs to catch ich, but as long as they were eating, they would pull through. <Not true- a parasite with incomplete symbiosis- like ich- will eventually kill the host once it is established unless it is treated> Since the last time I sent an email, I have been in a store to have my water tested again, to see if there was something wrong with my test, and they came up with the same results. 0 nitrates. <I assume they used dip strips, as per LFS standard? These just don't work. Never, ever have an LFS do your water tests for you> So when I told him about the Kole Tang catching ich, he advised me to not buy any fish for about 4 weeks, so the parasite doesn't have a host. <As long as there are fish in the tank, it will have a host> And if I don't have any more mortalities, then I can add another fish. And on that subject, I have decided to no longer try getting a Kole Tang, I was told this is one of the few Tangs, if not the only one, that can go in a 75 gallon tank, but I still don't think they have enough room to swim around. <Very true, good observation> I was hoping you may give me a suggestion on another fish, of decent size that I might be able to put in my tank. I want to put a flame angel, but I don't know how that would fare with my pygmy angel. <I think with the clowns you planned, you will have a well-filled tank> Also, I was wondering if you could give me your opinion on stacking the rocks up against the back wall of the tank, I want to get rock to put up the side walls also. If their weight is stacked on the base, this is fine. If the rock is literally leaning against the back wall you're risking a panel failure> I just find this to be the best way to display the corals, and keep from having an avalanche. <A time tested method. Dependable, if not aesthetically thrilling> I was just wondering if this was bad for circulation. Again, I have two stage 4 Hydors, one in each back corner pointing towards each other off the front pane of glass, and one Stage 3, on the side, all the way at the bottom, all the way towards the back, blowing behind the rocks. Just wanted to know if you could think of any down sides to this setup. <Sounds good> Thanks again, Marc <No problem. Benjamin> Re: Fast Stocking; Repeated Mortality - 6/20/08 One last time. <Okay!> After taking your advice, I went on WetWebMedia and looked up Brooklynella, and that is definitely what has been killing my clowns. I tried to describe this to the LFS, and they said it was ich, or possibly velvet. I looked up velvet, and I've had ich in my freshwater tank, and this didn't look like either. It looked like my fish were "dusty". I read the website, and it seems like the only way to get rid of it would be to strip down the whole tank bleach it, and start over. I really really really don't want to do this. None of the fish I have seem to be affected by this. If I were to wait a couple of months before adding fish, should I be ok? <I'm afraid not. Brooklynella only affects clownfish and certain tangs. It will remain in your system indefinitely, even in a fallow tank. Once a tank is infected, it just won't be a safe home for clownfish.> The only fish I want to add are a pair of clowns, and after reading, I will be purchasing tank raised clowns. Will waiting it out work? And if so, how long should I wait before adding the other clown. Again, all the other fish I have, I've had for about six weeks with out any problems. <Your one option would be to wait, try again, and if the fish were to succumb to the disease again send it to a specialist or vet who could perform microscopy and identify the pathogen for you. This would at least tell you for sure if it is in fact Brooklynella.> And if I must add medication, is there any that would be safe for my fish and corals? <Nope. Medication should always be given in a quarantine, no exceptions> All softies by the way. Thanks again for helping me find my "serial killer". <No problem. Best of luck!> Marc <Benjamin>

Brooklynella nightmare...what do I do? Read 05/23/08 First, let me thank you guys for your hard work. I really appreciated. Ok, it's been 24 hours since I moved my 3 Clownfish out of the reef tank and into the hospital tank for a copper treatment. <... this won't cure Brooklynellosis...> Unfortunately, the diagnosis I got from the store last on Sunday was incorrect. I was just told that is not only Ich on my Tangs but Brooklynella on my Clownfish. I need to know how fast I can move with this. <Move?> I've been treating Ich for two weeks using organic products. <...?> I had no money to set up the hospital tank (I put it off for too long) and I have invertebrates in my 120 gallon reef tank. For weeks the Hippo Tang was covered in sugar spots (Ich). My Yellow Tang caught it next. Although the Clownfish did not show the sugar like spots, they were scratching. Then the Clownfish started to disappear from the tank (5 baby clowns). Apparently the Sebae or the Snowflake Eel decided to do everyone a favor and ate the sick fish. I should have known something was wrong when I found a dying clownfish at the bottom of the tank. I notice his skin looked whitish (not Ich like). But because my Tangs were covered in Ich I didn't think anything of it. On Tuesday night my Hippo Tang died a slow death. I notice transparent film coming of her skin. Yesterday the big Clownfish started shedding; breathing rapidly and not eating (just like the baby clown and Hippo Tang). I also notice the lost of the transparent thin border of his top fin. I know I'll probably loose him due to the unnecessary copper treatment but, can I help the two small Clownfish that are in there with him? They look healthy and unharmed but I know this is not the case. Can I go home and take the clownfish out of the Copper treatment, rinse out the tank and proceed with Formalin? <Yes> I purchase the hospital tank, the heater and filter yesterday after the loss of my Hippo Tang. Everything is new. I used 90% of the reef tank water and 10% RO water for a quick set up. <...? Can we start a bit further back? Where did this protozoan, these protozoan problems come from?> I tried for hours to catch the Yellow Tang and Snowflake eel but they are fast and my net keeps getting caught in the live rock. The Tang/Clowns are eating Mycis soaked in Garlic, nori and flakes. The Eel is eating shrimp like normal (he will not eat anything with garlic). I'm doing weekly water changes to the big tank. I also crank up the heat to 80 on both tanks as suggested. <Not a cure...> The water parameters were fine until I found that dead Clownfish, the nitrate went up to 20, ammonia 0.25 (water change was made immediately) Nitrate close to 0, ammonia 0 Nitrite 0, Phosphates 0, PH 8.2. Salinity 1.022-1.023. Thank you for your hard work guys Sharon <... don't follow you here, nor know what you're looking for. Input, protocols re treatment for Cryptocaryon and Brooklynellosis are detailed on WWM... go, read there. Bob Fenner>

Re: Brooklynella nightmare...what do I do? 5/23/08 Bob, I apologize for the confusing email earlier. I was writing under a lot of stress and I didn't go over it before hitting send. <Am glad it wasn't simply myself being tired... am out traveling> In the email, I wanted to ensure that I could change from the copper treatment to the formalin treatment quickly and with out affecting (killing) the Clownfish in the process. <I see... and would continue, do the change in treatment... Better to promptly administer a useful medicant than wait here... Bob Fenner>

Disease Treatment Confusion, SW... parasites   3/15/08 Hi WWM Crew , Your site and info is great. I've been reading for hours! I introduced 2 small Yellow Tangs and 1 small Kole Tang to my setup. <Umm, how large is this tank?> Unfortunately, the Kole Tang died about 9 days after I got it (doing fine and one morning I got up and within an hour or two it was dead). I'm a novice - learned the hard way - ALWAYS QT new additions. Also, find resources you can trust! That was Monday past. I called the LFS and the owner suggested Melafix <Worthless...> in the main tank. <No....!> I noticed my 2 Saddleback Clowns (I've had them 4 months and they were super healthy up to now) not looking so good the night before (slight film, fins looking ragged, rapid breathing, listlessness, rubbing - but no spots). So I dosed the display with Melafix <...> as per his directives for 3 days (he didn't mention it would harm my snails - even though I told him everything in my setup, ugh). However, on the second night of treatment (Tuesday) I noticed the Tangs had spots on their bodies and fins (Ich), and a lot of it! <Stress induced, but present already> From another LFS, the owner told me to QT all the fish in my tank using the original display tank water (to reduce the shock) and to stop using the Melafix. <Good advice> I did this Wednesday evening and have since given 2 doses of ParaGuard in the QT. It is probably worth mentioning that the closest marine supply stores are 7 hrs. away. I am waiting to receive Cupramine at which point I was advised to filter out the ParaGuard for a few hours and then start the Cupramine treatment. But now having read so much on your site I am worried it may not be wise to administer Cupramine to the Clowns (due to copper sensitivity and it sounds like they could have Brooklynellosis which means copper is ineffective anyway?). <If it is Brook, correct> Should I put them in another, separate QT and continue with the ParaGuard while using Cupramine on everyone else in the bigger QT? <If you have such facilities, yes> If so, should I use all new mixed saltwater with the same pH, temp. and Sp.Gravity or should I use some of the water they're already in to reduce stress of possibly changing parameters? <I would start making, using new water... the old is infested...> I plan on letting the main tank lay fallow for 4 weeks, is 6 weeks preferable? <Yes> I apologize for all the questions but I want to make sure I give them the best chance at survival possible and the info out there has been conflicting to say the least. On the up side, they have continued to eat a little and my 2 Yellowtail and 2 Blue Devil Damsels (also in QT with everyone else) do seem alright. Thank you so much for your time :) Sincerely, Tracy <I do wish you success... In the meanwhile, do keep studying. Bob Fenner>

Re: Disease Treatment Confusion, SW... parasites... Brooklynellosis. Y. tang sys.  -- 03/20/08 Thanks for your reply Bob. I hope the crew and yourself are keeping well. <I'm trying, thank you> My current marine tank is 38g, but we're in the process of getting a 90g. Then we'll likely use the 38g for the sump. I realize how inadequate a 38g aquarium is for 2 yellow tangs <Ah, yes> but I was told by the LFS guy who sold them to me that it would be fine to house them in the smaller tank while they are young. <Mmm, only very young... This species clusters amongst finger-like Porites in its range during its "high Sailfin" stage... but as it gets more than a couple of inches long, starts ranging out...> Had I been better informed I would have waited to get them. Thanks for all the wonderful info on your site. I've learned a wealth of knowledge over the past week alone. <Ah, good> So quickly, I've moved the 2 saddleback clowns into a 10g hospital and have been treating Brooklynellosis with ParaGuard. They seem to be doing very well and have regained their full appetite. <A good sign> The others: 2x 2" yellow tangs 2x 1" blue devil damsels 2x 1/2"-3/4" yellowtail blue damsels are in a 20g hospital tank treated with Cupramine for Ich. Now no visible Ich spots on their bodies. <Mmm, if you had/have more room, I might treat the Yellow Tangs for Brook as well... they can contract, be carriers> Would the 90g be adequate to house the 2 yellow tangs and a yellow eye tang? Or should I wait on the Kole tang until I get a 125g down the road? <Would/will likely be okay in both/either case> I'll likely be removing all 4 damsel terrors (although they are lookers). I've also got an inquiry about a LR hitchhiker but will send separately. Thanks again for all the time you and the WWM crew put into helping out fellow hobbyists. Tracy <Welcome my friend. Bob Fenner>

Caring for new clownfish with ich... Not likely... reading...   3/6/08 Hi there, <Shelley> Help! My husband and I are new to this - we set up our first reef tank over the past few months. Did it slowly and meticulously to make sure everything survived. We added two clownfish (Percs) and a potter angel <Yikes... this species of Centropyge is not easily kept... needs large, stable, well-established quarters...> this weekend. As soon as we got them in the tank (we did not quarantine since they were the first fish to ever go in <...> - but we know better now) the clownfish exhibited signs of ich. >Mmmm, maybe< Long story short, we gave a freshwater bath to both, one survived (the larger one), the other didn't. We left the larger one in the main tank - as we are sure the ich is there now, so we wouldn't stress the fish. We are treating with No-Ich and keeping the water as pristine as possible. <Mmm, doesn't always work: http://www.fishvet.com/no-ich.htm for browsers. See WWM re.> While the white spots are going away, I was wondering how long it takes to get rid of the ich? <... may not be Crypt... is likely just cycling... will be back...> Why didn't the potter angel get ich? <A clue... likely IS Brooklynellosis, another protozoan... Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/brooklynellosisart.htm and the linked files above> Also, as the surviving clownfish is being treated, he seems to be fine except he eats all the time. I feed 3x per day, just the tiniest bit of flakes twice a day and frozen brine shrimp once. Is a big appetite a sign of stress? <Mmm, no; not generally with marine life> We have colt coral and hammer coral and a seabae - <... these are not compatible... See WWM re: http://wetwebmedia.com/sebaeSelfaqs.htm> the clownfish has no interest in hiding in them, it seems. She swims up to the glass when I come near and seems very active; but she also rests at times, just swaying mid-level behind some rock. Is my fish stressed? I'm trying to make the recovery from ich as stress- free as possible. Will she make it? Still wondering how this escaped the angel. Water stats are: ph 8.2, temp 79F, SG 1.020, <Too low...> no ammonia or nitrites, 20ppm nitrates. Any help would be appreciated! Shelley <Please... use the search tool, try to find what you need to know before writing us... Time is of the essence. Read where you are referred to, the linked files where you lead yourself... and soon... Your system is in dire danger, your livestock... Bob Fenner>

my poor lil clown fish... too little reading  -- 1/26/08 Ok crew you all are life savers. I chatted with you bout my lionfish a couple days ago, nothing has changed with my tank, but yesterday I noticed my black clownfish has a problem going on here. <I'll say!> I have searched your clownfish database, and couldn't figure out what is wrong with him. I am attaching a pic, if you could help me out id be very appreciative. I just did a water change on Sunday, and my test kit says everything is fine. Don't want to loose the little one. Help me please. <... it's likely dead by now... Looks like Brooklynellosis, but could well be another protozoan, a combination... You need to READ re... Bob Fenner>

Re: my poor lil clown fish 1/27/08 Hey crew thanks for the answer on that. Krusty was dead when we got home from her grandmas funeral on Friday. I read what you wanted me to, and I am pretty sure that it was Brooklynellosis. <I think so too> My maroon clown looks like he is got it also. He's in quarantine right now, and is kind of shaky. I was told to use KanaPlex, <... no... Ridiculous advice> I have treated the maroon once, and plan on doing daily water changes as well. How well will that help? My other question is, can I use that to treat my main tank, and will the Brooklynellosis affect my lion and ccs? They both look fine and don't show no signs of it. Thanks again you are appreciated. <... read: http://wetwebmedia.com/brooklynellosisart.htm and the linked files above. BobF>

Clarkii Clownfish Acting Strange - Possibly Stung by his Anemone? Injured Clarkii or Brooklynellosis? -- 12/13/07 Hi from Fort Walton Beach FL! <Hello Dawn! Brenda here, suffering through the bitter cold!> First of all I just want to thank you for such an awesome web-site! <You're Welcome! Thank you for the positive feedback!> My SW friend turned me onto it and I have passed it along to another SW friend. <Great!> The site is absolutely invaluable to any experienced or novice marine aquarist (like myself). Here's my stats: 125 gal. SG: In between 1.023-1.024 Nitrate 10 Nitrite 0 Alkalinity 300 PH 8.0 Phos 0.1 Calcium 400 Iodine .06 Magnesium 1400 <Temperature?> Setup: Proclear Aquatic wet/dry, Proclear Aquatic Protein Skimmer, Fluval FX5 w/nitrate & phosphate sponge, and charcoal, and 2 Maxi-Jet 1200's, VHO lighting. The 125 is an All Glass Megaflow with 2 overflows. Stock: Orange Spotted Goby, A mated pair of Firefish, 1 blue green reef Chromis, 2 Clarkii clowns, 1 Domino damsel, 1 Bi-Color Pseudochromis, 1 Brittle Starfish, 1 Anemone, <What species is the anemone?> 1 Mexican feather duster, 1 Atlantic feather duster, 3 Mexican Turbo Snails, 5 Nassarius Snails, Zoanthids, Xenia, Glove Polyp, Hammer Coral, Torch Coral, 2 Frogspawn, Candy Cane Coral, Bubble Coral, 110 lbs. of live rock and several pounds of Tonga branch. Back to the larger of the two Clarkii clowns. "Clark" took to the anemone right away and has been really tank mates with it since I bought it (about 4 weeks ago). <It is a pleasure to witness!> Yesterday, I noticed Clark was sucking the tips of the anemone, sometimes more than one tip at a time; and, acting out of character. I understand it is completely normal for clown fish to suck anemones (through reading articles on your site) however, when he was doing it he was laying sideways and panting heavily. Now today, I see some type of lesion (kind of looks like burn marks) on the top of his head and he is acting even more out of character. He has his mouth open the entire time with a more labored breathing and now he is hiding out, which he (she, you get the drift) has never done in the past. Could it be possible that the anemone stung him? <It is not likely for this to happen after 4 weeks. It is hard to say without a picture. I suspect one of two things, an aggressive Domino Damsel or Brooklynellosis. My guess is that it is Brooklynellosis. More information on Brooklynellosis here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/brooklynellosisart.htm > If so, will they typically recover from such an event? I'm at a loss what to do here. <It can recover from injury and Brooklynellosis. However, it sounds like the Clarkii may be in the final stages of the disease.> Since I'm new at the hobby (less than a year), I still freak out when I notice something not right and test everything; but all is fine. <Did you quarantine this fish and how?> I have searched your site the past couple of hours and can't figure out what to do, if anything. I do have a QT tank if I need to use it. <I would remove the clownfish and place in quarantine. Read up on Brooklynellosis, and know how to treat. If it is Brooklynellosis, the chance of this fish being alive by morning, are slim. However, you may have more fish to treat. I would also keep a close eye on the Damsel's behavior. This fish can be very aggressive and harmful. Anemones do best in a higher salinity. I recommend slowly bringing your salinity up to 1.026 and reducing nitrates and phosphates to zero. Also, your lighting may not be enough to support an anemone long term. Can you give me more detailed information on this? How long has this tank been up and running?> All of the other fish seem perfectly content and normal. I appreciate your assistance in advance. Dawn <Good luck to you Dawn! Brenda>

Re: Injured Clarkii or Brooklynellosis? -- 12/13/07 Hi Brenda, <Hello Dawn!> Thank you for your response. <You're welcome!> Wow, hoping it isn't the latter of the two. I did read the article and it sounds like what he has. <Unfortunate, but it is not uncommon for wild caught clownfish.> Expect he is gasping for air at the bottom of the tank, not top. It's hard to tell with the lesions, but in any case, he looks worse this morning. At this point, he won't make it, I can tell. It's making me feel so bad. <I'm sorry!> Even though we probably both suspect Brooklynellosis at this point, it was odd that the Domino (yesterday) was swimming in front of Clark and fanning his tail at his face. Hmmmm, why would he be doing that behavior? <Domino Damsels can be evil! I have witnessed this myself many times. They are not welcome in my tanks.> I'm not sure what species my anemone is. If I had to guess, I would say maybe a carpet. <It is important to know which species, so that you can provide the appropriate care.> It is at the bottom of the tank and has burrowed his foot into the sand bed. He has situated himself under a ledge of live rock so only has minimal lighting and current in that location. <This is not good. It will not last long under these conditions.> I have not moved him because my experience is that they will just move themselves back where they want to. <Correct! It will move looking for a suitable environment. If there is not one available, it will deteriorate.> It is a kind of dirty pink color, around 1" short tentacles that have a green tip on them. Not the bubble tip shape. <The Bubble Tip anemone does not always have bubbles. However in this case, I do not believe that you have a BTA. It is likely an LTA or a carpet.> I did not QT Clark yesterday because I wasn't sure what to do. My QT tank is I'm sure, minimally acceptable. It is a tank on reserve that we don't use and keep for emergency purposes. It's a 5 gallon "eclipse type" tank (I can't remember name brand). It has a built in filter with removable media bag, no heater (though it would be easy for me to buy one) and just a compact florescent natural daylight tube. It doesn't have the ability to "cycle" as it doesn't have any type of biological capabilities. <If the clownfish is still alive, I would still remove. Take water from the existing tank. I also recommend getting in the habit of quarantining all new species, coral included.> I will work on raising salinity. Do all of the other corals/fish do fine at 1.026? <Yes, and is closer to their natural environment.> The lighting are 6' long VHO tubes. One is white, one is the blue light. We also have moon lights for night viewing. No halide lighting, etc. <This is not nearly enough lighting for this anemone.> My temperature fluctuates between about 77-80 degrees. <I would keep closer to 80 degrees.> How long has the tank been up and running. That's a loaded question that I'll explain. It was setup the end up July, 1st of August this year. I didn't have any inverts at this time. Everything was fine until October 4th middle of the night. We heard a loud "pop" and then an ensuing waterfall. <Oh my!!!> I knew what it was and I've been heartbroken ever since. <I certainly would be too!> That's right, the bottom of the tank cracked and all of the water, 125 gallons +, drained out in less than a minute. <Ouch!!!! Do you know what caused the break? Was the tank not level?> Our home looked like a beach with water and live sand. It actually ruined/flooded our entire home. I lost most of my fish. I actually started thinking once the wave of shock left me and reached into pick the fish up off of the sand bed and tossed them in the sump. I then over the next several days found temporary homes in my SW friends. <Good!> I tossed all of the live rock into a 55 gallon bucket with SW and a jet. I eventually got my hands on a borrowed 55 gallon aquarium that I set up in the garage (while we remodeled our home which we are still doing). With that being said, everything continued to be fine in the 55 gallon while we tiled our house and put up baseboards. We finally got the living area ready and moved back into the big tank, that was roughly a month ago. <This is not long enough for an anemone. They need an established environment, 6 months to a year, with one year being best.> At that time, we started adding corals, the anemone and the like. We also got our 2 fish that survived the disaster back; the goby and the blue-green reef Chromis. Sorry for the long winded explanation. We have all been through a lot lately. <I certainly see that!> This is another reason I'm hoping it isn't Brooklynellosis, because mentally, I'm still trying to recover from the above. <I hate to be the one to bring you more bad news, but you will have more issues in the near future with the anemone. It is best to remove soon and find it a suitable home.> Thank you in advance. Dawn <You're welcome Dawn! Good luck to you! Brenda>

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