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FAQs on Parasitic Marine Worm Diseases: Flukes/Digenes & (Monogene) Trematodes 2

FAQs on: Flukes/Trematodes 1, Flukes/Trematodes 3, Flukes/Trematodes 4,
FAQs on Flukes/Trematodes: Diagnosis/Symptomology, Etiology/Prevention, Treatments That Don't Work, Cures That Do Work, Products/Manufacturers; Case Histories

Related Articles: The Flatworms That Are Flukes by Bob Fenner, Marine Parasitic Disease, Parasitic Worms, Roundworms,

Related FAQs: Fish Worm Diseases 1, Marine Worm Parasites 2, Marine Worm Parasites 3, & FAQs on Marine Worm Parasites: Diagnosis/Symptomology, Etiology/Prevention, Cures That Don't Work, Cures That Do Work, Products/Manufacturers... Tapeworms/Cestodes, Leeches/Hirudineans, "Other" Worms and Worm-Like Parasites... Paravortex/Black Spot Disease, De-worming Medicines,

Fallow tank due to flukes     10/6/13
Hi crew!
 I have a question concerning the life span/cycle of marine flukes without a host. The question of how long to run a main tank fallow has been asked for years and the answers range from a couple of weeks to a few months.
<More the former>
I have been reading every article, scientific report and journal I can find to determine how long Neobenedenia can live without a host.  Based on what I found the adult can live up to 5 days at 25 degrees C.  The eggs hatch within 4-6 days and if the larvae don't find a host within 36 hrs they die.
I have yet to find any report of an egg remaining dormant (like Cryptocaryon) at 25 degrees C.
<Sounds about right>
Based on this information if a tank is fallow for 15 days shouldn't the life cycle be broken? 
Do you know of any reports that contradicts this information?  Thank you!
<I do not. Bob Fenner>
Re: Fallow tank due to flukes     10/6/13

Hi Bob! Thank you for the quick response. I'm sorry to bother you with this but I really wanted someone with knowledge of parasitic life cycles and not just a guess:) My tank has been fallow for 4 weeks so I think I'll begin moving the fish from their QTs back to the main. Thank you again! Jen
<Certainly. B>

Re: Microscopic images  9/2/13
  Thanks..I appreciate this:) These were all obtained from freshwater dips.
 Please let me know if I need to change the sizing/resolution.  I do have quite a few images so I will send them in separate emails.  Any information you can give me would be very appreciated!  Thanks again!!
<... The res. looks fine for what you're imagine here; though it would help to state the magnification per pic... The first two (84, 85)... might be just scales. 26 looks to me like a diatom, 29 is likely a rotifer, and 44, 45 look like Monogenes (flukes) to me. Bob Fenner>

Diatom Rotifer
Re: Microscopic images  9/2/13
  Here's more images.
<Some neat ones; 50, 13, and 12 are flukes... the last for sure; showing the opisthaptor. 59, 60... some sort of crustacean; maybe an amphipod judging from the legs... 79 and 81 are skin cells (and a color/chromatophore)... on a ctenoid scale (you can see the serrated edge downward in this view)
 I was wondering if you happen to see any information on the new research into garlic extract (Allium) being effective in controlling Neobenedenia eggs?
<Not in recent times; but I haven't been searching for it/this. I'd take a look on a large database. See WWM re doing such searches. Bob Fenner>

Oh yes... Fluke

Crustacean; amphipod?

Scale, skin cells, chromatophore
Re: Microscopic images, Fluke ID, treatment input   9/2/13
Thanks Bob for the great feedback!  I do have more images but they are on my microscope. The fluke I identified as Neobenedenia girellae.
<May be>
  I could be off base on that.   I've been dealing with this fluke since March mostly using PraziPro to no avail. I came across research from China stating that Praziquantel is not as effective against this species of flukes as others.
<Interesting. There are other Anthelminthics... as you likely are aware>
 This led me to new research (published in August) stating the effectiveness of garlic extract and Asaragopsis taxicormis against marine flukes. They are both very interesting reads. Albeit preliminary perhaps promising.
Thanks again for identifying these images!! Oh and feel free to use them if the need arises.
<Ah, thank you. Bob Fenner>
Re: Microscopic images  9/2/13

I am aware of other Anthelminthics, however, most are harder on the fish than PraziPro.  Are there any that you would recommend?
<Mmm, best to refer you to what is posted/archived on WWM; and maybe one ref.:
Bob Fenner>
Re: Microscopic images  9/3/13

Very interesting article!!  Thank you:)
<Welcome! Bob>

Flame angel scratching; flukes f'       8/19/13
Hi crew!  I have a Flame Angel in a QT that sometimes hangs out under the HOB filter flow and was scratching against the tank bottom. What could be causing this? 
<A few possibilities; something to do w/ "water quality", just an itch, possible parasitic infestation are the big three likelihoods>

Let me give some info first.  We've been fighting flukes for almost 2 months.
<Mmm, a lean toward the first poss. then>

I've used PraziPro utilizing various protocols which I can give you if needed but the end result has been the same. I used hypo salinity as outlined by B.K. Diggles in the abstract of marine monogea. I finally did a formalin dip last Monday and put into a new tank.  I've watched him all week and no scratching. I began increasing the salinity <actually spg> to introduce him back into the main tank.
<No more than a 0.001/thousandth per day>

On Sunday I saw him scratching on the tank bottom.
<So? May be nothing>
 I prepared a FW dip in a black bucket and dipped him for 5 minutes. No flukes that I could find utilizing a microscope.
<Likely aren't any>
As for hanging out under the filter he lays on his side like he's trying to knock something off. Otherwise his color has come back.
<Ah good>
 His face was faded for nearly 2 months. He eats like a pig.
 Am I just being paranoid or did the formalin dip (20 minutes) not do the trick?
<Already stated>
Please let me know if you need other information. Thank you! Jen
<Cheers, and I'd do nothing further. Bob Fenner>
Re: Flame angel scratching      8/19/13

Hi Bob! Thanks for getting ack so quick! In response to water quality I have an ammonia badge
<Mmm, I don't trust these...>
 on the QT which has registered 0 but he was acting hyper on Friday so I checked the ammonia and it was at .25. I did 2 50% water changes to get down to 0. The ammonia started creeping back up Saturday so I did another water change. Could this cause him to scratch? 
<Oh yes>
I've read salinity can be increased as much as .02 in 24 hrs
<No! MUCH easier "going the other direction", but it should not be raised... as just stated... more than a thousandth a day>
so that is what I was doing. Could that cause scratching?
<... yes>
  I am, however, heeding your advice and increasing by .01.
<You're missing a zero... perhaps a short read on significant figures... Wiki>
I've been dealing with flukes off and on since March and it's getting old.
Thank again! Jen
<Another welcome. B>
<<RMF is now wondering "if" Jen IS spkg. of salinity, NOT spg...>>
Re: Flame angel scratching     8/20/13

Mmmm, yep I don't trust them either. Ok, good to know that both of these can cause scratching. What about him lying sideways under the HOB water flow?  No need for reading on significant figures...just was in a hurry and not paying attention:)
Thank you for answering all these questions! Jen
<Nothing odd re the hiding... due to handling et al... The fish will soon become more outgoing. B>
Re: Flame angel scratching     8/20/13

Oh, he's outgoing!!:)  I can't walk by the room without him flying out from behind his PVC to beg for food. He's been in a QT since June. He contracted Brooklynella from an unquarantined  sea urchin. We beat Brook via a series of formalin dips. It's a long story how he got flukes.
I will begin raising the salinity per your directions. Thank you kind sir:)
<Most welcome Jen. BobF>

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